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Manufacturing Engineering and


Materials
Mechanical Behavior, Testing and
Manufacturing Properties of Materials.
Metal Alloys: Structure and Strengthening by
Heat Treatment
Ferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General
Properties, and Applications
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Materials Classification
Engineering
Materials
Metals
Ferrous
Steels
Stainless Steels
Nonferrous
Aluminum
Copper
Plastics
Thermoplastics
Thermosets
Elastomers
Ceramics and
others
Glass ceramics
Carbides
Diamond
Composites
Reinforced
plastics
Ceramic-matrix
Laminates
Ferrous
Materials
Carbon Steel
Low C.S
(C < 0.3 %)
Medium C.S (0.3 <
C <0.7)%
High C.S
(C > 0.7 %)
Alloy steel
Low A.S
(Alloying elements
up to 3 %)
High A.S
(Alloying elements
up to 7 %)
High Speed Steel
(HSS)
Cast Iron
Gray Cast Iron
White Cast Iron
Nodular Cast Iron
Malleable Cast Iron
Stainless Steel
(> 12 % Cr)
Austenitic S.S
Ferritic S.S
Martensitic S.S
Participation
Hardening S.S
Duplex S.S
Materials Classification
Behavior and manufacturing
properties of materials
Structure of
materials
Atomic bonds:
metallic, covaient,
and ionic
Crystalline
Amorphous
Mechanical
properties
Strength
Ductility
Hardness
Physical and chemical
properties
Density
Melting point
Thermal
conductivity
Property
modification
Heat treatment
Alloying
Surface treatment
Materials Classification
Mechanical Properties of Materials
Property Definition
Strength The ability of a material to bear an applied load.
Ductility The ability of a metal to deform without breaking.
Brittleness Tendency of a material to break without significant
deformation.
Hardness Ability to resist indentation.
Toughness The ability to absorb energy
Ductile to Brittle
transition
temperature
The temperature at which a metal fracture mode changes from
ductile to brittle.
Fatigue Strength The strength of a metal when exposed to repeated reversals of
cyclic stresses.
Soundness Freedom from discontinuities
Mechanical Properties of Materials
Typical Stress/Strain Curve - Steel
Steel Making
Row Materials for Production

Iron Ore


Limestone


Coke
Steel Making
The three raw materials are
dumped into a blast furnace.

Hot air (2000 F) is blasted into
the furnace, which helps drive
the chemical reaction. The
coke forms CO and the CO
reduces the iron oxide to iron.

The slag floats to the top and
the metal is transferred to
molds and cools. IT IS NOW
PIG IRON, ready for more iron
work or steelmaking.
Steel Making
To make steel you are simply removing more impurities, such as,
manganese, silicon, carbon, from the pig iron.

Impurities are removed by re-melting the metal and adding carbon,
steel scrap, and more limestone.

The metal can be melted using one of three methods
Open-Hearth furnace
Electric furnace
Basic Oxygen furnace. (BOF)
Open-Hearth Furnace
Uses a fuel to generate heat, and melt the metal.
Electric Furnace
Uses electric arc from
electrode to metal to heat
and melt it.

Can produce 60-90 tons of
steel per day.

Steel is higher quality than
open-hearth and BOF
Basic-Oxygen Furnace
Fastest steelmaking process can make
250 tons of steel / hour
Melted pig iron and scrap are poured
(charged) into a vessel.
Fluxing agents are added, like limestone.
The molten metal is blasted with pure
oxygen. This produces iron oxide which
then reacts with carbon to produce CO
and CO2. The slag floats to the top of the
metal.
Higher steel quality than open hearth.
Used to make plate, sheet, I-beam,
tubing and channel.


Steel Making
Steel Making
Casting of Ingots
While steel is still molten, it is poured into a mold.
The mold may be a square, rectangle or round. The
metal becomes an ingot in the mold.
The ingot will be removed from the mold and heated
uniformly to be rolled or formed into a final product.
While the molten metal cools, or solidifies, gasses
evolve and can affect the quality of the steel. This
leads to three types of steel: Killed Steel, Semi-Killed
Steel, and Rimmed Steel.

Casting of Ingots
This is a fully de-oxidized steel, and
thus, has no porosity.
Killed Steel
It is only partially de-oxidized, and
therefore, is a little more porous than
killed steel.
Semi Killed
Steel
The unwanted gasses form blowholes
around the rim Result in little or no
piping
Rimmed
Steel
Continuous Casting
Molten metal skips ingot
step, and goes directly from
the furnace to a tundish.
Metal solidifies in the mold.
The solidified metal then
goes through pinch rollers
that determine the final
form.


