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BBA, Semester IV
Research Methodology and Report Preparation
Dr. Deepa Kapoor
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• Sampling Defined:
– The process of obtaining information from a
subset of a larger group.
– A market researcher takes the results from the
sample to make estimates of the larger group.
– Sampling a small percentage of a population can
result in very accurate estimates.
– The sample must be selected in a scientific
manner to ensure that it is representative of the
population from which it was selected

Sampling
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Basics of Sampling
• A sample is a
“part of a whole
to show what the
rest is like”.
• Sampling helps to
determine the
corresponding
value of the
population and
plays a vital role in
marketing
research.
Samples offer many benefits:
• Save costs: Less expensive to study the
sample than the population.
• Save time: Less time needed to study the
sample than the population .
• Accuracy: Since sampling is done with
care and studies are conducted by skilled
and qualified interviewers, the results are
expected to be accurate.
• Destructive nature of elements: For
some elements, sampling is the way to
test, since tests destroy the element itself.
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Basics of Sampling
Limitations of Sampling
• Demands more rigid control in undertaking
sample operation.
• Minority and smallness in number of sub-
groups often render study to be suspected.
• Accuracy level may be affected when data is
subjected to weighing.
• Sample results are good approximations at
best.
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• Population (universe): The entire group of people

• Census: a collection of data on all possible
members of a population or universe

• Sampling: the process of obtaining information
from a subset of a larger group.

• Goal: to develop a sample that mirrors or
represents the population of interest.
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Defining the
population
Developing
a sampling
Frame
Determining
Sample
Size
Specifying
Sample
Method
SELECTING THE SAMPLE
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Sampling Techniques
Nonprobability
Sampling Techniques
Probability
Sampling Techniques
Convenience
Sampling
Judgmental
Sampling
Quota
Sampling
Snowball
Sampling
Systematic
Sampling
Stratified
Sampling
Cluster
Sampling
Other Sampling
Techniques
Simple Random
Sampling
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Non-Probability Sampling
Methods
 Convenience Sample
 The sampling procedure used to obtain those
units or people most conveniently available
 Why: speed and cost
 Validity?
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Convenience sampling attempts to
obtain a sample of convenient elements.
Often, respondents are selected because
they happen to be in the right place at the
right time.
–use of students, and members of social
organizations
–mall intercept interviews without
qualifying the respondents
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Very low cost
 Extensively used/understood
 No need for list of population elements

 Variability and bias cannot be measured or
controlled
 Projecting data beyond sample not justified.

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Judgmental sampling is a form of
convenience sampling in which the population
elements are selected based on the judgment of
the researcher.

– test markets
– purchase engineers selected in industrial
marketing research
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Moderate cost
 Commonly used/understood
 Sample will meet a specific objective

 Bias!
 Projecting data beyond sample not justified.

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Quota sampling may be viewed as two-stage restricted
judgmental sampling.
– The first stage consists of developing control categories, or
quotas, of population elements.
– In the second stage, sample elements are selected based on
convenience or judgment.

Population Sample
composition composition
Control
Characteristic Percentage Percentage Number
Sex
Male 48 48 480
Female 52 52 520
____ ____ ____
100 100 1000
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moderate cost
 Very extensively used/understood
 Introduces some elements of stratification

 Variability and bias cannot be measured or
controlled (classification of subjects0
 Projecting data beyond sample not justified.

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In snowball sampling, an initial group of
respondents is selected, usually at random.

– After being interviewed, these respondents
are asked to identify others who belong to
the target population of interest.
– Subsequent respondents are selected based
on the referrals.
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low cost
 Useful in specific circumstances
 Useful for locating rare populations

 Bias because sampling units not independent
 Projecting data beyond sample not justified.

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Probability Sampling Methods
 Simple Random Sampling
 the purest form of probability sampling.
 Assures each element in the population has an
equal chance of being included in the sample
 Random number generators
Probability of Selection =
Sample Size
Population Size
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• Systematic Sampling

–Uses a fixed skip interval to draw elements from a
numbered population.

Skip Interval =

• Obtain a listing of the population and the entire
population
• Determine a skip interval
• Select names based on skip interval, using a random
starting point
Sample Size
Population Size
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 Stratified Sampling

Sub-samples are randomly drawn from
samples within different strata that are
more or less equal on some
characteristic
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Stratified sampling I
A three-stage process:

• Step 1- Divide the population into
homogeneous, mutually exclusive and
collectively exhaustive subgroups or
strata using some stratification
variable;
• Step 2- Select an independent simple
random sample from each stratum.
• Step 3- Form the final sample by
consolidating all sample elements
chosen in step 2.
• May yield smaller standard errors of
estimators than does the simple random
sampling. Thus precision can be gained
with smaller sample sizes.
Stratified samples can be:

• Proportionate: involving the
selection of sample elements
from each stratum, such that
the ratio of sample elements
from each stratum to the
sample size equals that of the
population elements within
each stratum to the total
number of population
elements.
• Disproportionate: the sample
is disproportionate when the
above mentioned ratio is
unequal.
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• The target population is first divided into mutually
exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations, or
clusters.
• Then a random sample of clusters is selected, based on a
probability sampling technique such as SRS.
• For each selected cluster, either all the elements are
included in the sample (one-stage) or a sample of
elements is drawn probabilistically (two-stage).
• Elements within a cluster should be as heterogeneous as
possible, but clusters themselves should be as
homogeneous as possible. Ideally, each cluster should
be a small-scale representation of the population.
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Stratified Sampling vs Cluster Sampling

Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling
1.The target population is sub-divided
into a few subgroups or strata, each
containing a large number of
elements.
1.The target population is sub-
divided into a large number of
sub-population or clusters,
each containing a few
elements.
2.Within each stratum, the elements
are homogeneous. However, high
degree of heterogeneity exists
between strata.
2.Within each cluster, the
elements are heterogeneous.
Between clusters, there is a
high degree of homogeneity.
3.A sample element is selected each
time.
3.A cluster is selected each time.

Amity School of Business Area Sampling
• A common form of cluster sampling where
clusters consist of geographic areas, such
as districts, housing blocks or townships.
Area sampling could be one-stage, two-
stage, or multi-stage.

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