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Skin : introduction

Heaviest organ: 16%
2
Largest organ: 1.2 to 2.3 m
Composed of epidermis and dermis
Classified as thick and thin skin depending on
thickness of epidermis
Epidermal derivatives
Epidermis:
keratinized stratifie
squamous epitheliu

Dermis:
dense connective
tissue

Hypodermis:
not considered as
part of the skin
hair

Sebaceous gland

Sweat gland

nail
Functions

barrier function
homeostatic function
sensory function
secretory function and excretory
function
Layers of skin

Epidermis

dermis
Stratums
5

1.stratum basale
2.stratum spinosum
4
3.stratum granulosum 3
4.stratum lucidum 2

5.stratum corneum 1
Stratums

1.stratum basale
2.stratum spinosum
3.stratum granulosum
4.stratum corneum
1 Stratum basale

Composed of a single layer of cells.
LM: cuboidal to low columnar cell
shape, basophilic cytoplasm
EM: desmosomes, ribosomes,
intermediate keratin filaments
Function: stem cells for epidermal
cells renewal
2 Struatum spinosum

Composed of 4-10 layers of
cells
LM: cuboidal or slightly
flattened cell shape, cell
processes, tonofibrils
EM: desmosome, more keratin
filaments
3 Stratum granulosum

Composed of 3-5 layers of cells
LM: flattened cell shape,
intense basophilic cytoplasm.
EM: nuclei and organelles
3
begin to degenerate,
keratohyalin granule,
lamellar granule.
4 Stratum lucidum

Composed of 2-3 layers of cells
LM: extremely flattened cell
shape, no nuclei, eosinophilic
cytoplasm 4

EM: much more filaments,
desmosomes, no organelles
5 Stratum corneum
5
Composed of 15-20 layers of cells
LM: very flattened cell shape, no
nuclei, intense eosinophilic
cytoplasm.
EM: no organelles, thickened cell
membrane, filled with keratin,
no desmosome
Cell types in epidermis

Keratinocyte
Melanocyte
Langehans cell
Merkel’s cell
Melanocyte

LM: round cell body with cell
processes.
EM: organelles associated with
protein synthesis, melanosome.
Function: produce pigment.
Langerhans
cell

LM: located in the stratum
spinosum, many cell processes.
EM: Birbeck granules.
Function: antigen presenting
cell
Merkel’s cell

LM: in the stratum basale
short cell process.
EM: dense granules.
Function: sensory cell
Dermis

1. Papillary
layer

2. Reticular
layer
Thick skin

Dermis Thin skin
Papillary layer

Dermal papillae
Tactile corpuscle
Epidermal derivatives

hair
Sebaceous gland

Sweat gland
Hair

Hair shaft

Hair root

Hair follicle
Hair bulb
Hair (HE)

Hair
shaft
Hair
root
Hair
follicle
Hair

Hair bulb

Hair papilla
Arrector pili muscle
Sebaceous glands

Acini: mass of cells which
contain abundant fat
droplets
in their cytoplasm.
Tubule: short, usually open in
the upper portion of a hair
follicle.
Sweat glands

Eccrine sweat glands

Apocrine sweat glands

Dark cells; clear cells
Eccrine sweat gland

Secretory portion:
simple cuboidal
epithelium,
light-eosinophilic
Duct:
double cuboidal
epithelium,
dark-eosinophilic
5

Sweat gland duct

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3

2

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