You are on page 1of 18

80

Stress
Stress
A dynamic condition in which an individual is
confronted with an opportunity, constraint,
or demand related to what he or she desires
and for which the outcome is perceived to
be both uncertain and important.
Constraints
Forces that prevent individuals
from doing what they desire.
Demands
Responsibilities, Pressures,
obligation and even
uncertainties that individuals
face in the workplace
Resources
Things within an individuals
control that can be used to
resolve demands
84
EUSTRESS
Eustress or positive stress occurs when
your level of stress is high enough to
motivate you to move into action to get
things accomplished.

Challenge Stressor
(Workload, time urgency)
DISTRESS
Distress or negative stress occurs when
your level of stress is either too high or
too low and your body and/or mind
begin to respond negatively to the
stressors.

Hindrance Stressor
(Red tapes, politics, confusion)
Potential Sources of Stress
Environmental Factors
Economic uncertainties Political uncertainties of
political systems
Technological uncertainties of technical innovations
Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security
Organizational Factors
Occupational Demands
Role Conflict i.e. duties which conflict with each other
Role Ambiguity i.e. not sure about the job and
authority
Role Overload i.e. beyond ones performance
Role Under load
Interpersonal Relationship with the subordinates, co-
worker
Poor Communication
Responsibility
Job Change
Working Environment
Potential Sources of Stress (contd)
Individual Factors
Family and personal relationships
Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity
Personality problems arising for basic disposition

Individual Differences
Job Experience
Social Support
Perception
Belief in locus of control( Internal or external)
Self-efficacy(one's belief in one's own ability to complete tasks
and reach goals)
Hostility
Consequences of Stress
High Levels
of Stress
Physiological
Symptoms
Behavioral
Symptoms
Psychological
Symptoms
Psychological/ subjective

The subjective or intrapersonal effects of stress are
feelings of anxiety,
Boredom
Nervousness
Depression
Fatigue and
Anger
Physiological consequences


The physiological effects can be seen in
Increased heart and pulse rate,
High blood pressure,
Dryness of throat,
Excessive sweating,
Headache

Behavioral consequences
The behavioral effects are manifested in such things as:

Accident proneness,
Drinking,
Excessive eating,
Smoking,
Impulsive behaviors,
Depression, and withdrawal behaviors.
Low productivity
Absenteeism
Turnover


Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and
Job Performance
Stress Management Techniques
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 815
Managing Stress
o At individual level
o Implementing time management techniques

o Increasing physical exercises, YOGA..

o Relaxation techniques (Recreation activities)

o Expanding social network

o Change the job
Managing stress.
o At Organizational level
o Role Clarity
o Supportive work environment
o Career Planning
o Institutional Programs(Counselling of employees, Job
Enrichment, Work rescheduling, Proper training and
development Programs, Stock option..)