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Eye

The eye is a
photosensitive organ
located in the orbits.

It can capture and
focus the light and film to
record the image from the
objects
Structure of eye

The wall of eyeball:
external layer—
sclera,cornea
middle layer—
choroids,ciliary body,iris
inner layer—
retina
Internal structures:
lens
vitreous body
aqueous humor
Anterior
chamber
Posterior
chamber
zonule

Vitreous space
External layer

Sclera:
The posterior
fivesixthes,opaque
Cornea:
The anterior one-
sixth; colorless and
transparent;
like a round
discLimbus
Cornea

1. Corneal epithelium

2. Bowman’s membrane
/Anterior limiting lamina
3. Corneal stroma
4. Descemet’s membrane
/Posterior limiting lamina
5. Cornea endothelium
Corneal epithelium
composed of
nonkeratinized
stratified squamous
epithelium
no melanocyte
smooth base
covered with tear film
Rich in nerve endings
Bowman’s membrane

A fibrillar lamina composed of
numerous collagen fibers
No cells
Function
Corneal stroma
Dense regular collegenous
connective tissue
with fibroblast
Descemet’s membrane &
Corneal endothelium

Descemet’s membrane—basal lamina of the endothelium
Corneal endothelium—a simple squamous epithelium
cornea

Corneal limbus sclera

Schelmm’s canal
/Sinus venous sclera

Trabecular meshwork

Scleral spur
Middle layer

Choroid
The posterior two thirds
Ciliary body
A thickened anteior portion
Iris
The most anterior portion
Choroid

choroid
composed of loose
connective tissue

blood vessels

melanocytes
Ciliary body
1.Ciliary muscles:
smooth muscles in three
directions
2.Ciliary stroma:
Loose connective tissue
3.Ciliary epithelium:
anterior pigmented layer
Posterior unpigmented Ciliary process
Ciliary epithelium
Iris
Iris
1.Anterior border layer:
Composed of melanocytes, fibroblasts
and collagen fibrils
2.Iris stroma:
Loose connective tissue
3.Iris epithelium:
Anterior smooth muscle
Posterior epithelium
Anterior border layer

Iris stroma

Sphincter muscle of pupil

Dilator muscle of pupil

Posterior Iris epithelium

lens
Inner layer (Retina)

Nonphotosensitive portion:

The epithelium of the
ciliary body and iris.

Photosensitive portion:

Pigment epithelium
Neural retina
Photosensitive
Retina

Pigment epithelium
Neural retina
Pigment epithelium

A single layer of cuboidal cells

with long slender processes
Pigment epithelial cell (EM)

Many cell processes
Abundant organelles
Mitochondria, rER,
Golgi complex,Lysosome
Melanin granules
Pigment epithelium

Functions:
1.absorption of light
2.separation of retina cells
from blood substances
3.participation in the
restoration of photosensitive
substance
4.phagocytosis of segments
Neural retina (cell types)

1-Photoreceptors:
Rod cells, cone cells.
2-Conducting neurons:
. Bipolar cells, ganglion cells
3-Association neurons:
Horizontal cells, amacrine cells
..
4-Supporting cells:
Muller cell
Outer
Rod cell segment
(membranous
disk)

Inner
A thin elongated neuron
segment
Most disks are not continous with (organelles)
plasma membrane
Sense of weak light Nuclear
vitA rhodopsin region

Synaptic
region
Cone cell

A thin elongated neuron
The disks are continous with plasma
membrane, attached with iodopsin.
Sense of intensive light and color of
light
rod cell cone cell
1. Morphologic
structure:

Outer segment Rod-shaped cone-shaped

Membranous Free from the Not free
disc plasmembrane

Light of a higher intensity
2. Function: Low level of light
and colour

3. relative Achromatopsia:
diseases Nyctalopia
Protanopia,deuteranopia
Bipolar cell

Interneurons connecting
photoreceptors to ganglion cells
Diffuse bipolar cells
Monosynaptic bipolar cells
Ganglion cells

Typical neurons with axons
to form optic nerve
Diffuse ganglion cells
Monosynaptic ganglion cells
Papilla of optic nerve
Internal limiting
membrane
Muller cell

External limiting
membrane
Layers of retina
1. Pigment epithelium
2. Layers of rods and cones
3. External limiting membrane
4. Outer nuclear layer
5. Outer plexiform layer
6. Inner nuclear layer
7. Inner plexiform layer
8. Ganglion cell layer
9. Layer of optical fibers
10. Internal limiting membrane
8 6 4 1

Layers of retina
1. Pigment epithelium
2. Layers of rods and cones
3. External limiting
4. Outer nuclear layer
5. Outer plexiform layer
6. Inner nuclear layer
7. Inner plexiform layer
8. Ganglion cell layer
9. Layer of optical fibers
10. Internal limiting
Central fovea

