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Research- definitions

• John W.Best- the • Clover & Basley- process
systematic and objective of systematically
analysis and recording of obtaining accurate
controlled observations answers to significant and
that may lead to the pertinent questions by the
developments of use of scientific method
generalizations, of gathering and
principles, or theories, interpreting information.
resulting in prediction and
possibly ultimate control
of events
What is research?
• Characteristics of research
– Directed to solution of a problem
– Emphasis development of generation of principles or
theories- help predicting future occurrences
– Based on observable experience- empirical evidence
– Demands accurate observation and description
– Gathering new data
– Applying rigorous analysis
– Requires expertise- skill to investigate, search
literature, analyse the data
– Strives to be objective, logical, test validity, reliability
& authenticity
– Carefully recorded and reported
Main steps in research
1. Selection of subject
• Basis of experience and the 6. Tabulation of collected data –
available facts of social systematically tabulated and
work, - formulate social classified.
problems 7. Analysis and interpretation of
2. Formulation of hypothesis- data- which data belong to
form social ideas about the which field and what are the
problem- tentative basic requirements of a
justification the validity of particular data and what are
which remains to be tested. its characteristics.
3. Construction of research 8. Verification of problem and
design – carry his work hypothesis – verify the
systematically to test problem, hypothesis
hypothesis, analyze data 9. Generalization – certain
4. Literature review – related general principles – based on
problem survey results
5. Collection of data
• Title
• Statement of the problem
• Review of earlier literature
• Sources of information to be tapped
• Development of bibliography
• Nature of study
• Objectives of study
• Socio- cultural context of study
• Geographical areas to be covered
• Periods of time to be covered or time dimension of the study
• Dimensions of the study
• The basis for selecting the data
• Techniques of study
• The control of error
• Establish the reliability and validity of instruments
• Chapter scheme
1. Title – no more than name of 5. Sources of information to be
topic- suggest theme of study tapped – documentary and field
2. Statement of the problem – sources- field sources – living
not exactly same as title- an persons – have fund of
attempt to focus on clear goal- knowledge – documentary
expansion of title. Major sources- published and
questions may be followed by unpublished documents,
several minor questions or reports, statistics, manuscripts,
statements letters, diaries – either primary
or secondary. primary data-
3. Review of earlier literature participant observation,
preliminary step before personal interview,
attempting to plan the study-
essential to review all relevant correspondence, conference,
materials connected with questionnaire,
problem- show how problem 6. Development of bibliography –
under study relates to previous each reference – appear on
research studies- show how separate card- name of author
this work differs with existing first, his initials or given name –
literature title of reference, publisher’s
name and date of publication

