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Attitude Measurement and Scaling

Attitude is defined as a predisposition to respond to
an idea or object. Attitudes are composed of beliefs
about the object of concern, such as its strength or
economy, emotional feelings about the object, such as
like dislike and a readiness of the individual to
respond behaviorally to the object.
An attitude is learned, stable predisposition to
respond to oneself, other persons objects or issues in
a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.
Measurement means assigning numbers or other
symbols to characteristics of objects according to
certain pre-specified rules.

One-to-one correspondence between the
numbers and the characteristics being measured.
The rules for assigning numbers should be
standardized and applied uniformly.
Rules must not change over objects or time.

Scaling involves creating a continuum upon which
measured objects are located.

Consider an attitude scale from 1 to 100.
Each respondent is assigned a number from 1 to 100,
with 1 = Extremely Unfavorable, and 100 = Extremely
Scaling is the process of placing the respondents on a
continuum with respect to their attitude.

Primary Scales of Measurement
Nominal Scale
The numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying
and classifying objects.
When used for identification, there is a strict one-to-
one correspondence between the numbers and the
The numbers do not reflect the amount of the
characteristic possessed by the objects.
The only permissible operation on the numbers in a
nominal scale is counting.
Only a limited number of statistics, all of which are
based on frequency counts, are permissible, e.g.,
percentages, and mode.

Ordinal Scale
A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to
objects to indicate the relative extent to which the
objects possess some characteristic.
Can determine whether an object has more or less of a
characteristic than some other object, but not how
much more or less.
In addition to the counting operation allowable for
nominal scale data, ordinal scales permit the use of
statistics based on centiles, e.g., percentile, quartile,
Interval Scale
Numerically equal distances on the scale represent
equal values in the characteristic being measured.
It permits comparison of the differences between
The location of the zero point is not fixed. Both the
zero point and the units of measurement are
Statistical techniques that may be used include all of
those that can be applied to nominal and ordinal
data, and in addition the arithmetic mean, standard
deviation, and other statistics commonly used in
marketing research.
Ratio Scale
Possesses all the properties of the nominal, ordinal,
and interval scales.
It has an absolute zero point.
It is meaningful to compute ratios of scale values.
All statistical techniques can be applied to ratio data.
7 3 8
Primary Scales of Measurement
Nominal Numbers
to Runners

Ordinal Rank Order
of Winners

Interval Performance
Rating on a
0 to 10 Scale

Ratio Time to
Finish, in
8.2 9.1 9.6
15.2 14.1 13.4
A Comparison of Scaling
Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of
stimulus objects. Comparative scale data must be
interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or
rank order properties.

In Noncomparative scales, each object is scaled
independently of the others in the stimulus set. The
resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or
ratio scaled.

A Classification of Scaling Techniques
Scaling Techniques
Rating Scales
Rating Scales
Comparative Scaling Techniques
Paired Comparison Scaling
A respondent is presented with two objects and
asked to select one according to some criterion.
The data obtained are ordinal in nature.
Paired comparison scaling is the most widely used
comparative scaling technique.
With n brands, [n(n - 1) /2] paired comparisons are
Under the assumption of transitivity, it is possible to
convert paired comparison data to a rank order.

Obtaining Shampoo Preferences
Using Paired Comparisons
Instructions: We are going to present you with ten pairs of shampoo
brands. For each pair, please indicate which one of the two brands of
shampoo you would prefer for personal use.
Recording Form:
Sunsilk Vatika VLCC Head &
Sunsilk 0 0 1 0
Vatiks 1
0 1 0
VLCC 1 1 1 1
Head & Shoulders 0 0 0 0
Clinic Plus 1 1 0 1
Number of Times

3 2 0 4 1
A 1 in a particular box means that the brand in that column was preferred over the
brand in the corresponding row. A 0 means that the row brand was preferred over
the column brand.
The number of times a brand was preferred is obtained by
summing the 1s in each column.
Rank Order Scaling
Respondents are presented with several objects
simultaneously and asked to order or rank them
according to some criterion.
It is possible that the respondent may dislike the
brand ranked 1 in an absolute sense.
Furthermore, rank order scaling also results in
ordinal data.
Only (n - 1) scaling decisions need be made in rank
order scaling.

