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 Formed elements

 erythrocyte (red blood cell)
 leukocyte (white blood cell)
 granulocytes: polymorphonuclear L. [N, B, E]
Specific G (netrul, basic and acidic) and azurophilic G
 agranulocytes: mononuclear L. [lymphocytes and monocytes]
azurophilic G (azure dye)
 platelet
 Plasma
 How to distinguish the formed elements in blood smear?
 The shape of the nucleus( anucleated, lobulated nucleus, round or horseshoe
nucleus)
 The color of the granules in cytoplasm( neutrophilic, acidophilic, basophilic)
 The color of the cytoplasm( bright-red, pink or light blue )
Blood smear with Wright’ methods.
Erythrocytes and Neutrophils in Blood smear
Erythrocytes are bright red stained and anucleated.
Neutrophils with segmented nuclei and abundant, pale staining granules.
Phagocytes of bacteria or small particles.
Eosinophili
c granules

Bilobed
nucleus

Eosinophil in Blood smear.
The nucleus is bilobed and pale stained.
There are large, distinctive, bright red-staining and refractile
granules in the cytoplasm.
Note: If you are in doubt, it is usually a neutrophil and not an eosinopil.
nucleus

Basophilic
granules

Basophil in Blood smear. It is difficult to find it in slides.
The nucleus is irregular and unclear with light blue stained.
The cytoplasm is packed with coarse basophilic granules.
The granules is similar with that of mast cell.
Monocytes are the largest cells present in Blood smear.
The shape of the nucleus is horseshoe or kindney-shaped and
eccentric.
The cytoplasm is gray- bluish in color without specific granules.
The monocytes is the precursor of the macrophages.
Blood
platelet

lymphocyte

Platelets and lymphocytes in Blood smear.
You can find small, medium and large lymphocytes in slides. Round and
densely stained nucleus; a small amount of sky-blue cytoplasm.
Platelets present single or in clumps. Irregualr purple-red structures.
• Cartilage is a specialized form of connective tissue, which consists of
cells called chondrocytes and extensive extracellular matrix, composed
of fibres and ground substance (glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans).
• Cartilage is avascular and without lymphatic vessels or nerves. It is
translucent.
• There are 3 types of cartilage :
– Hyaline cartilage: type II collagen fibrils. [articular surfaces, respiratory
system, epiphyseal and costal cartilage]
– Elastic carilage: type II collagen and elastic fibres. [ear and epiglottis]
– Fibrocartilage: coarse type I collagen fibres bundles. [intervertebral disc and
pubic symphysis]
Isogenous groups: some chondrocytes appear in groups of up to eight cells, which
originated from mitotic division of a single chondrocyte.
hyaline cartilage
per
icho
nd
riu m

Section NO.52 show hyaline cartilage from trachea.
Isogenous group

per
icho
lacuna
e

ndr
iu m
per
icho
ndr
iu

chondrocyt
m

e

Hyaline cartilage under higher mag.
Section No.6 show elastic cartilage from the auricle with special
stain.
Cartilage
capsule

Elastic cartilage under higher
mag.
Fibrocartilage from intervertebral discs with HE stain.
No.1 show chondrocytes or isogenous groups.
No.2 show collagenous fibres bundles.
Fibrocartilage from intervertebral discs with HE stain under higher mag.
No.1 show chondrocytes or isogenous groups.
No.2 show collagenous fibres bundles.
Questions for review

• What components does the cartilage matrix consist of?
• Describe the structural features of three types of cartilage.
• Describe the structure and function of erythocytes.
• Compare white blood cells in structure and function.
• Describe the origin, migration and biologic features of
hematopioetic stem cells.
Drawing
• Hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage.
including perichondrium, chondroblast,
chondrocytes and isogenous groups.
• Formed elements of blood.