7. Nature of study – statistical 11. Periods of time to be covered or
study, case study, or time dimension of the study-
comparative study or period to be encompassed-
experimental study or exploration of problem made
combination of these – should easier and clear.
be decided. 12. Dimensions of the study –
8. Objectives of study – compiled limitations to be mentioned, new
in clear cut terms. Hypothesis concepts be defined.
may be formed and tested. 13. The basis for selecting the data –
9. Socio- cultural context of study greater care in selecting the
ascertain socio cultural sample from the universe. Sample
behavior pattern of the persons. be closely representative of
Understand persons adhere, universe.
deviate or withdraw from them 14. Techniques of study- based on
completely. nature of study. questionnaire
10. Geographical areas to be method, observation method,
covered – physical boundaries interview method or some
to be specified techniques collectively
15. The control of error- what 16. Chapter scheme – last step-
variables operate given headings may be changed –
situation.- field study to final form is determined by
control key variables and to nature of study - - basis of for
randomize others. Variables chapter scheme is the
– their control to be objectives of research
described problem. must include main
16. Establish the reliability and findings as independent
validity of instruments- chapter- first chapter is
evaluate the data collected- introductory – last chapter for
primary sources – desirable findings, conclusions and
than secondary sources suggestions. Five to six
optimum numbers.
Criteria of good research
1. Purpose of the research should be clearly
defined and common concept be used
2. Research procedure used – described – permit
another person to repeat for further
advancement- keep the continuity
3. Design – planned carefully- results – objective
4. Complete frankness- flaws, findings
5. Data analysis- reveal significance- appropriate-
validity, reliability- checked carefully
6. Conclusion- confined to data
7. Confidence, integrity
• Systematic- structured- well defined rules,
creative thinking, conclusion
• Logical- induction- from part to whole
• Deduction- some premise to conclusion
• Empirical- based on real situation- deals
with concrete data
• Replicable-
• Personal emotions- researcher bias
• Personal motives- informer bias
• Customs and superstitions
• Misunderstanding – lack of knowledge
• Quick and hurried performance
• External pressure – (organisational, guide)
• Faulty methodology- Sampling bias, wrong
design, biased tool
Difficulties & limitations
• Problem of collecting • Difficulty in use of
information experimental method
• Dependence on others
• Problem of analyzing data
• Problem of tool (questionnaire)
• Temptation for generalization
• Complexity of data- human
beings difference
• Problem of cause – effect
• Dynamic nature -
• Maintaining objectivity
• Difficulty in verification- non
Research problem selection and
• Sources of research problem
– Inference from theory of one’s own interest
– Daily problems
– Technological and social changes
– unexplored areas
– Professional literature- research reports,
bibliographies, articles, periodicals, research
abstracts, year books, research guides
– Research gaps
– Discussion with experts
Format- chapter scheme
• Chapter I- Introduction
• Chapter II- Review of literature
• Chapter III- Research Methodology
• Chapter IV- Analysis and interpretation of
• Chapter V- Findings, suggestions and
• Appendix
• Background of the Research study
Review of literature
• Previous literatures- to identify research
Research methodology
• Formulation of research problem
• Profile of organisation
• Main aim with specific objectives
• Hypothesis/hypotheses
• Sources of data
• Research design
• Sampling procedure/design
• Limitations of the study
Analysis and interpretation of data
• Editing
• Coding
• Classification
• Transcription
• Methods of transcription
• Tabulation
• Electronic data processing
• Analysis of data
Findings, suggestions and
• Bibliography
• Research tools
• Map
Research design
• Data collected accurately and
• Pauline V Young – logical and systematic
planning and directing a piece of research.
• Russel ackoff- the process of making
decisions before a situation arises in
which the decision has to be carried out.
Essentials of R D
• Plan- - specifies objectives of the study &
hypotheses to be tested
• Outline- specifies sources & types of
information relevant to research questions
• Blueprint- method to be adopted for
gathering and analyzing data
• Scheme- generalizability- to large
population- to different situations
Preparation of R D
• What is the study about? • What are the sources of data?
• Why is the study made? • What is sample size?
• What is its scope? • What is cost involved?
• What are the objectives of the
• What are the hypotheses tested?
• Major concepts defined
• When or in what place will the
study be conducted?
• Reference period of the study?
• What kinds of data are needed?
Types – kinds of R D
• Explorative or formulative
• Descriptive
• Diagnostic
• Experimental
• Case study
• Achieve new insights
• To formulate a more precise problem
• To develop hypotheses
• Portraying accurately the characteristics of
a particular group or situation.
• Attitude or view of people towards
• Solution of a specific • Means
problem • Case history
• To find out relevant • Interview
variables associated with • Clinical observation
the problems
• Informal testing
• Typical problem solving
strategy – emergence of • Formal standardized
a problem, diagnosis its testing
causes, formulation of
possible avenues of
remediation &
recommendations for a
possible solution
Experimental design
• Observe & measure the effect of
manipulation of the independent variable
on the dependent variable
• Testing casual hypothesis
• Occurrence X- determine occurrence Y
• Control group- experimental group
Sources of data- Secondary
• Internal source external source

