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Urinary system

Division of histology and embryology
Components

 Kidneys

 Ureters

 Bladder

 urethra
Functions of kidneys
 Regulate the fluid and electrolyte
balance of body
 Remove waste products of
metabolism from body
 Function as endocrine organs:

Synthesize and secrete erythropoeitin , renin
Activate vitamin D
Kidney
Kidney structure
Renal column
capsule

Medullary ray
hilum
Renal medulla
(pyramid)
Renal pelvis Major calyx
ureter Minor calyx

Renal cortex
Kidney (HE)

Renal cortex:

Cortical labyrinth

Medullary ray

Renal medulla
Renal cortex (HE)

 Cortical labyrinth

 Medullary ray
Kidney lobe and kidney lobule

 A kidney lobe:
A medullary pyramid and
the associated cortical
tissue

 A kidney lobule:

A medullary ray and
the surrounding cortical
labyrinth
Kidney
 Covering membrane: Connective tissue capsule

 Parenchyma: Uriniferous tubules

 Interstitium: Connective tissue
Blood vessels,Lymph vessels
Nerves…
Uriniferous tubule
Renal corpuscle
(components)
Proximal
Nephron convoluted tubule

Renal Henle’s loop
Uriniferous tubule

tubule

Distal convoluted
tubule

Collecting tubule
Henle’s loop
Thick descending limb

Thin descending
limb
Henle’s Thin segment
loop
Thin ascending
limb

Thick ascending limb
Cortical nephron and juxtamedullary nephron

Cortical nephron

Juxtamedullary nephron

Renal corpuscle
nephron
Renal tubule
Cortex (Cortical labyrinth)
Renal corpuscle

Vascular
pole
Glomerulus

Bowman’s
capsule
Urinary
pole
Glomerulus (SEM)

Afferent arteriole
Effernt arteriole
Renal corpuscle (SEM)
Renal corpuscle (HE)
Renal corpuscle

Glomerular capillary:
fenestrated capillary
Bowman’s capsule:
parietal layer
visceral layer
Podocyte (SEM)

primary process

secondary process
(pedicel)

slit pore
filatration slit
membrane
Mesangium (mesangial cell)

Function:

remove the particles and
clean the membrane

provide support of
the capillary wall
Filtration barrier

1) Endothelium of the
glomerular capillaries

Lamina rara interna
2) The basement
membrane Lamina densa
Lamina rara externa

3) The filtration slit
membrane
Filtration barrier
Renal tubule

Distal convoluted tubule

Proximal convoluted tubule

Henle’s loop
Proximal convoluted tubule
Proximal convoluted tubule

A simple cuboidal epithelium

Cell shape:
cuboidal cell with brush border
Nucleu:
small,round,located in the base
Cytoplasm:
strong acidophilic
Proximal convoluted tubule cell

ultrastructure

Microvilli
Canaliculi and vesicles
Membrane folds
Mitochondria
Natrium/kalium ATPase
Cell junction
Membrane interdigitation
Proximal convoluted tubule
Proximal convoluted tubule (SEM)
Proximal convoluted tubule

Functions:
Urine absorption
Water and electrolyte absorption
Amino acid,sugar and small protein absorption
Large protein absorption
Secrete Hydrogen ion, Ammonia, creatinine
Henle’s loop
Thick descending limb

Thin descending
limb
Henle’s Thin segment
loop
Thin ascending
limb

Thick ascending limb
Thick descending limb
Thin segment

A simple squamous epithelium
Thick ascending limb
Distal convoluted tubule
A simple cuboidal epithelium
Cell shape:
small cuboidal cell lacking
brush border
Nucleu:
small,round, located in medium
Cytoplasm:
less acidophilic
Distal convoluted tubule cell

ultrastructure

Few microvilli
Few canaliculi and vesicles
Few interdigitation
Extensive membrane folds
Numerous mitochondria
Distal convoluted tubule

functions

Absorb Na and secrete K
Secrete Hydrogen and Ammonium into tubular urine

Hormone regulation

Aldosterone: increase the absorption of Na and water
increase the secretion of K
Antidiuretic hormone: increase the absorption of water
Collecting tubule and duct

Arched collecting tubule
Cortical collecting tubule
Medullary collecting tubule
Papillary duct

A simple epithelium:
Squamous cuboidal columnar high columnar
Cortial collecting tubule
Papillary duct
Collecting tubule cell

ultrastructure

Few microvilli
Few organells
No interdigitation
No membrane fold
Collecting tubule

Function

Absorb Na and water
Secrete K

The activity is controlled by the aldosterone and ADH
Cortex (Cortical labyrinth)
medulla
Renal tubules
Juxtaglomerular complex

1. juxtaglomerular cell

2. Extraglomerular
mesangial cell

3. Macula densa
Juxtaglomerular complex
Juxtaglomerular cell

Origin:
smooth muscle cell of
the afferent arteriole
Secretion:
renin (hormone)

Angiotensinogen angiotensinI angiotensinII

aldosterone
Juxtaglomerular complex

macula densa

Origin:
part of the distal tubule wall
Function:
sensitive to the Cl content
of tubular fluid
Juxtaglomerular complex

Extraglomerular
mesangial cell
Blood supply of kidney
Renal artery

Interlobar arteries

Arcuate arteries

Interlobular arteries
Blood supply of kidney

interlobular artery

afferent arteriole

glomerulus

efferent arteriole
(cortical nephron)
efferent arteriole

postglomerular capillary

Interlobular vein

(juxtamedullary nephron)
efferent arteriole→ postglomerular capillary

straight arteriole Interlobular vein

straight venule
Blood supply of kidney
Renal artery

Interlobar arteries

Arcuate arteries

Interlobular arteries
Renal interstitium

Interstitial cell:
liver
Medullipin-Ⅰ Medullipin-Ⅱ

Blood pressure
Ureter

 Mucosa

 Muscular layer

 adventitia
Ureter

mucosa
Epithelium:
transitional epithelium
Lamina propria:
connective tissue
Bladder
Bladder
Transitional epithelium