E-Commerce and mcommerce

Basics in IS

 E-commerce: example  E-commerce: transaction types and technologies  M-commerce: transaction types and technologies

 HotHotHot; www.hothothot.com  Amazon, www.amazon.com

Example: HotHotHot
 HOTHOTHOT.COM was conceived as an Internet retailer store, and has delivered hot sauces and salsas exclusively in this manner since 1994. It has carved out a niche for itself in a highly competitive world of specialty food products, particularly in the sauce category.  HOTHOTHOT.COM has an exclusive agreement with Quality Foods, a Los Angeles-based company that manufactures, warehouses and ships hot sauces and other specialty foods to various retail outlets.

Example: HotHotHot
 During its first year, the company received an average of 500 hits per day; today, the Web site receives about 10,000 hits per day, reflecting an annual growth rate of 125%.  When it was first established, HOTHOTHOT.COM delivered products only within the U.S.; today, products are delivered to more than 43 countries.  The company's customer base is expected to expand to more countries in the next 3-5 years. In addition, HOTHOTHOT.COM is negotiating for warehousing facilities in Europe, Australia and Asia.

Example: Amazon
 The company began as an online bookstore. Founder Bezos saw the potential of the Internet; while the largest brick-and-mortar bookstore might offer upwards of 200,000 titles, an online bookstore could sell many times more. Bezos renamed his company "Amazon" in reference to the world's most voluminous river, the Amazon. Amazon.com began service in July 1995.  Amazon's initial business plan was unusual, in that the company did not expect to turn a profit for four to five years after it was founded. Amazon grew at a steady pace in the late 1990s while other Internet companies appeared out of nowhere and grew at a blindingly fast pace.

Example: Amazon
 Amazon's "slow" growth caused a number of its stockholders to complain, saying that the company was not reaching profitability fast enough. When the Internet "bubble" burst and many e-companies began going out of business, Amazon persevered and finally turned its first-ever profit in the fourth quarter of 2002.  It totaled a meager $5 million, just 1 cent per share, on revenues of over $1 billion, but it was important symbolically. It has since remained profitable and maintained revenues of over $1 billion per fiscal quarter.  In January 2004 Amazon posted its first full-year net profit (for calendar year 2003). Its profits were $35.3 million on revenues of $5.65 billion. Much of the growth of the company was due to its international division.

Example: Amazon
 Amazon's bookstore quickly began expanding, branching off into retail sales of music CDs, videos and DVDs, software, consumer electronics, kitchen items, tools, lawn and garden items, toys, apparel, sporting goods, gourmet food, jewelry, watches, health and personal-care items, beauty products, musical instruments, and more  A popular feature of Amazon is the ability for users to submit reviews to the web-page of each product.  Amazon.com launched Amazon.com Auctions, its own Internet auctions service, in March 1999

e-commerce or e-business
E-commerce describes the process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, and/or information via computer networks, including the Internet. E-business refers to a broader definition of e-commerce, not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, conducting e-learning, and processing electronic transactions.

 Electronic commerce can take several forms depending on the degree of digitization (the transformation from physical to digital).  The degree of digitization relates to:
– the product (service) sold – the process – the delivery agent (or intermediary).


– EC Organizations

E-commerce describes the process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, and/or information via computer networks, including the Internet. E-business refers to a broader definition of e-commerce, not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, conducting e-learning, and processing electronic transactions.

 Brick-and-mortar (or old-economy) refer to pure physical organizations (corporations).  Virtual (or pure-play) organizations are companies that are engaged only in EC .  Click-and-mortar (or click-and-brick) organizations are those that conduct some e-commerce activities, yet their primary business is done in the physical world.


– Transaction Medium

Most e-commerce is done over the Internet. But EC can also be conducted on private networks, such as value-added networks (VANs, networks that add communication services to existing common carriers), on local area networks (LANs) or wide area networks (WANs)


– Transaction Types

E-commerce transactions can be done between various parties.

 Business-to-business (B2B): Both the sellers and the buyers are business organizations.  Collaborative commerce (c-commerce): In ccommerce, business partners collaborate electronically.  Business-to-consumers (B2C): The sellers are organizations, and the buyers are individuals.  Consumers-to-businesses (C2B): Consumers make known a particular need for a product or service, and suppliers compete to provide it.


– Transaction Types


E-commerce transactions can be done between various parties.

 Consumer-to-consumer (C2C): Individuals sell products or services to other individuals.  Intrabusiness (intraorganizational) commerce: An organization uses EC internally to improve its operations. A special case is known as B2E (business to its employees)  Government-to-citizens (G2C): A government provides services to its citizens via EC technologies.  Mobile commerce (m-commerce): When e-commerce is done in a wireless environment.

Components of EC
The field of e-commerce is broad, and there are many of EC applications

Components of EC
To execute these applications, companies need the right information, infrastructure, and support services. As shown:


 People: Sellers, buyers, intermediaries, information systems
specialists and other employees, and any other participants.

 Public policy: Legal and other policy and regulating issues, such as privacy protection and taxation.  Marketing and advertising: Like any other business, EC usually requires the support of marketing and advertising.  Support services: Many services are needed to support EC. They range from payments to order delivery and content creation.  Business partnerships: Joint ventures, e-marketplaces, and partnerships are some of frequently occurring relationships in e-business

Auctions and Bartering
The major mechanism for buying and selling on the Internet is the electronic catalog. There are two common mechanisms used in its implementation: electronic auctions and bartering online.
 Electronic Auctions (e-Auctions): A market mechanism by which sellers place offers and buyers make sequential bids.  Forward auctions are auctions that sellers use as a selling channel to many potential buyers. Items are placed at sites for auction and buyers bid continuously for the items.  Reverse auctions, have one buyer, usually an organization, that wants to buy a product or a service. Suppliers are invited to submit bids.