• Private documents public documents
• Life history 1published 2 unpublished
• Diaries journal
• Letters newspapers
• Memoirs radio TV
public speeches
Sampling, sampling design,
technique or methods or types
Population or universe
Defined as a set of data that consist of all
conceivable (or hypothetically) possible
observations of a certain phenomenon population
which may be homogenous or heterogeneous.
Census and surveys
Conducted with populations that are
Census – provide highest accuracy – free from
sampling errors
Sample error- due to use of sampling surveys
Pilot study
• Preliminary step conducted on a limited
scale before the original studies are
carried out
• Acquire general knowledge about problem
Pre testing
• Process of an advance testing of the study
design after the schedule/questionnaire
has been prepared.
• To detect discrepancies that have crept in
and to remove them after necessary
modifications in the schedule
Meaning of sampling
• Sample – smaller representation of a large whole
• A section of the population selected from the latter in
such a way that they are representative of the universe
called sample.
• A group of elements is referred as a sample and the
process of selection is called sampling
• The method of selecting for study a portion of the
universe with a view to draw conclusion about the
universe is known as sampling
• The selection of part of aggregate or totality on the basis
of which a judgment or inference about the aggregate or
totality is made
Sampling design
• Theoretical basis and the practical means
by which we infer the characteristics of
some population by generalizing from the
characteristics of relatively few of the units
comprising the population
• Population or universe -Is • Sample – a method of
the aggregate of all units selecting some fraction of
possessing certain a population
specified characteristics • Design – describes the
on which the sample seeks
to draw inferences; method by which the
sample is chosen
• for example, families with
incomes within a given
• Census – a total
enumeration of individuals’
elements, or units in a
defined population
• Probability sampling or Random sampling-

• Non probability sampling or non- random sampling
Random sampling methods
• Simple random sampling
• Stratified sampling
• Stratified random sampling
• Systematic random sampling
• Cluster sampling
Non random sampling
• Accidental sampling
• Quota sampling
• Purposive sampling
• Convenience sample
Simple random sampling
• Each and every item in the whole population
(homogeneous) has an equal and independent
chance of being included in the sample.
• Suitable to small homogeneous population

• Lottery method or table of random numbers
( 1) tippett’s table of random numbers,
2 )kendall and babington smith numbers,
3) fisher and yate’ s numbers
Stratified random sampling
• Universe is divided/subdivided into
homogeneous groups called strata
• Sample is drawn from each stratum at
• A stratified sample is thus equivalent to a set
of random samples of a number of such
populations, each representing a single type
of stratum
Systematic random sampling
• Every kth item is selected in a list representing a population
• Number k is called sampling interval
• Items of a population are arranged in a systematic order on the
basis of its important characteristics
• First number is chosen at random from the first k items
• Sampling interval K = size of the universe

size of the sample
Followed when complete list of population is
Multi stage or cluster
• Several stages
Non random

• No assurance that every element has some specifiable
chance of being included.

• Accidental
• reaches out takes the cases that fall to hand continuing
the process till such time as the sample reaches a
designated size.
• For example, the researcher may take the first 150
persons he meets on any one of the pedestrian paths of
a street
• Economical, convenient , too much accuracy is not
Convenience sampling
• Called chunk
• Fraction of population being interviewed –
selected neither by probability or by
judgment but by convenience.
• From readily available list - automobile
registration, telephone directory
• Making pilot study
• According to one’s personal judgment.
• Include only those items of the universe in the sample
which he considers are most typical of the convenience.
• Only average items are considered, \not extreme items
• Selection – adjusted in accordance with the object of
enquiry, so that significant item may be ignored

• Suitable
• When only small number of sampling is the universe
• Solving every day business problem
• Making public policy decision
• Urgent problem
• Is instructed to collect information from an
assigned number, or quota of individuals
in each of several group
• Group being specified as to age, sex,
• Choice is interviewer’s not being decided
by probability methods
Sampling error
• Biased
• Causes of biases
• Faulty process of selection
• Faulty work during the collection of information
• Selection of sample in a haphazard way
• Substitution of the selected item in the sample
by another
• Incomplete investigation or response
• - is a tentative generalization, the validity
of which remains to be tested. In its most
elementary stage the hypothesis may be
every hunch, guess, imaginative data
which becomes the basis for action or
• If hypothesis is proved, the problem of
which it was a tentative solution is
• If it is not proved, alternative hypothesis
or situations would need to be formulated
and tested.
Sources of Hypothesis
• Religion, custom
• Folk wisdom
• Current popular beliefs
• Findings of other studies
• Cases
• Personal experience and individual reaction
• theory
Criteria of good (Workable)
• Conceptual clarity • Related to a body of
• Formal (conceptual) theory
• Operationally • Relevant & available
• Empirically testable- techniques
can be tested in field • Simple- to the point
• Closest to things
• Specific in nature
Types of hypothesis
• False hypothesis
• Barren hypothesis
• Null hypothesis