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BONE

Dr. Wang Lin
Bone
1. Characteristics:
 bone tissue + marrow
cavity & bone marrow
+ periosteum &
endosteum
 bone tissue= cells +
bone matrix (fibers +
calcified g.s.)
 hard & rigid
 support, protection &
for calcium storage
2. Bone matrix
 Organic (35%); inorganic (65%)
 Organic matter:
collagen fiber (type I collagen)
ground substance: glycosaminoglycan
responsible to resilience
 Inorganic matter (bone mineral):
mainly hydroxyapatite crystal
Calcium and phosphonium are especially abundant
responsible to hardness
Arranged in the
bone lamellae ,
bone matrix arranged
in layers at different
direction.

fibers run in parallel
or in right angles;

apatite needles
lie alongside the fibrils.
3. Cells
Osteogenitor
cells
Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts
A. Osteogenitor cell: stem cell
Location:
In periosteum &
endosteum
L.M.:
Small, spindle shape,
weak basophilic
Function:
Stem cell, differentiate into osteoblast
B. Osteoblast
Location:
located on the
surface of bone
tissue in a layer;
LM:
Pear-shaped,
strong basophilic,
large pale nucleus
EM:
short processes;
rich in rER & Gol.
Function:
osteoblast fibers
g.s osteoid
embedded osteoblasts

Osteoblast release matrix vesicle

Osteoid Ca++ bone
tissue

Osteoblasts
Function
Ⅰ.Synthesize bone collagen fiber and
ground substance--osteoid
Ⅱ.Release matrix vesicle:
 0.1µm in diameter
 membrane-coated
 function: promote calcification
C. Osteocyte
---structure:
 flattened cell with multiple
long thin processes
 located in bone lacuna
and bone canaliculus
 basophilic cytoplasm
 adjacent cells connect in
bone canaliculus by gap
junctions
---function:
 Maintain bone matrix
 regulate the balance of
calcium and phosphonium
EM: processes
gap junction
between connected
processes
Function:
* intercellular
communication
* molecules are
passed via GJ from
cell to cell.
D. Osteoclast
Location:
located at peripheral
part of bone

LM:
Multinuclear large cell
30-100µm
5-50 nuclei
Acidophilic cytoplasm
Bone matrix
EM:
 Mv.(ruffled border)--
processes
 clear zone:
under the ruffled
border
microfilament
 primary lysosome, Ob.
pinosome and
secondary lysosome
 RER, mito. and Golgi
Function:
Clear zone: attached the bone surface to form a
microenvironment
Osteoclasts release lysosomal enzymes
(proteinases, carbonic anhydrase), & acids
(citric acid, lactic acid) to dissolve the bone
matrix
Mv.: increase the absorptive area & absorb
the dissolved products
* belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system
4. Bone architecture
long bone

diaphyses ( )
--the cylindrical part, is
almost totally composed
of compact bone , with a
small component of
spongy bone on its inner
surface around the bone
marrow.

epiphyses ( )
--the bulbous ends, are
composed of sponge
bone covered by a thin
layer of compact bone.
A. Spongy bone
Location: at the end &
inner surface of a
long bone

Structure:
---trabeculae:
formed by parallelly-
arranged lamella
form a spongy-liked
network
---Bone marrow:
hemopoietic tissue

The canaliculi open to the
marrow cavity
B. Compact bone
In compact bone, the
lamellae exhibit a
typical
organization
consisting of :
Circumferential
lamellae
Osteon (Haversian
system)
Interstitial
lamellae
Struture:
Ⅰ. Circumferential
lamellae :
arranged in concentric circles.
outer ~ : 10-40 layers
inner ~ : fewer layers
Ⅱ.  Osteon (Haversian
system):
 Long, cylindrical structure parallel
to the long axis of the diaphysis;
 4-20 Haversian lamellae
around a central canal (b.v.
/n.f./tissue fluid in it), the canaliculi
open to the canals;
 A cement line :wraps
around the unit; consist of mineralized
matrix with few collagen fibers.
 Volkmann’s canals :penetrate
the bone from the periosteal and
endoosteal surface. They run more
or less perpendicularly to the long
axis of the bone and are not
surrounded by concentric lamellae.
Volkmann’s canals communicate
with the central canals.
Ⅲ. Interstitial lamellae:
 Irregular I.L
lamellae
between the
osteons; os
 It is the
remanets of
osteons during
reconstruction.
Compact Bone
In cross section note several Haversian systems or osteons.
The concentric lamellae are indicated by the number "1," and
the intersitial lamellae by the number "2." Note the ovoid
morphology of lacunae.
Haversian system: Including the Haversian canal, numerous
osteocytes within their lacunae and the concentric lamellae. Note
the presence of numerous canaliculi radiating from the lacunae
Compact Bone
The pointer indicates a Haversian canal. Note the presence of
erythrocytes and a thin lining endothelium. This image also
shows the concentric lamellae of the Haversian system and a
number of osteocytes within their lacunae.
5. Periosteum
 outer layer: dense
c.t., thicker;
 the perforating f.
(Sharpey’s fibers) fix
the periosteum to
bone;
 inter layer: containing
the osteogenitor
cells, small b.v. & n.
6. Endosteum
 thin c.t. & a layer of the osteogenitor
cells covering the surface of the
marrow cavities, trabeculae, central
canals & perforating canals
 Function:
protection; growth;
repair; reconstruction
7. Osteogenesis
Intramembranous ossification

endochondral ossification
Highlights

 Structureof bone tissue
 Constituent of long bone
 Microstructure of compact bone
 Constituent of spongy bone