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FLOW METER SELECTION

SEMINAR

Alan Graff

RL Stone Co

I&C Sales Manager

FLOW METER SELECTION SEMINAR Alan Graff RL Stone Co I&C Sales Manager Upstate NY & New

Upstate NY & New England

  • RL

Stone Co. New England

RL Stone Co. New England Corporate Office: 115 Ainsley Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 • Tel:

Corporate Office: 115 Ainsley Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 • Tel: 888-404-8882 • Fax: 315-479-5402 www.rl-stone.com

Process/HVAC Products and Solutions

Armstrong Steam and Condensate Group: Traps, Liquid Drainers, Steam

Distribution & Condensate Return Manifolds, Air Vents, Strainers, Wireless

Trap Monitors, Spargers, Separators

Armstrong Humidification Group (Vermont only): Direct Steam, Ionic Bed

RL Stone Co. New England Corporate Office: 115 Ainsley Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 • Tel:

Electric, Gas-Fired, Steam to-Steam, Evaporative Cooling Fogging, Unfired Steam Generators

Armstrong Condensate Management Group: Mechanical & Electrical

Condensate Pumps and Packages, Flash Tanks, Condensate Coolers

Armstrong Heat Transfer Group: Unit Heaters, Door Heaters and Make-Up

Air Heaters, Heavy-Duty Steam and Hot Water Coils, Replacement Coils,

DuraMix VIFB Coils, Fumigation Heat Treat Systems

Armstrong Hot Water Group: Instantaneous Hot Water Heaters, Direct

Fired Gas High Efficiency Hot Water Heaters, Thermostatic Mixing Valves, “The

Brain” & MEGAMIX Digital Electronic Mixing Center, Steam & Hot Water Hose

and Mixing Valve Stations

Armstrong Pressure Temperature Control Group: PRV’s, Pneumatic and

Electric Industrial Control Valves, Temperature Regulators, Radiator Control

Valves

Armstrong Service Group: Steam System Optimization, Contracting:

Installation Construction, Engineering Audits and Steam Surveys, Heat Treat

Audits

  • Cataract Steel

Compressed Air, Gas & Heat Transfer Products, Industrial Heat

Exchangers, Pressure Vessels, Air Receivers

  • New and Replacement Steam, Water and DX Coils, Remote Condensers, Fluid Coolers, Evaporative Coolers

Diversified Heat Heat Transfer Equipment, Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Plate and Transfer Frame Heat Exchangers,
Diversified Heat
Heat Transfer Equipment, Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Plate and
Transfer
Frame Heat Exchangers, Steam and Hot Water Generators
Refrigerant Leak Detection Monitoring Systems
Thermacor
Pre-Insulated Above and Below Ground Piping Systems,
Process
Containment Piping, High Temperature Polyisocyanurate
Foam, Pressure Testable Joints, ERM Leak Detection
  • Clear and Colored Flexible PVC Film, Noise Control Products

TMI, Inc

Strip Doors, Air Doors, Screens and Curtains, Modular Enclosures,

  • Flow Sensors & Instrumentation, Accelabar Zero Straight Run
    Flow Meter, Utility Flow Metering Systems

Gauges: Pressure, Vacuum, Digital and Analog Indicators, Mini and

  • Industrial Diaphragm Seals, Pressure Transducers, Accessories- Pressure Snubbers, Gauge Cocks, Needle Valves, Siphons, Pete’s Plugs, Bimetal Thermometers and Temperature Transmitters

    • R. L. Stone Services

Design Build, Installation, On-Site Seminars and Training, Energy

Audits, Steam Trap Surveys, Control Panels, SCADA System

A Leading Supplier of Flowmeters to HVAC & Industrial Marketplace
A Leading Supplier of Flowmeters
to HVAC & Industrial Marketplace
A Leading Supplier of Flowmeters to HVAC & Industrial Marketplace  Magmeters  Vortex & Swirl
  • Magmeters

  • Vortex & Swirl

  • Turbine

  • Thermal & Coriolis Mass

  • BTU Meter

  • Pitot, Wedge

  • Orifice Plates, Venturi

  • Positive Displacement

  • Rotameter, Variable Area

Define Application Basic Facts

Define Application – Basic Facts • Flowing Media (Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc…) • Density -

Flowing Media (Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc…)

Density - pressure and temperature

Flow Range, minimum to maximum (turndown

needed) Accuracy how stated? % of range or span

Repeatability

Straight run requirements & available

Economic Considerations Initial cost, maintenance cost & operating costs

Why are we here?

