RESISTANCE

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RESISTANCE

© All Rights Reserved

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What is Resistance?

Resistance is the opposition of an electric

circuit to electric current to electric circuit the

letter symbol for Resistance is R.

The ohm is the SI unit of resistance.

the unit symbol for ohm is the greek letter

(Omega).

An electric circuit has a resistance of one ohm

when a current of one ampere through the

circuit causes a voltage drop across the circuit

of one volts.

What is Resistance?

R = V/I

(Ohms law is usually stated simply by the eq.)

Where R is the resistance in ohms, V is the

voltage drop across the resistance in volts and

I is the current through resistance in amperes.

Example # 1:

What is the resistance of a lamp when a current

of 150mA flows through the lamp when a

voltage of 6.0 volts is applied to its terminals?

Solution:

R = V/I

= 6.0V/150mA

= 6.oV/0.15A

R= 40

Example # 2:

What value of resistance is required to limit the

current through the resistance to 20 A if the

voltage drop across the resistance is to be

480mV?

Solution:

R= V/I

= 480mV/20A = 0.480V/0.000020A

= 480x10

-3

V / 20x10

-6

A = 480 x 10

3

v/ 20 A

= 24k

SERIES AND PARALLEL

CIRCUITS

Resistors in Series

The current must be the same in all parts of a

simple series circuits.

Simple Series Circuit

In circuit shown R1 and R2 are connected in

series because no other component or branch

is connected to the junction of R1 and R2 also

in fig. shows, we can say that E R1, R2 and R3

are all in series because they are all in one

path for electrons to flow through them.

Resistors in Series

Simple Series Circuits

Two or more electric components are considered to be in

series if the same (common) current flows through all this

components.

The total Resistance of series circuit is

R

T

= R1 + R2 + R3 + etc

Once we determine the total resistance of a series circuit,

we can then solve for the common current on which all the

characteristics of a series circuits are based by ohms law

I = E/R

Example # 1:

What current will flow in a series circuit consisting of 20,

10 and 30 resistor is connected to a 45V source?

Solution:

R

T

= R1 + R2 + R3 = 20+10+30 = 60

I = E/R

= 45V/60

I = o.75A

Continuation..

As far as the source is concerned, the current

drawn from it will be exactly the same for single

60 resistor connected to its terminal as for 20 ,

10 and 30 resistors in series.

The total resistance as being replaced by single

equivalent resistance.

Eq. Circuit

Continuation..

Polarity of voltage drop in series circuit

Current direction

Polarity of a voltage drop in a series circuit if we reverse the

polarity of the voltmeter or ammeter leads in potential

circuit the meters would read off scale to the left or zero

scale marking to make sure that he connect direct current

meters properly we must become quite familiar with the

polarity of applied voltages and voltage drop in circuits.

KIRCHOFFS VOLTAGE

From Series Resistance

Circuit

R

T

= R1 + R2 + R3 + etc

Since the rules of algebra allow us to multiply

both sides of equation by the same quantity

w/o changing the equality of the statement.

(R

T

= R1 + R2 + R3 + etc.) I

I R

T

= I R

1

+ I R

2

+ I R

3

+ etc.

Since I = V

T

/ R

T

I R

T

= E (Applied Voltage)

From Series Resistance

Circuit

I R

1

= V

1

( The voltage drop across resistor R

1

)

E

T

= V

1

+ V

2

+ V

3

+ etc..

Series Circuit, the sum of all the voltage drops

across the individual resistances must equal the

applied voltage.

Kirchoffs Voltage Law: In any complete circuit,

the Algebraic sum of the applied voltage must

equal the algebraic sum of the voltage drop.

Example # 1:

What current will flow in series circuit

connecting of 20, 10 and 30 resistor

connected to a 45 V source.

Solution:

E = V

1

+ V

2

+ V

3

E = IR

1

+ IR

2

+ IR

3

45V = 60 I

I = 45/60

I = 0.75A

Characteristics of Series

Circuits

The Current is the same in all parts of a Series

Circuits. I = I

1

+ I

2

+ I

3

= I

T

The Total Resistance is the sum of all individual

resistance. R

T

= R

1

+ R

2

+ R

3

+ etc..

The applied emf is equal to the sum of all

individual voltage drops. E = V

1

+ V

2

+ V

3

+ etc.

The ratio bet. Voltages is the same as the

resistance ratio. V1/V2 = R1/R2

Control Component in series w/ load.

