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# RESISTANCE

What is Resistance?
Resistance is the opposition of an electric
circuit to electric current to electric circuit the
letter symbol for Resistance is R.
The ohm is the SI unit of resistance.
the unit symbol for ohm is the greek letter
(Omega).
An electric circuit has a resistance of one ohm
when a current of one ampere through the
circuit causes a voltage drop across the circuit
of one volts.

What is Resistance?
R = V/I
(Ohms law is usually stated simply by the eq.)

Where R is the resistance in ohms, V is the
voltage drop across the resistance in volts and
I is the current through resistance in amperes.
Example # 1:
What is the resistance of a lamp when a current
of 150mA flows through the lamp when a
voltage of 6.0 volts is applied to its terminals?
Solution:
R = V/I
= 6.0V/150mA
= 6.oV/0.15A
R= 40
Example # 2:
What value of resistance is required to limit the
current through the resistance to 20 A if the
voltage drop across the resistance is to be
480mV?
Solution:
R= V/I
= 480mV/20A = 0.480V/0.000020A
= 480x10
-3

V / 20x10
-6
A = 480 x 10
3
v/ 20 A
= 24k

SERIES AND PARALLEL
CIRCUITS
Resistors in Series
The current must be the same in all parts of a
simple series circuits.

Simple Series Circuit

In circuit shown R1 and R2 are connected in
series because no other component or branch
is connected to the junction of R1 and R2 also
in fig. shows, we can say that E R1, R2 and R3
are all in series because they are all in one
path for electrons to flow through them.

Resistors in Series

Simple Series Circuits

Two or more electric components are considered to be in
series if the same (common) current flows through all this
components.
The total Resistance of series circuit is
R
T
= R1 + R2 + R3 + etc
Once we determine the total resistance of a series circuit,
we can then solve for the common current on which all the
characteristics of a series circuits are based by ohms law
I = E/R
Example # 1:
What current will flow in a series circuit consisting of 20,
10 and 30 resistor is connected to a 45V source?

Solution:
R
T
= R1 + R2 + R3 = 20+10+30 = 60

I = E/R
= 45V/60
I = o.75A

Continuation..
As far as the source is concerned, the current
drawn from it will be exactly the same for single
60 resistor connected to its terminal as for 20 ,
10 and 30 resistors in series.

The total resistance as being replaced by single
equivalent resistance.

Eq. Circuit

Continuation..
Polarity of voltage drop in series circuit
Current direction

Polarity of a voltage drop in a series circuit if we reverse the
polarity of the voltmeter or ammeter leads in potential
circuit the meters would read off scale to the left or zero
scale marking to make sure that he connect direct current
meters properly we must become quite familiar with the
polarity of applied voltages and voltage drop in circuits.

KIRCHOFFS VOLTAGE
From Series Resistance
Circuit
R
T
= R1 + R2 + R3 + etc
Since the rules of algebra allow us to multiply
both sides of equation by the same quantity
w/o changing the equality of the statement.
(R
T
= R1 + R2 + R3 + etc.) I
I R
T
= I R
1
+ I R
2
+ I R
3
+ etc.
Since I = V
T
/ R
T
I R
T
= E (Applied Voltage)
From Series Resistance
Circuit
I R
1
= V
1
( The voltage drop across resistor R
1
)
E
T
= V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
+ etc..
Series Circuit, the sum of all the voltage drops
across the individual resistances must equal the
applied voltage.
Kirchoffs Voltage Law: In any complete circuit,
the Algebraic sum of the applied voltage must
equal the algebraic sum of the voltage drop.
Example # 1:
What current will flow in series circuit
connecting of 20, 10 and 30 resistor
connected to a 45 V source.
Solution:
E = V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
E = IR
1
+ IR
2
+ IR
3

45V = 60 I
I = 45/60
I = 0.75A
Characteristics of Series
Circuits
The Current is the same in all parts of a Series
Circuits. I = I
1
+ I
2
+ I
3
= I
T

The Total Resistance is the sum of all individual
resistance. R
T
= R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
+ etc..
The applied emf is equal to the sum of all
individual voltage drops. E = V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3
+ etc.
The ratio bet. Voltages is the same as the
resistance ratio. V1/V2 = R1/R2