Why are we here? • There is no 1 meter that will meet every application •

There is no 1 meter that will meet every application

Every application needs to be looked at individually

We can make some generalizations !!!!!!

FLOW

MEASUREMENT

FLOW MEASUREMENT • HOW MUCH (TOTAL) • HOW FAST (RATE)

HOW MUCH (TOTAL) HOW FAST (RATE)

Flow Through A Pipe
Flow Through A Pipe
Flow Through A Pipe Idealized V Real World V Pipe Velocity Profile

Idealized

 
V
V
 
V
 
V
V

V

V
V
V
 
V
V
     
Real World V
Real World
V

Pipe

Velocity Profile

Flow Profile Correlation
Flow Profile Correlation
V
V

Steam Water Heavy Crude

Flow Profile Correlation V Steam Water Heavy Crude  Velocity profile is a predictable function of
  • Velocity profile is a predictable function of Reynolds number. Fluids with the same Reynolds number will have similar velocity profiles.

General Flow Terminology
General Flow Terminology
General Flow Terminology  Reynolds Number (RE) – A single dimensionless parameter formed as the ratio
  • Reynolds Number (RE)A single dimensionless parameter formed as the ratio of inertial to viscous forces . Magnitude indicates whether flow is laminar or turbulent

Fluid

Fluid

Characteristic

RE=

Inertia Forces Viscous Forces

=

Density

Velocity

Dimension*

(p)

  • (V) (D)

Fluid Viscosity ()

General Flow Terminology  Reynolds Number (RE) – A single dimensionless parameter formed as the ratio

* Usually inside pipe diameter.

Characterization of Fluid Flow
Characterization of Fluid Flow
  • Types of Flow

RE < 2100

Characterization of Fluid Flow  Types of Flow RE < 2100 Laminar  RE >3000 Transitional

Laminar

  • RE >3000

Characterization of Fluid Flow  Types of Flow RE < 2100 Laminar  RE >3000 Transitional
Characterization of Fluid Flow  Types of Flow RE < 2100 Laminar  RE >3000 Transitional

Transitional

Turbulent ***

Characterization of Fluid Flow  Types of Flow RE < 2100 Laminar  RE >3000 Transitional

*** Well documented & proven fully

developed flow profiles

Characterization of Fluid Flow  Types of Flow RE < 2100 Laminar  RE >3000 Transitional
Volumetric Flowrate (Q)
Volumetric Flowrate (Q)
Volumetric Flowrate (Q) V A Q Volume = Area x Length Volume Flow = Area x
V A Q
V
A
Q

Volume = Area x Length Volume Flow = Area x Velocity

Mass Flowrate (m)
Mass Flowrate (m)

Q=VA

Mass Flowrate (m) Q=VA V A m Mass Flow m = Qp =  AV Where
V A m
V
A
m
Mass Flowrate (m) Q=VA V A m Mass Flow m = Qp =  AV Where

Mass Flow m =

Qp

= AV

Mass Flowrate (m) Q=VA V A m Mass Flow m = Qp =  AV Where

Where

m

= Mass Flow

Q

= Volume Flow

= Fluid Density

Mass = Volume x Density

Mass vs Volume Flowmeters

Mass vs Volume Flowmeters • Why are we concerned? • How much does it really matter?

Why are we concerned?

How much does it really matter?

Flow through a 4” line measured in a Averaging Pitot

Flow Rate

1000 cfm

1000 cfm

Pressure

5 psi

5 psi

Temperature

100 F

70 F

     

DP in WC

12.181

11.532

There is a 6% error just by changing density / temperature slightly…can

you meter cope??