POWER

What is Power?

Is it the rate of doing Work.

P = W/T W/T = Joule/Sec } Watts

I = Q/T : Q = It

V = W/Q : W = Qv

From P = W/T

= Qv/t (where Q/t = I)

= ITV/T

P = VI

From ohms Law

V = IR

P = VI = IRI

P = I

2

R

Also

I = V/R

P = VI = IRI

P = V

2

/ R

Power:

Pt = I

2

tR

t

=I

2

t ( R

1

+ R

2

+ R

3

)

= I

2

t R

1

+ I

2

t R

2

+ I

2

t R

3

= (P = P

1

+ P

2

+ P

3

)

Example # 1:

Find:

V1 =? P1 = ? R

T

=?

V2 = ? P2 = ? I

T

= ?

V3 = ? P3 = ?

P1 = ? P

T

= ?

R

T

= R1 + R2 + R3 = 10 + 20 + 30 = 60

I

T

= Vt/Rt = 120 V / 60 = 2 Amp = I

1

=I

2

= I

3

V1 = IR1 = 2 (10) = 20 volts P1 = V1I1 = 20 (2) = 40 watts

V2 = IR

2

= 2 (20) = 40 volts P2 = V2I2 = 40 (2) = 80 watts

V3 = IR

3

= 2 (30) = 60 volts P3 = V3I3 = 60 (2) = 120 watts

P

T

= P

1

+ P

2

+ P

3

= 240 watts

Resistors in Parallel

a. Costumary Configuration b. Alternate Configuration

Resistors in Parallel

We can define a parallel circuit in terms of the physical

connection of the components. In the fig. shown before, E,

R1, R2 and R3 are all in parallel because they are connected

between the same two junction points and or nodes ( A

and B). Since each resistor is connected directly across the

generator terminal.

V1 = V2 = V3 = E

we can define now that two or more components are

considered to be in parallel if live same voltage appears

across all those components, In a Simple Parallel circuit, the

total current is the sum of all the branch currents.

I

T

= I1 + I2 + I3 + etc

Example # 1:

With reference to Fig A. and B. R1 is 40, R2 is

30 , R3 is 20 and E is 120V. What single

resistance would draw the same current from

the source?

Solution:

I1 = V1/R1 = 120V/40 = 3A

I2 = V2/R2 = 120V / 30 = 4A

I3 = V3/R3 = 120V/20 = 6A

R

T

= E / I

T

= 120V/13A

R

T

= 9.23

KIRCHOFFS CURRENT LAW

Kirchoffs Current Law

At any junction point or node in an

electric circuit, The algebraic sum of

the currents entering the point

must equal the algebraic sum of the

current leaving the point.

Example # 1:

What current if flowing in the R2 branch of the

circuit shown in figure.

I

T

= I

1

+ I

2

Since: E

T

= V1 = V

2

I

1

= V

T

/ R

1

=

50v/10

I

1

= 5A

From Eq. 1

I2 = I

T

I1

=

12 5A

I

2

= 7A

CONDUCTANCE

What is Conductance?

It is a measure of the ability of an electric

circuit to pass current.

The letter symbol for conductance is G.

The Siemens is the SI unit of conductance

The unit symbol for Siemens is S.

Conductance is the reciprocal point of view of

resistance.

What is Conductance?

G = I/R, where G is the conductance of a

circuit in siemens & R is the resistance of the

same circuit in ohms.

From the eq. I

T

= I

1

+ I

2

+ I

3

+ etc. in parallel

circuit dividing both sides of the eq. by E or V.

I

T

/ E = I

1

/ V

1

+ I

2

/ V

2

+ I

3

/ V

3

+ etc.. But R = V/I

and since G = I/R ; G = I/V

therefore, G

T

= G1 + G2 + G3 + Etc..

What is Conductance?

In parallel circuits, the total conductance is

equal to the sum of the conductances of all

the individual branches.

Since G = I/R ; Req = I/G

T

Example # 1:

With reference to figure shown, R1 is 40, R2 is

30 & R3 is 20. What single resistance would

draw the same current from the source?

Solution:

G

T

= G1 + G2 + G3 = I/R

1

+ I/R

2

+

I/R

3.

= 2.5 x 10

-2

+ 3.3 x 10

-2

= +5x10

-2

= 0.1085

= I / G

T

= 1/o.10835

= 9.23

Continuation..