Brand Rank Order
1. Dabur _________
2. Colgate _________
3. Meswak _________
4. Pepsodent _________
5. Close Up _________
Preference for Toothpaste Brands
Using Rank Order Scaling
Constant Sum Scaling
Respondents allocate a constant sum of units, such
as 100 points to attributes of a product to reflect
their importance.
If an attribute is unimportant, the respondent assigns
it zero points.
If an attribute is twice as important as some other
attribute, it receives twice as many points.
The sum of all the points is 100. Hence, the name of
the scale.

Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes
Using a Constant Sum Scale
On the next slide, there are eight attributes of bathing
soaps. Please allocate 100 points among the attributes
so that your allocation reflects the relative importance
you attach to each attribute.
The more points an attribute receives, the more
important the attribute is. If an attribute is not at all
important, assign it zero points. If an attribute is twice
as important as some other attribute, it should receive
twice as many points.

Average Responses of Three Segments
Attribute Segment I Segment II Segment III
1. Mildness
2. Lather
3. Shrinkage
4. Price
5. Fragrance
6. Packaging
7. Moisturizing
8. Cleaning Power

8 2 4
2 4 17
3 9 7
53 17 9
9 0 19
7 5 9
5 3 20
13 60 15
100 100 100

Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes
Using a Constant Sum Scale
Non- Comparative Scaling
Continuous Rating Scale
Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one
extreme of the criterion variable to the other. The form of the continuous scale may vary

How would you rate Spencers as a department store?
Version 1
Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Probably the best

Version 2
Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - Probably the best
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Version 3
Very bad Neither good Very good
nor bad
Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Probably the best
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Itemized Rating Scales
The respondents are provided with a scale that has a
number or brief description associated with each

The categories are ordered in terms of scale position,
and the respondents are required to select the
specified category that best describes the object
being rated.

The commonly used itemized rating scales are the
Likert, semantic differential, and Stapel scales.
Likert Scale
The Likert scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or
disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects.

Strongly Disagree Neither Agree Strongly
disagree agree nor agree

1. Spencers sells high quality merchandise. 1 2 3 4 5

2. Spencers has poor in-store service. 1 2 3 4 5

3. I like to shop at Spencers. 1 2 3 4 5

The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile analysis), or a total
(summated) score can be calculated.

When arriving at a total score, the categories assigned to the negative statements by
the respondents should be scored by reversing the scale.

Semantic Differential Scale
The semantic differential is a seven-point rating scale with end points associated
with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning.

Powerful --:--:--:--:-X-:--:--: Weak
Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable
Modern --:--:--:--:--:--:-X-: Old-fashioned

The negative adjective or phrase sometimes appears at the left side of the
scale and sometimes at the right.
This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly those with very
positive or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without
reading the labels.
Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to
+3 or a 1 to 7 scale.
Stapel Scale
The Stapel scale is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered from -5
to +5, without a neutral point (zero). This scale is usually presented vertically.


+5 +5
+4 +4
+3 +3
+2 +2
+1 +1
-1 -1
-2 -2
-3 -3
-4 -4
-5 -5

Scale Basic
Examples Advantages Disadvantages

Place a mark on a
continuous line
Reaction to
Easy to construct Scoring can be
Itemized Rating

Likert Scale Degrees of
agreement on a 1
(strongly disagree)
to 5 (strongly agree)

of attitudes
Easy to construct,
administer, and
time - consuming
Seven - point scale
with bipolar labels
product, and

Versatile Controversy as
to whether the
data are interval
Unipolar ten - point
scale, - 5 to +5,
witho ut a neutral
point (zero)
of attitudes
and images
Easy to construct,
administer over
Confusing and
difficult to apply

Basic Noncomparative Scales
Differential Scales (Thurstone type Scales):
This scale is developed by using consensus
approach. It is a seven-point rating scale with end
points associated with bipolar labels.

It has been widely used in comparing brand,
product and company images, developing
advertising and promotion strategies and in new
product development studies.

Procedure for Thurstone Scale

1) The researcher gathers a large number of
statements, twenty or more that express the

2) These statements are then submitted to a panel
of judges, each of whom arranges them in 11
groups ranging from one extreme to another.
Generally in the first pile most unfavorable issue
is placed.
3)The sorting by each judge yields a composite
position for each of the items. In case of
disagreement between the judges about an
item, that item is discarded.

4) For items that are retained each is given a
scale value between one and eleven.

5) A final selection of statements is then made.
For this purpose a sample of statements,
whose scores are spread evenly from one
extreme to the other is taken.

Observation Method
It is one of the methods for data collection. It
can be used to get both past and current
information. In marketing research we can
check the display positions of various products
in stores, to find out how frequently the
product is out of stock etc.