General Flow Terminology
General Flow Terminology
General Flow Terminology  Factors affecting flowmeter performance  Process media – Liquid – Gas 
  • Factors affecting flowmeter performance

    • Process media

Liquid

Gas

  • Temperature

  • Velocity

  • Density (Specific Gravity)

  • Viscosity

  • Pressure

Flowmeter Performance
Flowmeter Performance
  • Accuracy

  • Repeatability

  • Linearity

  • Rangeability

Flowmeter Performance  Accuracy  Repeatability  Linearity  Rangeability
Types of Accuracy
Types of Accuracy
  • % Rate

  • % Full Scale

  • % Span

  • % Max DP

Types of Accuracy  % Rate  % Full Scale  % Span  % Max
Accuracy
Accuracy

% Rate

The percent accuracy value is constant and applied to the actual (or indicated) flowrate

Flowrate

±1% rate

Example: 100 GPM

±1 GPM

Accuracy % Rate The percent accuracy value is constant and applied to the actual (or indicated)
  • 50 GPM

±0.5 GPM

  • 10 GPM

±.01 GPM

% Full Scale The absolute value of error (as expressed in engineering units)

Example:

Flowrate

±1% Full Scale

% Rate

100 GPM

±1 GPM

±1%

50 GPM

±1 GPM

±2%

10 GPM

±1 GPM

±10%

Accuracy
Accuracy

Percent Error Versus Flow

Accuracy Percent Error Versus Flow
Accuracy Percent Error Versus Flow
Poor Repeatability Means Poor Accuracy Good Accuracy Means Good Repeatability Good Repeatability Does Not Necessarily Mean
Poor Repeatability Means Poor Accuracy Good Accuracy Means Good Repeatability Good Repeatability Does Not Necessarily Mean

Poor Repeatability Means Poor Accuracy

Poor Repeatability Means Poor Accuracy Good Accuracy Means Good Repeatability Good Repeatability Does Not Necessarily Mean

Good Accuracy Means Good Repeatability

Poor Repeatability Means Poor Accuracy Good Accuracy Means Good Repeatability Good Repeatability Does Not Necessarily Mean

Good Repeatability Does Not

Necessarily Mean Good Accuracy

Volumetric Flowmeters

DP

Turbine

Vortex / Swirl

Magnetic

Target

Ultrasonic

Displacement

Note: can be inferred mass with compensating transmitter

Volumetric Flowmeters • DP • Turbine • Vortex / Swirl • Magnetic • Target Ultrasonic •
Differential Pressure Flowmeters
Differential Pressure Flowmeters

Flow Measurement Principles

Differential Pressure Flowmeters Flow Measurement Principles Direction of Flow VENA CONTRACTA ORIFICE PLATE (or FLOW TUBE)
Direction of Flow VENA CONTRACTA ORIFICE PLATE (or FLOW TUBE) MANOMETER (or DP TRANSMITTER) h
Direction of Flow
VENA
CONTRACTA
ORIFICE PLATE
(or FLOW TUBE)
MANOMETER
(or DP TRANSMITTER)
h

Q = K

P 
P
Differential Pressure Flowmeters Flow Measurement Principles Direction of Flow VENA CONTRACTA ORIFICE PLATE (or FLOW TUBE)
DP Primary Elements
DP Primary Elements
DP Primary Elements Various Orifice Configuration Flow Tube Flow Nozzle Venturi Flowmeter
Various Orifice Configuration
Various
Orifice
Configuration

Flow

Tube

DP Primary Elements Various Orifice Configuration Flow Tube Flow Nozzle Venturi Flowmeter
Flow Nozzle
Flow
Nozzle
DP Primary Elements Various Orifice Configuration Flow Tube Flow Nozzle Venturi Flowmeter

Venturi

Flowmeter

DP Primary Elements Averaging Pitot Accelabar – Combined Pitot & Venturi Wedge Element
DP Primary Elements
DP Primary Elements
DP Primary Elements Averaging Pitot Accelabar – Combined Pitot & Venturi Wedge Element

Averaging Pitot

DP Primary Elements Averaging Pitot Accelabar – Combined Pitot & Venturi Wedge Element

Accelabar Combined Pitot & Venturi

DP Primary Elements Averaging Pitot Accelabar – Combined Pitot & Venturi Wedge Element
DP Primary Elements Averaging Pitot Accelabar – Combined Pitot & Venturi Wedge Element