When only two resistors are connected in

parallel the equivalent resistance equals their

product over their sum.

G

T

= G1 + G2 = I/R

1

+ I/R

2

= R1+R2/R

1

R

2

Req.=I / G

T

;

Req. = R1R2 /R

1

+ R

2

Continuation..

The more resistors are connect in parallel, the

smaller resistance becomes.

Example # 1:

What is the equivalent resistance of 1 K and 4

K resistors in parallel?

Solution:

Req. = R1R2/R1+R2

= 1k (4k)/ 1k + 4k

= 4000000 / 5000

Req. = 800

Continuation..

We may summarize the characteristics of

parallel circuit as follows:

1. The voltage is the same across all

components in parallel circuit.

2. The total conductance is the sum of all the

individual conductances.

G

T

= G1 + G2 + Etc ; I/Req = I/R1 + I/R2 + 1/etc..

Continuation..

3. The ratio between branch currents is the

same as the conductance ratio and the inverse

of the resistance ratio.

I1/I2 = G1/G2 = R1/R2

Parallel Connection of loads to a branch circuit

in house wiring.

Series Parallel Circuit

a.) Simple Series Parallel Circuit

Equivalent Circuit

Series Parallel Circuit

b.) Parallel Series Circuit

Simplified Version

Series Parallel Circuit

When two or more components of an

electric network are in parallel, all the

characteristics of parallel circuit must

apply to these components & whenever

2 or more components are in series, all

the characteristics of series circuits

must apply.

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

METHOD

Equivalent Circuit Method

Complete table w/ reference to the circuit

diagram of Figure (A).

Complete table w/ reference to the circuit

diagram of Figure (B).

Component Resistance Voltage Current Power

R

1

12 ? ? ?

R

2

10 ? ? ?

R

3

40 ? ? ?

Total ? 100V ? ?

Equivalent Circuit Method

Step 1. Draw fully labelled schematic diagram

for this particular circuit.

=

Equivalent Circuit Method

Step 2. Visual inspection of Figure (A). Shows

that R

2

& R

3

are in parallel.

Req. = R2R3/R2 + R3

= 10X40/10+40

Req. = 8

w/ reference to Figure (A). The total resistance

becomes:

R

T

= R

1

+ Req.

= 12 + 8

R

T

= 20

Equivalent Circuit Method

Step 3. From Ohms Law

I

T

= I

T

/ R

T

= 100V/20 = 5A

Step 4. Since R

1

is directly in series w/ the

source.

I

1

=

I

T

= 5A

Step 5. From Ohms Law

V

1

= I

1

R

1

= 5A X 12 = 16V

Equivalent Circuit Method

Step 6. From Kirchoffs Voltage Law

Veq. = E V

1

= 100 60 = 40V

Returning now the original circuit

V

2

= V

3

= Veq. = 40V

Step 7: From Ohms Law

I2 = V2/R2 = 40V/10 = 4A

I3 = V3/R3 = 40v/40 = 1A

KIRCHOFFS LAW

METHOD

Kirchoffs Law Method

Kirchoffs law provide us w/ an

alternate method of series parallel

circuit, leaving them in their

original form and not reducing

them to a simple series of parallel

circuit by substituting equivalent

resistance.

Example # 1:

From Kirchoffs Law.

I1 = I2 + I3 eq. (1)

But from ohms law

V1/R1 = V2/R2 + V3/R3

V1/12 = V2/10 + V3/40 eq. (2).

Continuation..

Since R

2

& R

3

are in parallel V2 = V3 and from

Kirchoffs Voltage Law.

V2 = V3 = E V1

Since V2 = V3 = 100 V1 eq. (3)

Substituting eq. (3) to eq. (2)

V1/12

= 100 V1/ 10

+ 100 V1 / 40

Continuation..

Multiplying both sides by LCD (120) give:

120V1/12 = 120(1oo-V10/10) + 120 (100 V1) / 40

10 V1 = 12 (1oo V1) + 3 (100 V1)

10 V1 = 1200 12V1 + 300 3V1

10 V1 = 1500 15V1

10V1 + 15V1 = 1500

V1 = 1500/25 = 60V

Continuation..

Since V2 = V3 = E V1

= 100-60

= 40V

We may now determine the various contents

I1 = V1/R1 = 60V/12 = 5A

I2 = V2/R2 = 40V/10 = 4A

I1 = I2 + I3

I3 = I1 I2

= 5A 4A

= 1A

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