Continuous Casting
Benefits of Continuous Casting
Costs less to produce final product
Metal has more uniform composition and properties
than ingot processing.

Carbon and Alloy Steels
Carbon and alloying steels are the most commonly
used metals
The structural makeup and controlled processing of
these steels make them suitable for many different
functions.
Basic product shapes include plate, sheet, bar, wire,
tube, castings, and forgings.
Increasing the percentages of these elements in
steels, increases the properties they impart.

Carbon and Alloy Steels
Different elements are added to steels to given the
steel different properties.
The elements pass on properties such as harden-
ability, strength, hardness, toughness, wear
resistance, etc.
Some properties are beneficial while others are
detrimental.

Carbon and Alloy Steels
Effects of various elements in steels

Element Effect
Boron Improves hardenability without the loss of (or even with some
improvement in) machinability and formability.
Calcium Deoxidizes steels, improves toughness, and may improve formability
and machinability.
Carbon improves hardenability, strength, hardness, and wear resistance; it
reduces ductility, weldability, and toughness.
Cerium controls the shape of inclusions and improves toughness in high-
strength low alloy steels; it deoxidizes steels.
Chromium improves toughness, hardenability, wear and corrosion resistance,
and high-temperature strength; it increases the depth of the
hardness penetration resulting from heat treatment by promoting
carburization.
Carbon and Alloy Steels
Effects of various elements in steels

Element Effect
Cobalt improves strength and hardness at elevated temperatures.
Copper improves resistance to atmospheric corrosion and, to a lesser
extent, increases strength with little loss in ductility; it adversely
affects the hot-working characteristics and surface quality.
Lead improves machinability; it causes liquid-metal embrittlement.
Magnesium has the same effects as cerium.
Manganese improves hardenability, strength, abrasion resistance, and
machinability; it deoxidizes the molten steel, reduce shot shortness,
and decreases weldability.
Carbon and Alloy Steels
Effects of various elements in steels

Element Effect
Molybdenum improves hardenability, wear resistance, toughness, elevated-
temperature strength, creep resistance, and hardness; it minimizes
temper embrittlement.
Nickel improves strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance; it improves
hardenability.
Niobium
(columbium)
imparts fineness of grain size and improves strength and impact
toughness; it lowers transition temperature and may decrease
hardenability.
Phosphorus improves strength, hardenability, corrosion resistance, and
machinability; it severely reduces ductility and toughness.
Selenium improves machinability.
Carbon and Alloy Steels
Effects of various elements in steels

Element Effect
Silicon improves strength, hardness, corrosion resistance, and electrical
conductivity; it decreases magnetic-hysteresis loss, machinability,
and cold formability.
Sulfur Improves machinability when combined with manganese; it lowers
impact strength and ductility and impairs surface quality and
weldability.
Titanium improves hardenability; it deoxidizes steels.
Vanadium improves strength, toughness, abrasion resistance, and hardness at
elevated temperatures; it inhibits grain growth during heat
treatment.
Tungsten has the same effects as cobalt.
Carbon and Alloy Steels
Carbon steels
Carbon steels are group by their percentage of
carbon content per weight. The higher the carbon
content the greater the hardness, strength and wear
resistance after heat treatment.
Carbon steels are classified to:
Low Carbon Steel
Medium Carbon Steel
High Carbon Steel

Carbon and Alloy Steels
Low Carbon Steel
Also called mild
steels, has less
than 0.30%
carbon. Used in
everyday
industrial
products like
bolts, nuts, sheet,
plate and tubes.
Medium Carbon
Steel
has 0.30% to
0.60% carbon.
Used for jobs
requiring higher
strength such as
machinery,
automotive
equipment parts,
and metalworking
equipment.
High Carbon Steel
has more than
0.60% carbon.
Used parts that
require the
highest strength,
hardness, and
wear resistance.
Once
manufactured
they are heat
treated and
tempered
Carbon and Alloy Steels
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Alloy Steels
are steels that contain significant amounts of
alloying elements.
Alloy steels are classified to:
High strength low alloy steels
Microalloyed steels
Nanoalloyed steels




Carbon and Alloy Steels
High-strength, low-
alloy steels (HSLA)
were developed
to improve the
ratio of strength
to weight.
Commonly used
in automobile
bodies and in the
transportation
industry (the
reduced weight
makes for better
fuel economy ).
Microalloyed steels
Provide superior
properties
without the use of
heat treating.
When cooled
carefully these
steels develop
enhanced and
consistent
strength.
Nanoalloyed steels
have extremely
small grain size
(10-100 nm).
Since their
synthesis is done
at an atomic level
their properties
can be controlled
specifically.
Stainless Steels

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