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hearing. Effectiveness of ear protectors & noise control measures in case of industries. HUMAN EAR. • External ear ,Middle ear ,Inner ear. • Detects acoustic signals over (20-20000)hz. • Sound enters through outer ear conducted through ear canal to ear drum which separate ear canal from middle ear cavity. • From middle ear, sound energy transmitted to receptor cells surrounded by fluids.
Disorders of hearing.
Acoustic pathway is blocked (or) accumulation of foreign bodies ,hearing capacity of ear will be reduced. MIDDLE EAR: Perforated ear drum ,diseased cochlea ,etc. Due to this there is a mismatch of impedance between air & bone conduction. INNER EAR: Prolonged exposure to noise (or) due to acoustic injury, transmission of sound to the brain is not proper.
Pure tone/speech audiometer.
Audio meter is an electronic-acoustic
instrument for measuring human hearing level in terms of loudness & pitch of sounds. Hearing loss is measured in terms of decibels (-10 - 100db) for audible range of frequencies. MASKING In patients with unilateral hearing loss & bilateral hearing loss possibility of false threshold level for the poorer ear. Solved by eliminating response from better ear by masking to shift threshold to high level.
Audio meters of various types, PURE TONE:
used to obtain air conduction & bone conduction thresholds of hearing which are used to diagnose amt of hearing loss. SPEECH: Speech reception thresholds. SCREENING: To identify threshold of hearing ,with respect to noise level of workers in industries & soldiers in military services.
It can be used as pure tone, speech, screening . Pure tone(single freq)sound wave ,it is used to
determine the hearing loss. pure tone generators generate test tones in octave steps from 125-8000hz. Signal intensity=(-10 to 100db)using the attenuator control. TONE GENERATOR consist of LC oscillator in which inductance & capacitance can be varied precisely & coupled to power amplifier. Attenuator-ladder type(10 Ώ )impedance. Signal delivered to ear by head phone.
SPEECH AUDIOMETER : Test are carried with
spoken voice to prescribe hearing aids. tape recorder delivers recorded speech, live voice with microphone amplifier for communication purpose. SCREENING AUDIOMETER : Determine threshold of hearing in presence of noise.
VARIABLE SINEWAVE OSCILLATOR : test signals
having frequencies 125,250,1000,1500,2000,3000,4000,6000,8000 hz .its operation is presented from left ear masking right ear then 30sec for each tone then right ear masking left ear. MODULATOR:2-modes, pulse mode-test signal is modulated giving a signal easily recognised by the patients. continuous mode-test signal is directly used for calibrating the audiometer.
wiper of the pen drive of the x-y recorder is attached to potentiometer in the attenuator . depending on the hearing loss the peak of curve is traced for a particular freq of the recorder. HAND SWITCH : pen drive is controlled via logic control circuit by hand switch operated by patients .pressing switch increase sound level in ear phone releasing switch decrease sound level. BUFFER AMPLIFIER : Isolates attenuator from calibration circuit. During calibration sound level of test frequency is adjusted at the correct level corresponding to a normal person.