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Male Reproductive

System
General Description
Testes
dual-function
Genital ducts:
epididymis
ductus deferens
ejaculatory ducts
urethra
Accessory glands:
prostate
seminal vesicles
bulbourethral glands
Penis
colpulative organ
Testis
Located in the scrotum
Ovoid
Covered by testicular capsule:
tunica vaginalis and tunica albuginea

Seminifero
us tubule
Testis
Seminiferous tubules
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Germinal or seminiferous epithelium
Supporting or Sertoli cells
Spermatogenic cells
Basement membrane
Tunica propria (myoid cell)
Testis
Seminiferous tubules
Spermatogenic cells

Since puberty
 Being arranged in 4-8 layers
 Replicating and migrating as mature
 Successive generations from the
periphery to the lumen
 Spermatogonia
 Primary spermatocytes
 Secondary spermatocytes
 Spermatids
 Spermatozoa
Seminiferous tubules
Spermatogenesis: the phenomenon that the
spermatogenic cells divide from start to finish and
reducing spermatozoa.

From spermatogonia to spermatozoa:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: from spermatogonia to
primary spermatocyte
2. Meiosis: from primary spermatocyte to spermatid
3. Spermiogenesis: from spermatid to spermatozoa
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Spermatogonium
Adjacent to the basement membrane
Round or ellipsoid, small (10-12 µ m)
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Spermatogonium
Type A: Ad, deeply-stained nucleus, prominent nuclear vacuole
Ap, flattened nucleus, finely-granulated and pale-stained chromatin
Type B: large clumps of densely-stained chromatin, central nucleolus
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Proliferation and differentiation of
Spermatogonium

(stem cell)
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Primary spermatocyte
argest (>16 µ m), coarse clumps or thin threads of chromati
16 µ m or more in diameter
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Primary spermatocyte
46 chromosomes (46, XY) and 4n DNA (tetraploid)
First meiosis
Long prophase (up to 22 days)
Frequently visible
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Secondary spermatocyte

 Lying nearer the lumen, smaller
 Spherical nuclei, pale-staining granular
chromatin
 Haploid number of chromosomes (22 + X or Y)
and 2n amount of DNA
 Short-lived and dividing quickly, difficult to
observe
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Secondary spermatocyte
By second meiotic division, chromosomes split without
prior duplication of DNA, halves of each chromosome
Pass into 2 daughter cells, resulting in haploid spermatids
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Spermatid

Close to the lumen

Spherical or polygonal

6 µ m in diameter
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Spermatid
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Spermiogenesis and Spermatozoa

The process by which spermatids
are transformed into spermatozo
1. Condensation and elongation
of the nucleus
main component of the head
2. Formation of the acrosome
cup-like head cap
containing hydrolytic enzymes
important for fertilization
3. Formation of flagellum and
mitochondrial sheath
generating movement
4. Discharge of excess cytoplasm
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Spermiogenesis and Spermatozoa
Testis
Spermatozoa

60 µ m
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Spermatozoa in Smear of the Semen
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Sustentacular Cells
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Sustentacular Cells
 Numerous lateral
processes

 Abundant organelles

 Tight (occluding)
junction
 Basal

compartment
 Adluminal

compartment
Testis Seminiferous tubules
Functions of Sustentacular Cells
 Support, protection, and nutritional regulation of
the developing spermatozoa
 Physical support of the ramification
 Mediating exchange of nutrients and metabolites
 Protecting sperm cells from immunological attack
 Secretion:
 Secreting a fluid for sperm transport
 Secreting ABP (androgen binding protein) and inhibin
 Phagocytosis of residual bodies
 Blood-testis barrier
 Excluding germ cells from immune system
 Protecting the seminiferous epithelium against auto-
immune reaction
Testis
Interstitial tissue
Interstitial cells
Testis
Interstitial tissue
Ultrastructure of Interstitial cells
Testis
Interstitial tissue
Function of Interstitial Cells
 Secreting androgen which is essential for
 Proliferation and differentiation of germs

 The proper maintenance of the genital

ducts and accessory glands
 Development and maintenance of male

second sex characteristics
 Adolecent change of voice

 Growth of moustache

Controlled by ICSH secreted by gonadotrophic cells in
the anterior pituitary
Testis

Intratesticular Genital Ducts

 Tubulus rectus
 Rete testis
Testis Intratesticular Genital Ducts
Tubuli recti (straight tubules)and Rete testis
Genital Ducts

• Epididymis

• Ductus deferens

• Ejaculatory duct

• Urethra
Genita Ducts Epididymis
Efferent duct
 Extending from the rete testis, forming the head of
the epididymis
 Tall columnar cells, ciliated:


Secret some fluid
 Short columnar cells, nonciliated, numerous

microvilli:
 Absorption of fluid and granulated matter

Scallop-like
Genita Ducts
Epididymis
Epididymal duct
C-shaped 4-6 m in length, 0.4 mm in diameter
Head, body and tail Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

 Principal cell
 Tall in the head,
low columnar in the
tail
 with long microvilli
 Basal cell
 Small, round and
pale-staining,
located in the base
Smooth muscle
Genital Ducts

Epididymal duct
Excretory Genita Ducts

Function of Epididymal duct

 Absorption
 Secretion
 Promoting functional maturation of the
sperm
 Storing mature sperm
 Forcing the sperm into the ductus deferens
by the contraction of smooth muscle
Excretory Genita Ducts
Ductus deferens
thick wall, narrow lumen: mucosa, muscularis and
adventitia
mucosa: similar epithelium to that of the epididymal
duct
with long microvili in the tall columnar cell
Excretory Genita Ducts
Ductus deferens
Muscularis

 Highly-developed, three layers
 inner and outer: longitudinal

 middle: circular

 Responsible for the firm consistence of

the ductus deferens, making it easily
palpable in the spermatic cord
 The powerful contraction rapidly
transports the sperm through the ductus
deferens during ejaculation
Accessory Genital Glands

 Prostate
 seminal vesicles
 bulbourethral glands
Accessory Genital Glands
Prostate
 Consisting of 30-50 compound tubuloalveolar
glands
 Embedded in a stroma consisting mainly of
smooth muscles
 Covered by a capsule (thin but strong)
 Three concentric zones around the urethra
Accessory Genital Glands
Prostate
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Irregular lumen of the glands
Pseudostraitified columnar epithelium
Smooth muscle
Prostatic fluid: making up seminal fluid

Prostatic concretion
eosinophilic body
Accessory Genital Glands
Prostate

Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Prostatic enlargement, common in aged men

Occluding effect on the outlet of the bladder
at the proximal portion of the urethra
(transitional zone)

rostatectomy to alleviate benign obstruction
Prostatic cancer: peripheral zone