Advantages of Observation Method

It enables to record the behaviour as it occurs.
It can be used regardless of respondents
willingness to report or not.
It can be used for those who are unable to
respond like infants, animals etc.

Unable to observe the past or future behaviour of
any person.
It does not help in finding a persons attitude or
opinion or knowledge on any subject matter
It is very slow and unable to cover large sample of
population and Inadequacies of our sense organs
also distorts the observation.
Distorted by observers interest, freshness and
freedom from interruption.
Methods of observation
Structured - Unstructured observation
Structured Observation is used when the research
problem has been formulated precisely and the
observers have been told specifically what is to be
observed. Unstructured observation implies that
observers are free to observe whatever they think
is relevant and important.

Disguised- Undisguised observation
In Disguised observation, the subjects do not know
that they are being observed. In Undisguised
observation subject know about the observation.
Direct- Indirect Observation
In direct observation, the event or the behavior of
a person is observed as it occurs. In Indirect
observation some record of past behavior is
observed, even rather the behavior itself, its
effects are observed.

Human- Mechanical Observation
In human observation trained observers are
required to observe and faithfully record their
observations. In Mechanical observation
mechanical devices such as eye camera and
audiometers are used.
Observation under natural setting- laboratory
Observations in field studies are in their natural
settings and are therefore in realistic conditions
Whereas in laboratory settings, enables the
observer to control variables which influence the
behavior of people.

Participant and Non-Participant Observation

Projective Techniques
An unstructured, indirect form of questioning that
encourages respondents to project their underlying
motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the
issues of concern.
In projective techniques, respondents are asked to
interpret the behavior of others.
In interpreting the behavior of others, respondents
indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs,
attitudes, or feelings into the situation.
Psychological technique to get answers without asking a
direct question
Participants project their unconscious beliefs into other
people or objects
Important Projective Techniques
Word association tests
Sentence completion tests
Story completion tests
Verbal projection tests
Play techniques
Pictorial Techniques:
Thematic Apperception test (T.A.T)
Rosenzweig test
Rorschach test
Word Association Test
In word association, respondents are presented with a list of
words, one at a time and asked to respond to each with the first
word that comes to mind. The words of interest, called test
words, are interspersed throughout the list which also contains
some neutral, or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study.
Responses are analyzed by calculating:

(1) the frequency with which any word is given as a response;
(2) the amount of time that elapses before a response is given;
(3) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a
test word within a reasonable period of time.

Sentence Completion Test
In Sentence completion, respondents are given incomplete
sentences and asked to complete them. Generally, they are
asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind.

A person who shops at Spencers is ______________________

Big Bazaar is most liked by _________________________

When I think of shopping in a department store, I ________

A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion, in
which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the
stimulus phrase.

Story Completion Test
In story completion, respondents are given
part of a story enough to direct attention to
a particular topic but not to hint at the ending.
They are required to give the conclusion in
their own words.

Verbal projection tests

Respondent is asked to comment on or to
explain what other people do.

Example: Why do people drink?
Construction Techniques
With a picture response (Thematic Appreciation Test)
the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictures
of ordinary as well as unusual events. The respondent's
interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that
individual's personality.

In cartoon tests (Rosenzweig Test), cartoon characters
are shown in a specific situation related to the problem.
The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon
character might say in response to the comments of
another character. Cartoon tests are simpler to
administer and analyze than picture response
Rorschash Test
Consists of ten cards having prints of inkblots.
The design is symmetrical but meaningless
Respondents are asked to describe what they
perceive in such symmetrical inkblots.
Responses are interpreted on the basis of some
pre-determined psychological framework.
Expressive Techniques
In expressive techniques, respondents are presented
with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the
feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation.

Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or
assume the behavior of someone else.

Third-person technique The respondent is presented
with a verbal or visual situation and the respondent is
asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person
rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and
attitudes. This third person may be a friend, neighbor,
colleague, or a typical person.
Advantages of Projective
They may elicit responses that subjects would be
unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose
of the study.

Helpful when the issues to be addressed are
personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social norms.

Helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs, and
attitudes are operating at a subconscious level.
Disadvantages of Projective
Suffer from many of the disadvantages of
unstructured direct techniques, but to a greater
Require highly trained interviewers.
Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the
There is a serious risk of interpretation bias.
They tend to be expensive.
May require respondents to engage in unusual