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as Explorations Tools

Geophysical Engineering Dept.


A Historical Perspective

Galileo Galilei (1590) --- experiment with benda jatuh
bebas
Isaac Newton (1687) --- Newton Law
(establishment of theoretical
foundation, 17
th
and 18
th
)
18
th
& 19
th
century --- development of pendulum
apparatus first global
application in geophysics

Vening Meinesz (1928) --- Shipborn gravity-
measuring (world wide rec.)
A Historical Perspective
(Gravity method in oil exploration)
1928 --- First oil discovery (Nast Dome, Texas)
using Eotvos Torsion balance gravity-measuring
1932 --- Pendulum gravity-measuring (Cleveland oil
field, Texas)
1932-1935 --- Gravimeter with 0.1 mGal accuracy
1940 --- Improvements gravimeter by Worden and
LaCoste & Romberg
PLAY
IDENTIFICATION
PROSPECT
CAPTURE
PROSPECT
EVALUATION
RESOURCE
APPRAISAL
RESERVOIR
MANAGEMENT
USE HIGHER RESOLUTION
GRAVITY AND MAGNETIC DATA
TACTICS Regional
reconnaisance

Petroleum
system
analysis

Play analysis

Establishing
exploration
focus
and G&G
expenditure
Prospect
identification
and risk
assessment

Lease and G&G
acquisition

Tectono-
stratigraphic
framework

Basin Modeling
Prospect Risk
reduction

Drill-site decision
(less complex
prospect)
Asset
deliniation and
development

Drill-site
decision
( complex
imaging)

Reservoir
performance
monitoring

Enhance
recovery
Gibson, R.I. & Millegan, P.S.; 1998
PLAY
IDENTIFICATION
PROSPECT
CAPTURE
PROSPECT
EVALUATION
RESOURCE
APPRAISAL
RESERVOIR
MANAGEMENT
GRAVITY
UTILIZATION
Isostatic residual
Regional tectonic
analisis
Basin and
depocenter
enhancement
Regional
modeling
Digital data
integration
(with remote
sensing, etc)
Semiregional
structural /
stratiigraphic
modeling
Target-spesific
enhancements
Layer stripping for
improved
delineation of
exploration targets
Sensitivity studies
tied to density and
lithology
Detailed, integrated
2D / 3D modeling
(with seismic
horizons, density,
and velocity
information)
Porosity / pressure
prediction
Salt edge / base
determination
Enhanced velocity
analysis
Integrated 3D
rock properties
and velocity
modeling
Integrated depth
migration (pre-or
poststack)
Borehole gravity-
remote porosity
detection
Detection of
shallow hazards
Time-lapse
precision gravity

Integrated
reservoir
characterization

Borehole gravity
GRAVITY
RESOLUTION
REQUIRED *
1 5 mGal
2 20 km
wavelength
Continental grids,
satelite gravity,
airborne gravity
0.2 1 mGal
1 5 km wavelength
Conventional marine
and land surveys
0.1 0.5 mGal
0.5 2 km
wavelength
High-resolution
land and marine
surveys
0.1 0.5 mGal
0.2 1 km
wavelength
0.01 0.005 mGal
(borehole)
High-resolution
land, marine,
and gradiometer
surveys
0.02 0.1 mGal
1 5 years
USE HIGHER RESOLUTION GRAVITY DATA
Gibson, R.I. & Millegan, P.S.; 1998
MAGNETIC
UTILIZATION
Regional depth
to magnetic
basement
Regional tectonic
analysis
Euler
deconvolution
Curie point
analysis
Detailed basement
interpretation
Detailed fault and
lineament analysis
Delineation of
volcanics, salt,
and
shale
Detailed, integrated
2D/3D modeling-
faulting, basement
structure, volcanic,
salt edges, and
sediment timing
Depth slicing and
lineament analysis
Sedimentary
magnetic analysis
Detailed 2D / 3D
modeling
inversion
Integrated depth
migration (pre-
or postack)
Magneto-
startigraphy
None published
MAGNETIC
RESOLUTION
REQUIRED *





20 km spacing
5 8 km grid
1 5 nT
Continental grids,
older surveys
2 5 km spacing
1 - 2 km grid
0.5 2 nT
Modern digital
surveys, marine
surveys, digitized
older analog
surveys
0.5 - 1 km spacing
0.1 0.5 nT
High-resolution, low-
altitude surveys
0.25 0.5 km
spacing
0.1 0.5 nT
High-resolution,
low-altitude
surveys
Borehole
magnetometer
* Typical required resolution; needs to be tailored to source depth and signal strength
PLAY
IDENTIFICATION
PROSPECT
CAPTURE
PROSPECT
EVALUATION
RESOURCE
APPRAISAL
RESERVOIR
MANAGEMENT
USE HIGHER RESOLUTION MAGNETIC DATA
Gibson, R.I. & Millegan, P.S.; 1998
The high rank of the coal
Strongly re-crystallized limestone in the Dome
Presence of tuff beds in the Meocene sediments
Morphology
Structure is developed on an intrusive body
( a plug or stock ?)
Background
To test the presence of an intrusion body
(or diapirism ?)

