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Female Reproductive

System
The organs of
FRS
General Description
oviduct
oviduct

ovary uterus

ovary

vagina
General Description
Ovaries, oviducts, the uterus, the
Vagina,
external genitalia and mammary glands
Ovaries
Tunica albuginea Cortical region

Medullary region

germinal epithelium
Ovarian follicles
Ovarian follicles
A single oocyte surrounded by one or more layers
of follicular cells or granulosa cells
Development &
Maturation

of Follicles
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Primordial follicles
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Primordial follicles
A primary oocyte enveloped by one layer of squamous
ollicle cells, earlist stage, present prior to puberty

25~40µ m

Differentiated from
the oogonia
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Ultrastructure of Primary Oocyte

RER,
Golgi
complex
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Primordial follicles
Follicular cells

Small, flattened and dark-stained, attached to each other,
arranged as a Single layer
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Primary follicles
Unilaminar
Multilaminar
primary
primary
follicles
follicular cell

Earlier

Unilaminar primary follicles

later

Multilaminar primary follicles

Zona pellucida, corona radiata, theca folliculi
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Formation of zona pellucida
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Corona
Coronaradiata
radiataand Theca folliculi

Corona radiata

Theca folliculi
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Secondary follicles
Follicular antrum: transudates of plasma
secretory products of follicular cells
Development & Maturation of
Follicles Secondary follicles
Cumulus
oophorus
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Cumulus
oophorus
125-150 µ m
Development & Maturation of
Follicles Granulosa layer and follicular
wall

Interna

Externa
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Mature follicles
After developing for 10-14 days

Granulosa layer becoming thinner

2-2.5 cm, forming a bulge

Shortly before ovulation
Completion of first meiosis
formation of secondary oocyte
and first polar body

Beginning of second meiosis
staying at metaphase
Development & Maturation of
Follicles
Ovaries
Atretic follicles

Follicular atresia: normal reaction
Degeneration during development and maturation
 Characterized by
 Cessation of mitosis in

granulosa cells
 Detachment of

granulosa cells from
the basal lamina
 Death of oocyte

 Occurring at any stage on
which the histological
appearance depends
Ovaries
Atretic follicles
Ovaries
Atretic follicles
Ovaries
Intersititial gland
In the case of atresia of secondary or mature follicles
The theca cells becoming lutein-like cells, secreting estroge
Large, polygonal, containing lipid droplets

Well-developed
in rodents

Absent or rare
in humans
Ovulation
Ovaries
Ovulation
 Formation of follicular Stigma
 In the mid of a cycle

 Follicular wall and ovary cortex becomes thinner

 Blood flow ceases
Ovaries
Ovulation
 Blood level of LH reaches to a peak
 Blood flow increase, plasma proteins leak—edema
 Local release of active substance, collagenase
 Weakness and rupture of follicular wall
Ovaries
Ovulation
Ovaries
Entering of ovum into oviduct
Meiotic division of
oogonia
Ovaries
Corpus luteum
Ovaries
Corpus luteum
Ovaries
Corpus luteum
Theca luteum
cell

Glanunosa luteum
Ovaries
Corpus luteum

 Corpus luteum of menstruation
 Supported by LH from follicles

 Last for 2 weeks

 Secretes progesterone and estrogen

 Corpus luteum of pregnancy
 Supported by Human chorionic

gonadotropin (HCG) from the placenta
 last for 6 months

 up to 5 cm

 Secretes relaxin as well as progesterone

and estrogen
Ovaries
Corpus albicans
Degeneration by apoptosis
Uterus

Fundus

Body

Cervix
Uterus

endometrium

stratum
subvasculare

myometriumstratum vasculare

stratum supravasculare
perimetrium
Uterus

endometrium

myometrium

perimetrium
Uterus
Endometrium

Functional layer

Basal layer
Uterus
Blood supply of endometrium
Uterus
Spiral artery
Uterus

Menstrual cycle
Uterus
Menstrual cycle
 Cyclic morphological and functional changes in the
endometrium of the uterus
 Controlled by the ovarian hormones

 Starting usually at 12-15, ending at 45-50

 The average length of the menstrual cycle: 28 days

 3 phases:

 the proliferative phase

 the secretory phase

 the menstrual phase.
Uterus
Proliferative phase
5th to 14th days of the cycle, follicular phase

2-3 mm
Uterus
Secretory phase
15th to 28th days of the cycle, luteal phase

4-6
mm
Uterus
Menstrual phase
1th to 5th days of the cycle
Uterus Relatioship between ovarian
and menstrual cycles
Uterus
Exocervix

Portio vaginalis

Vagina
Uterus
Uterine cervix
Uterus
The mucosa of the uterine cervix
Uterus
Cervical glands
Uterus
Exocervix

Clinically important
Uterus
Exocervix

ampulla
isthmu
s

fimbria
Portio vaginalis
e
Vagina
Oviduct

Mucosa
Musculari
s
Serosa
Mammary
gland
Mammary glands
Mammary glands
Mammary glands
Lactiferous duct
Mammary glands
Resting (inactive) state
Mammary glands
Resting (inactive) state
Mammary glands
Pregnant state
Mammary glands
Lactating (active) state