Central fovea
Ganglion cell

Bipolar cell

Visual cell
Optic disk
Structure of eye

The wall of eyeball:
external layer—
sclera,cornea
middle layer—
choroids,ciliary body,iris
inner layer—
retina
Internal structures:
lens
vitreous body
aqueous humor
Lens

1.Lens capslule:

composed of collagen and glycoprotein

2.Subcapsular epithelium:

a cuboidal layer of cells

3.Lens fibers:
thin flattened structures filled with crystallins
The structure of lens
Subcapsule epithelium

Lens capsule

Lens fibers
Equator
of lens Nuclear of
lens

Disease:
Presbyopia
cataract
Vitreous body

Composed of transparent gel
Water,collagen,
hyaluronic acid
hyalocytes
Aqueous humor

origin
1.Capillaries of
ciliary body
2.the cells of
nonpigmented
layer of ciliary
body
Posterior chamber anterior chamber trabecular meshwork
small vein schlemm’s canal

disease: glaucoma
Eyelid

movable folds of tissue that serve to protect the eye
Eyelid

1.
1 Skin: thin, keratinized
stratified squamous
3 epithelium
1
5 2.
2 Hypodermis: loose
connective tissue
2
4 33. Muscularis:skeletal muscle

4
4. Tarsus: dense connective
tissue; tarsal glands
5
5. Palpebral conjunctiva:
stratified columnar epithelium
Eyelid

1. Skin:
2. Hypodermis:
3. Muscularis:
4. Tarsus:
5. Palpebral
conjunctiva:
Three glands in eyelid
1.Tarsal glands: long sebaceous glands
2.The glands of zeis: small, modified sebaceous glands
3.The glands of moll: large, unbranched sweat glands

Tarsal glands The glands of moll

The glands of zeis
Internal ear
The ear: sensitive to equilibrium
and hearing. external ear, middle
ear, internal ear
The structures of middle ear
Internal ear(labyrinth)
Osseous labyrinth: perilymphatic fluid
Membranous labyrinth: endolymphatic fluid
Osseous labyrinth:
1. Skeletal semicircular canals 2. Vestibule 3. cochlea
Cochlea: a spiral canal

around the modiolus;

Modiolus is a cone-shaped
structure composed of bone,
contains the spiral ganglion.
Membranous labyrinth: 1. membranous
semicircular canal 2. utricle, saccule 3. Membranous
cochlear duct.
Special receptor organs: maculae, crista and
organ of corti.
1. Membranous
semicircular canals
Crista ampullaris: the receptor
area in the ampullae, ridgelike
structures.
The structure of Crista ampullaris

Supporting cells
Hair cell cilia (stereocilium, kinocilium)
Geletinous, cupula
afferent nerve ending
Function and mechanism of Crista ampullaris:

Function: Site-receptor
sensitive to the beginning
and ending of the head’s
spiral moving.
Mechanism: the beginning or
ending of
the spiralmovement of the
head can cause
the endolymphatic fluid to
move, cupula will
change its position, which
stimulates hair
2. The saccule and the utricle: a thin
sheath of connective
tissue lined by simple
squamous epithelium
Macula utriculi and macula sacculi: cone-shaped regions
The structure of Crista ampullaris

Supporting cells
Hair cell cilia (stereocilium, kinocilium)
Afferent nerve ending
Glycoprotein layer
Otolith
Function and
mechanism:
Function: sensitive to
the beginning and
ending of lining
movement and the
position of the head in
the static state.
Mechanism: hair cells are receptor cells.
There is a
membrane statoconium covering the
maculae. It is
heavier than endolymphatic fluid. By
gravity the
membrane statoconium can stimulate
Membranous cochlea duct:

Scala
vestibule

Scala media or
Membranous
cochlea duct

Scala tympani
Vestibular
Spiral Stria membrane
ligame vascula
nt ris Tectori
Organ of
al
corti or
membr
spiral
ane
organ
Spiral
limbus
Membra Osseous modiol
nous spiral lamina us
spiral Spiral
lamina ganglio
or
Spiral organ:
Supporting cells (pillar cells &
phalangeal) & hair cells
stereocili
um

Inner Outer
hair hair
cell cell
Outer
Inner phalang
tunne eal cell
l
Inner Inner Outer
phalangea pillar pillar
l cell
Spiral organ

Outer hair
cell Inner hair
Outer
cell
phalangeal
cell Inner Inner
tunne phalangeal
l cell

inner pillar
outer pillar cell
cell
Function and mechanism of the
spiral organ:
Function: responsible for hearing.
Mechanism: sound vibration in
the tympanic
membrane vibration is
transmitted to internal ear
the vibration of the basilar
membrane
the tectorial membrane contact with
the stereocilium of
Cochlear nerve: the central processes of th
spiral
theganglion
hair cells hair cells are