Control Component in series w/ load.
POWER
What is Power?
Is it the rate of doing Work.
P = W/T W/T = Joule/Sec } Watts
I = Q/T : Q = It
V = W/Q : W = Qv
From P = W/T
= Qv/t (where Q/t = I)
= ITV/T
P = VI
From ohms Law
V = IR
P = VI = IRI
P = I
2
R
Also
I = V/R
P = VI = IRI
P = V
2
/ R
Power:
Pt = I
2
tR
t

=I
2
t ( R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
)
= I
2
t R
1
+ I
2
t R
2
+ I
2
t R
3
= (P = P
1
+ P
2
+ P
3
)

Example # 1:
Find:
V1 =? P1 = ? R
T
=?
V2 = ? P2 = ? I
T
= ?
V3 = ? P3 = ?
P1 = ? P
T
= ?
R
T
= R1 + R2 + R3 = 10 + 20 + 30 = 60
I
T
= Vt/Rt = 120 V / 60 = 2 Amp = I
1
=I
2
= I
3

V1 = IR1 = 2 (10) = 20 volts P1 = V1I1 = 20 (2) = 40 watts
V2 = IR
2
= 2 (20) = 40 volts P2 = V2I2 = 40 (2) = 80 watts
V3 = IR
3
= 2 (30) = 60 volts P3 = V3I3 = 60 (2) = 120 watts
P
T
= P
1
+ P
2
+ P
3
= 240 watts
Resistors in Parallel

a. Costumary Configuration b. Alternate Configuration

Resistors in Parallel
We can define a parallel circuit in terms of the physical
connection of the components. In the fig. shown before, E,
R1, R2 and R3 are all in parallel because they are connected
between the same two junction points and or nodes ( A
and B). Since each resistor is connected directly across the
generator terminal.
V1 = V2 = V3 = E
we can define now that two or more components are
considered to be in parallel if live same voltage appears
across all those components, In a Simple Parallel circuit, the
total current is the sum of all the branch currents.
I
T
= I1 + I2 + I3 + etc
Example # 1:
With reference to Fig A. and B. R1 is 40, R2 is
30 , R3 is 20 and E is 120V. What single
resistance would draw the same current from
the source?
Solution:
I1 = V1/R1 = 120V/40 = 3A
I2 = V2/R2 = 120V / 30 = 4A
I3 = V3/R3 = 120V/20 = 6A
R
T
= E / I
T
= 120V/13A
R
T
= 9.23

KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW
Kirchoffs Current Law
At any junction point or node in an
electric circuit, The algebraic sum of
the currents entering the point
must equal the algebraic sum of the
current leaving the point.
Example # 1:
What current if flowing in the R2 branch of the
circuit shown in figure.
I
T
= I
1
+ I
2

Since: E
T
= V1 = V
2

I
1
= V
T
/ R
1

=
50v/10

I
1
= 5A

From Eq. 1

I2 = I
T
I1

=
12 5A
I
2
= 7A

CONDUCTANCE
What is Conductance?
It is a measure of the ability of an electric
circuit to pass current.
The letter symbol for conductance is G.
The Siemens is the SI unit of conductance
The unit symbol for Siemens is S.
Conductance is the reciprocal point of view of
resistance.
What is Conductance?
G = I/R, where G is the conductance of a
circuit in siemens & R is the resistance of the
same circuit in ohms.
From the eq. I
T
= I
1
+ I
2
+ I
3
+ etc. in parallel
circuit dividing both sides of the eq. by E or V.
I
T
/ E = I
1
/ V
1
+ I
2
/ V
2
+ I
3
/ V
3
+ etc.. But R = V/I
and since G = I/R ; G = I/V
therefore, G
T
= G1 + G2 + G3 + Etc..
What is Conductance?
In parallel circuits, the total conductance is
equal to the sum of the conductances of all
the individual branches.
Since G = I/R ; Req = I/G
T

Example # 1:
With reference to figure shown, R1 is 40, R2 is
30 & R3 is 20. What single resistance would
draw the same current from the source?
Solution:
G
T
= G1 + G2 + G3 = I/R
1
+ I/R
2
+
I/R
3.