Wedge Element

DP Flowmeters
DP Flowmeters
DP Flowmeters DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE • Use On Liquid, Gas, and Steam • Suitable for Extreme Temperatures

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

DP Flowmeters DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE • Use On Liquid, Gas, and Steam • Suitable for Extreme Temperatures
DP Flowmeters DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE • Use On Liquid, Gas, and Steam • Suitable for Extreme Temperatures

ADVANTAGES

Use On Liquid, Gas, and Steam Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Pressures

No Moving Parts Low Cost

DISADVANTAGES Limited Rangeability

Effected By Changes In Density, Pressure, and Viscosity

Maintenance Intensive

Magnetic Flowmeters
Magnetic Flowmeters

Theory of Operation

Magnetic Flowmeters Theory of Operation
Magnetic Flowmeters Theory of Operation
Magmeter Requirements
Magmeter Requirements
Magmeter Requirements  Process must be a liquid  Minimum conductivity  Meter must be full
  • Process must be a liquid

  • Minimum conductivity

  • Meter must be full

Magnetic Flowmeters
Magnetic Flowmeters
Magnetic Flowmeters ADVANTAGES • No Moving Parts • Very Wide Rangeability • Ideal For Slurries •

MAGNETIC

Magnetic Flowmeters ADVANTAGES • No Moving Parts • Very Wide Rangeability • Ideal For Slurries •
Magnetic Flowmeters ADVANTAGES • No Moving Parts • Very Wide Rangeability • Ideal For Slurries •

ADVANTAGES No Moving Parts Very Wide Rangeability Ideal For Slurries Unobstructed Flow Path

DISADVANTAGES Liquid Must Be Conductive Physical Pressure and Temperature Limits

Magnetic Flowmeters
Magnetic Flowmeters
Magnetic Flowmeters Advantages Over Other Technologies  No moving parts  No pressure drop  Flowrate

Advantages Over Other Technologies

  • No moving parts

  • No pressure drop

  • Flowrate independent of viscosity, temperature, and density

  • Minimum upstream piping requirements

  • Electronics interchangeable without regard to size

  • Measure dirty liquids with solids

  • Measure highly corrosive fluids

  • Very large turndown

  • Linear output

Vortex Meter
Vortex Meter
Vortex Meter
Vortex Meter
Vortex Meter
Vortex Meter

Principle of Operation

Vortex Meter Principle of Operation Q = V x A

Q = V x A

Vortex Meter Principle of Operation Q = V x A
Vortex Meter Principle of Operation Q = V x A
Vortex
Vortex
Vortex
Vortex
Vortex

Vortex / Swirlmeter

VORTEX / SWIRLMETER

Vortex / Swirlmeter VORTEX / SWIRLMETER ADVANTAGES • No Moving Parts • For Liquid, Gas, or
Vortex / Swirlmeter VORTEX / SWIRLMETER ADVANTAGES • No Moving Parts • For Liquid, Gas, or
Vortex / Swirlmeter VORTEX / SWIRLMETER ADVANTAGES • No Moving Parts • For Liquid, Gas, or

ADVANTAGES No Moving Parts For Liquid, Gas, or Steam Uneffected by Pressure, Temperature, or Density Changes. Wide Rangeability

DISADVANTAGES Span Limitations Due to Viscosity Flow Profile Sensitive (Vortex)

Swirlmeter
Swirlmeter

Principle of Operation

Swirlmeter Principle of Operation Preamplifier Housing Sensor Deswirler Swirler r = local radius VA = axial
Preamplifier Housing Sensor Deswirler Swirler r = local radius VA = axial velocity of flow VT
Preamplifier
Housing
Sensor Deswirler
Swirler
r
=
local radius
VA
= axial velocity of flow
VT
=
p
angular velocity of flow
= static pressure

Backflow

Swirlmeters
Swirlmeters
Benefits
Benefits
Swirlmeters Benefits • High Accuracy 0.50% of Rate • No Moving Parts • Minimal Upstream Piping