To obtain a better picture of subsurface
geological structure beneath the dome
Objectives :
1. OPTIMIZING Wells Production (Existing)

2. Production Wells PRESSURE MAINTENANCE

3. PATTERN WATERFLOODING in Reservoir

4. ADDING / SHUT-OFF / MOVING
Injection Well (existing)

5. RE-OPENING of Potential Layer

6. ETC

PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT OF
HYDROCARBON FIELD :
WHY 4D-GRAVITY ANOMALY A
Integration of Disparate Data (Kinds &
Scales)
Cased Hole Logs
Production Histories
Pressures & Temperatures
4-D Seismic Monitoring
Gravity Monitoring
Borehole Seismics
Remote Sensing

4D Reservoir Monitoring
(x,y,z,t)
A Paradigm Shift in Production Management
Science & Technology Components

Surface gravity changes reflect underground
mass redistribution caused by production and
re-injection of hydrocarbon fluids
Precise measurement and analysis of gravity
changes can thereby help reveal changes in
reservoir conditions
Gravity Monitoring
establish a systematic procedure for micro-
gravity monitoring of operating Hydrocarbon
fields


Graviton
Lacoste&Romberg G
with Alliod Sistem

1. Fully digital reading system
2. Automatic Leveling system
3. High accuracy (0.5Gal)
4. Automatic Lock Spring system
5. High Repeatability


1. Digital reading system
2. High Accuracy (1 5 Gal)
3. High Repeatability

Scintrex AutoGrav CG-5

1. Fully digital reading System
2. Automatic Leveling
3. High Accuracy (1Gal)
4. Automatic Lock Spring system

Gravimeter Lacoste&Romberg G
with Feedback system and
Computer Interface for Tidal measurement
Gravity Measurement
Magnetic Measurement
GRAVITY METHOD
What is Gravity?
Gravity Gayaberat
Gravis Heavy
Gravimetry
measurement of
gravity
r
F
F
F( r )=G(m
1
.m
2
)/r
2
(Newton Law)
magnitude of gravity acceleration :
g( r )=G(m
2
/r
2
)
= F( r)/m
1

What is gravity?
Observed Gravity:
g
0
= G (m
0
/r
0
2
) effect of m
0
(assumed as
point mass)
g
2
= G (m
2
/r
2
2
) effect of m
2
(as anomaly)
g
obs
= g
0
+g
2

Mass = volume x density
= V x
A=
2
-
0

A
Ag=V
2
(
2
-
0
)/r
2
2

=V
2
A/r
2
2

Ag
What is gravity anomaly
Gravity anomaly depends on density
contrast and Greens function
A=
2
-
0

A(+)
Ag=V
2
(
2
-
0
)/r
2
2

=V
2
A/r
2
2

Ag
What is gravity
anomaly
Gravity anomaly is direct proportional with
density contrast and Greens function
Ag
A(+)
X(m or km)
A=
2
-
0

A(-)
Ag=V
2
(
2
-
0
)/r
2
2

=V
2
A/r
2
2

Ag
What is gravity
anomaly
Gravity anomaly is direct proportional with
density contrast and Greens function
Ag
A(-)
X(m or km)
Gravity Anomaly
Convolution
K (Green function) and A :
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
} } }


+ +
A
= A
0
2 / 3
2 2 2
. .
) )( , , (
) , , ( | o
| o
| o
d d d
z y x
z
z y x g
) , , ( * ) , , ( ) , , ( z y x z y x K z y x g A = A
Gravity di permukaan (x,y,z) akibat sub-surface
sources (o,|,):
3D gravity anomaly Ag(x,y,z)
x
y
z
P(x,y,z)
dv=do d| d
Bouguer Gravity Maps :
To identify Subsurface geological structure
through density contrast and its geometry

Bouguer Anomaly :
Ag = g
obs
g
t
+ FAC BC + TC
g
t
= Mathematical gravity of the earth (Geoid)
FAC = Free-air correction

BC = Bouguer correction
TC = Terrain correction
( ) ( ) 2 sin 0000058 . 0 sin 0053024 . 0 1 7 . 978032
2 2
+ = g
308765 . 0 =
c
c
h
gt
Magnetic Anomaly Maps :
To identify Subsurface geological structure
through susceptibility contrast and its
geometry

Magnetic Anomaly :
AT = T
obs
T
IGRF
T
DV
T
IGRF
= normal (theoretical) magnetic of the earth
T
DV
= magnetic diurnal variation
T
obs
= observed magnetic
Basin Structure
Classified according to their final form
Basin Geometry
Asymmetrical (most basins)
Nearly circular (Michigan Basin and Paris
Basin)
Symmetrical oval basin (few basins)
Simple Basin (one depocenter)
Complex Basin (several individual
depocenters). Each individual depocenter
has its own migration rules and also
interacts with adjacent depocenter.
Integration of well data, deep seismic data,
and magnetic data will improve any
regional structure map.
Importance
A. Gravity and magnetic are excellent low-
cost component
B. High-cost detail seismic 3D surveys and
wildcat well can be concentrated in
relatively small portion of a structure
C. Well accepted to the environment
D. Nearly no social conflict
UNIT OF GRAVITY
After Galileo :
1 ms
-2
= 10
6
ms
-2

= 10
9
nms
-2

Gravity g(x,y,z) is acceleration
in Systeme International
dUnites (SI) is ms
-2

1 Gal = 1 cms
-2

= 10
-2
ms
-2
(SI)
Gravity anomaly :
mGal (in exploration) 1 mGal = 10
-3
Gal
Gal (in 4D survey) 1 Gal = 10
-3
mGal
= 10
-6
Gal
= 10
-8
ms
-2
(SI) called as microgravity