= 2.5 x 10
-2
+ 3.3 x 10
-2

= +5x10
-2
= 0.1085
= I / G
T
= 1/o.10835
= 9.23

Continuation..
When only two resistors are connected in
parallel the equivalent resistance equals their
product over their sum.
G
T
= G1 + G2 = I/R
1
+ I/R
2

= R1+R2/R
1
R
2

Req.=I / G
T
;
Req. = R1R2 /R
1
+ R
2
Continuation..
The more resistors are connect in parallel, the
smaller resistance becomes.
Example # 1:
What is the equivalent resistance of 1 K and 4
K resistors in parallel?
Solution:
Req. = R1R2/R1+R2
= 1k (4k)/ 1k + 4k
= 4000000 / 5000
Req. = 800
Continuation..
We may summarize the characteristics of
parallel circuit as follows:
1. The voltage is the same across all
components in parallel circuit.
2. The total conductance is the sum of all the
individual conductances.
G
T
= G1 + G2 + Etc ; I/Req = I/R1 + I/R2 + 1/etc..
Continuation..
3. The ratio between branch currents is the
same as the conductance ratio and the inverse
of the resistance ratio.
I1/I2 = G1/G2 = R1/R2

Parallel Connection of loads to a branch circuit
in house wiring.
Series Parallel Circuit
a.) Simple Series Parallel Circuit

Equivalent Circuit

Series Parallel Circuit
b.) Parallel Series Circuit

Simplified Version

Series Parallel Circuit
When two or more components of an
electric network are in parallel, all the
characteristics of parallel circuit must
apply to these components & whenever
2 or more components are in series, all
the characteristics of series circuits
must apply.
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
METHOD
Equivalent Circuit Method
Complete table w/ reference to the circuit
diagram of Figure (A).
Complete table w/ reference to the circuit
diagram of Figure (B).

Component Resistance Voltage Current Power
R
1
12 ? ? ?
R
2
10 ? ? ?
R
3
40 ? ? ?
Total ? 100V ? ?
Equivalent Circuit Method
Step 1. Draw fully labelled schematic diagram
for this particular circuit.

=
Equivalent Circuit Method
Step 2. Visual inspection of Figure (A). Shows
that R
2
& R
3
are in parallel.
Req. = R2R3/R2 + R3
= 10X40/10+40
Req. = 8
w/ reference to Figure (A). The total resistance
becomes:
R
T
= R
1
+ Req.
= 12 + 8
R
T
= 20

Equivalent Circuit Method
Step 3. From Ohms Law
I
T
= I
T
/ R
T
= 100V/20 = 5A

Step 4. Since R
1
is directly in series w/ the
source.
I
1
=

I
T
= 5A

Step 5. From Ohms Law
V
1
= I
1
R
1
= 5A X 12 = 16V

Equivalent Circuit Method
Step 6. From Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Veq. = E V
1
= 100 60 = 40V
Returning now the original circuit
V
2
= V
3
= Veq. = 40V

Step 7: From Ohms Law
I2 = V2/R2 = 40V/10 = 4A
I3 = V3/R3 = 40v/40 = 1A

KIRCHOFFS LAW
METHOD
Kirchoffs Law Method
Kirchoffs law provide us w/ an
alternate method of series parallel
circuit, leaving them in their
original form and not reducing
them to a simple series of parallel
circuit by substituting equivalent
resistance.

Example # 1:

From Kirchoffs Law.
I1 = I2 + I3 eq. (1)
But from ohms law
V1/R1 = V2/R2 + V3/R3
V1/12 = V2/10 + V3/40 eq. (2).
Continuation..
Since R
2
& R
3
are in parallel V2 = V3 and from
Kirchoffs Voltage Law.
V2 = V3 = E V1
Since V2 = V3 = 100 V1 eq. (3)
Substituting eq. (3) to eq. (2)
V1/12
= 100 V1/ 10
+ 100 V1 / 40
Continuation..
Multiplying both sides by LCD (120) give:
120V1/12 = 120(1oo-V10/10) + 120 (100 V1) / 40
10 V1 = 12 (1oo V1) + 3 (100 V1)
10 V1 = 1200 12V1 + 300 3V1
10 V1 = 1500 15V1
10V1 + 15V1 = 1500
V1 = 1500/25 = 60V
Continuation..
Since V2 = V3 = E V1
= 100-60
= 40V
We may now determine the various contents
I1 = V1/R1 = 60V/12 = 5A
I2 = V2/R2 = 40V/10 = 4A
I1 = I2 + I3
I3 = I1 I2
= 5A 4A
= 1A