High Accuracy 0.50% of Rate No Moving Parts Minimal Upstream Piping Measures Low Flows Versatile Electronics can be used for Diagnostics Works with Entrained Liquids

Swirlmeter
Swirlmeter
Swirlmeter Cut-Away View Technical Data  Measures liquids, gases and steam  Available integral, remote, or

Cut-Away View

Swirlmeter Cut-Away View Technical Data  Measures liquids, gases and steam  Available integral, remote, or

Technical Data

  • Measures liquids, gases and steam

  • Available integral, remote, or flow computer electronics

  • Accuracy ±0.50% rate

  • Sizes 0.75" thru 16.0"

  • Minimal upstream piping req.

  • Flow as low as 1 GPM

  • Excellent in light gas applications

Installation Length
Installation Length
Installation Length Swirlmeter Swirlmeter Vortex 4 Process control valve 5 D 1 D 50 D 5
Swirlmeter Swirlmeter Vortex 4 Process control valve 5 D 1 D 50 D 5 D 90°
Swirlmeter
Swirlmeter
Vortex 4
Process
control valve
5
D
1 D
50
D
5
D
90° elbow
3
D
1 D
25
D
5
D
min. 1.8 D
Reduction
3
D
1 D
15 D
5 D
Turbine Meter
Turbine Meter
Turbine Meter
Turbine Meter
Turbine Meter
Turbine Meter

Principle of Operation

Turbine Meter Principle of Operation Rotor velocity is proportional to fluid velocity
Turbine Meter Principle of Operation Rotor velocity is proportional to fluid velocity

Rotor velocity is proportional to fluid velocity

Turbine Meter
Turbine Meter

High accuracy (.5% of rate)

High rangeability (up to 50:1)

Compact design

Fast response time

Broad range of sizes

Clean water applications only
Clean water applications only
  NIST Traceable Factory Calibration  Low cost, Easy to install  In and out
NIST Traceable Factory Calibration
Low cost, Easy to install
In and out of line, under pressure
Turbine Meter    High accuracy (.5% of rate) High rangeability (up to 50:1) Compact
Turbine Meter
Turbine Meter
Turbine Meter Performance Considerations  Straight pipe run requirements  Process fluid lubricity  Reynolds number

Performance Considerations

  • Straight pipe run requirements

  • Process fluid lubricity

  • Reynolds number constraints

    • Viscosity

    • Density

  • Maintenance & recalibration

  • Turbine Flowmeters
    Turbine Flowmeters

    TURBINE

    Turbine Flowmeters TURBINE ADVANTAGES • High Accuracy • Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Pressures • Can
    Turbine Flowmeters TURBINE ADVANTAGES • High Accuracy • Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Pressures • Can

    ADVANTAGES High Accuracy Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Pressures Can Be Used On Gas or Liquid

    DISADVANTAGES Only For Low Viscosities Moving Parts Sensitive to Flow Profile

    Turbine Flowmeters TURBINE ADVANTAGES • High Accuracy • Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Pressures • Can
    Positive Displacement Flowmeters
    Positive Displacement Flowmeters
    Positive Displacement Flowmeters
    PD Flowmeters
    PD Flowmeters

    Types

    • Helical gear

    • Nutating disk

    • Oscillating piston

    • Oval gear

    • Rotary

    PD Flowmeters Types  Helical gear  Nutating disk  Oscillating piston  Oval gear 
    Positive Displacement Meter
    Positive Displacement Meter
    Positive Displacement Meter Typical Principle of Operation Schematic of a nutating-disk meter Schematic of a rotary-vane

    Typical Principle of Operation

    Positive Displacement Meter Typical Principle of Operation Schematic of a nutating-disk meter Schematic of a rotary-vane

    Schematic of a nutating-disk meter

    Positive Displacement Meter Typical Principle of Operation Schematic of a nutating-disk meter Schematic of a rotary-vane

    Schematic of a rotary-vane flowmeter

    Positive Displacement Meter Typical Principle of Operation Schematic of a nutating-disk meter Schematic of a rotary-vane

    Schematic of a lobed-impeller flowmeter

    PD Flowmeters
    PD Flowmeters

    Advantages

    • Ideal for viscous fluids

    • Custody transfer

    • Batching

    • Minimal straight piping requirements

    PD Flowmeters Advantages  Ideal for viscous fluids  Custody transfer  Batching  Minimal straight
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters

    Types

    • Doppler

    • Time of flight

    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Types  Doppler  Time of flight
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters
    Principle of Operation
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation Doppler Flowmeter
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation Doppler Flowmeter

    Doppler

    Flowmeter

    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation Doppler Flowmeter
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters
    Principle of Operation
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation Transit-Time Flowmeter
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation Transit-Time Flowmeter

    Transit-Time

    Flowmeter

    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation Transit-Time Flowmeter
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters
    Ultrasonic Flowmeters Performance Considerations  Reynolds number constraints  Entrained gas or particles for doppler 

    Performance Considerations

    • Reynolds number constraints

    • Entrained gas or particles for doppler

    • Clean liquids for time of flight

    • Installed without process shut down

    • Straight upstream piping requirements

    Ultrasonic
    Ultrasonic

    ULTRASONIC

    V
    V
    Ultrasonic ULTRASONIC V ADVANTAGES • No Moving Parts • Unobstructed Flow Passage • Wide Rangeability DISADVANTAGES

    ADVANTAGES No Moving Parts Unobstructed Flow Passage

    Wide Rangeability

    DISADVANTAGES

    For Liquids Only (limited gas)

    Flow Profile Dependent Errors Due To Deposits

    Ultrasonic ULTRASONIC V ADVANTAGES • No Moving Parts • Unobstructed Flow Passage • Wide Rangeability DISADVANTAGES

    Mass Flowmeter

    Mass Flowmeter Direct Measurement • Thermal Dispersion • Coriolis

    Direct Measurement

    Thermal Dispersion Coriolis

    Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
    Coriolis Mass Flowmeter
    Coriolis
    Coriolis
    Coriolis
    Coriolis
    Coriolis
    Coriolis
    Coriolis
    Coriolis
    Coriolis ADVANTAGES • Direct Mass Measurement • High Accuracy • Additional Density Measurement • Uneffected By

    CORIOLIS

    Coriolis ADVANTAGES • Direct Mass Measurement • High Accuracy • Additional Density Measurement • Uneffected By
    Coriolis ADVANTAGES • Direct Mass Measurement • High Accuracy • Additional Density Measurement • Uneffected By

    ADVANTAGES Direct Mass Measurement High Accuracy Additional Density Measurement Uneffected By Flow Profile

    DISADVANTAGES High Purchase Price High Installation Cost Size Limitations Vibration Sensitive

    Thermal Dispersion

    Thermal Dispersion
    Thermal Dispersion

    Thermal Dispersion Mass Flowmeter

    Thermal Dispersion Mass Flowmeter • Gas application only • Relatively inexpensive • Easy to install and

    Gas application only Relatively inexpensive Easy to install and remove under pressure Accuracy 0.5% Turndown, 100:1 Capable of monitoring extremely low flows True mass flow meter (compensates for temperature/pressure)

    Piping Considerations

    Always need a full pipe

    Piping Considerations • Always need a full pipe • Proper up / down diameter
    Piping Considerations • Always need a full pipe • Proper up / down diameter
    Piping Considerations • Always need a full pipe • Proper up / down diameter

    Proper up / down diameter

    BTU Monitoring

    BTU Monitoring
    BTU Monitoring

    Summary Each Application is Different

    Summary – Each Application is Different • Flowing Media (eg Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc…) •
    Summary – Each Application is Different • Flowing Media (eg Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc…) •

    Flowing Media (eg Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc…) Density - pressure and temperature Flow Range, minimum to maximum (turndown needed) Accuracy how stated? % of range or span Repeatability Straight run requirements & available Maintenance and reliability

    General HVAC Recommendations

    General HVAC Recommendations Steam : Accelabar or Swirl Chilled or Hot Water: Hot Tap Insert Turbine

    Steam : Accelabar or Swirl Chilled or Hot Water: Hot Tap Insert Turbine Natural Gas or Air: Thermal Dispersion Fuel Oil: Coriolis or Wedge