Auctions and Bartering (byteshandel)
Electronic bartering, the exchange of goods or services without a monetary transaction.

 Individual-to-individual bartering  Corporate e-bartering (e.g., barterbrokers.com)


– B2C

For generations home shopping from catalogs has flourished, and television shopping channels have attracted millions of shoppers. However, these methods have drawbacks: Both methods can be expensive; paper catalogs are sometimes not up-to-date; and television shopping is limited to what is shown on the screen at any given time.
 Electronic retailing (e-tailing) is the direct sale of products through electronic storefronts or electronic malls, usually designed around an electronic catalog format and/or auctions.
– Electronic Storefronts. Hundreds of thousands of solo storefronts can be found on the Internet, each with its own Internet name and EC portal, such as Home Depot, The Sharper Image, or Wal-Mart. – Electronic mall, also known as a cybermall or e-mall, is a collection of individual shops under one Internet address. The basic idea of an electronic mall is the same as that of a regular shopping mall—to provide a one-stop shopping place that offers many products and services.

E-tailing Issues

– B2C

The concept of retailing and e-tailing implies the sale of goods and/or services to individual customers. The following are the major issues faced by e-tailers that may be handled and supported by IT tools:  Resolving channel conflict: A firm’s distribution channels compete with each other and with the firm.  Resolving conflicts within click-and-mortar organizations. When an established company decides to sell direct online, it may create a conflict within its existing operations in areas such as pricing, services, allocation of resources and logistical support.  Organizing order fulfillment and logistics. E-tailers face a difficult problem of how to ship small quantities to a large number of buyers.  Determining viability and risk of online e-tailers. How long does a company operate while losing money and how will it finance the losses.  Identifying appropriate revenue models. It is necessary to identify appropriate revenue/business models.

Service Industries
     

– B2C

Delivery of services (buying an airline ticket or stocks) can be done 100 percent electronically, with considerable cost reduction potential. Therefore, online services is growing very rapidly.
Electronic banking, also known as cyberbanking includes various banking activities conducted from home or a business instead of at a physical bank International and Multiple-Currency Banking. International banking and the ability to handle trading in multiple currencies, transfers of electronic funds and electronic letters of credit are critical for international trade. Online Securities Trading can be placed from anywhere, any time. Investors can find a considerable amount of information regarding a specific company or in a mutual fund. Online Job Market. The Internet offers a perfect environment for job seekers and for companies searching for employees. Travel Services. The Internet is an ideal place to plan, explore, and arrange almost any trip. Real Estate. Real estate transactions are an ideal area for e-commerce. The customer can view many properties, sort and organize properties according to preferences and can preview the exterior and interior designs of the properties, shortening the search process.

Issues in E-Tailing Market Research – B2C
To successfully conduct electronic commerce, especially B2C, it is important to find out who are the actual and potential customers and what motivates them to buy. Finding out what specific groups of consumers want is done via segmentation, dividing customers into specific segments, like age or gender. Market researchers have tried to understand consumer behavior, and develop models to help vendors understand how a consumer makes a purchasing decision. If the process is understood, a vendor may be able to influence the buyer’s decision, through advertising or special promotions.

Consumer Behavior Model

Issues in E-tailing
Several models have been developed in an effort to describe the details of the decision-making process that leads up to and culminates in a purchase.

Generic Purchasing-Decision Model
1. Need identification 2. information search 3. evaluation of alternatives 4. purchase and delivery 5. after-purchase -evaluation.

Market Research

The Process

There are basically two ways to find out what customers want. The first is to ask them, and the second is to infer what they want by observing what they do.

Asking Customers What They Want:

The Internet provides easy, fast, and relatively inexpensive ways for vendors to find out what customers want by interacting directly with them. The simplest way is to ask potential customers to fill in electronic questionnaires.

Observing Customer Behavior on the Web: The Web is a rich source of business intelligence
– – – –

captured from a company’s Web sites. By analyzing the user behavior patterns contained in the clickstream data inference about behavior can be made.
Brand- and Vendor-Finding Agents and Price Comparisons Search Agents Collaborative Filtering Agents Other Agents

Online Advertising
Advertisement is an attempt to disseminate information in order to influence a buyer–seller transaction. Unlike traditional advertising on TV or newspapers which is impersonal, one-way mass communications, Internet advertising is media-rich, dynamic, and interactive. The most common advertising methods online are banners, pop-ups, and e-mails.  Banners are electronic billboards and is the most commonly used form of advertising on the Internet
– Keyword banners appear when a predetermined word is queried from a search engine. – Random banners appear randomly

Pop-Up, Pop-Under, and Similar Ads.
– A pop-up ad appears in front of the current browser window. – A pop-under ad appears underneath the active window.

  

E-Mail Advertising. Electronic Catalogs and Brochures. Other Forms of Internet Advertising.


– B2B

In B2B applications, the buyers, sellers, and transactions involve only organizations. It covers a broad spectrum of applications that enable an enterprise to form electronic relationships with its distributors, resellers, suppliers, customers, and other partners.

 Sell-Side Marketplaces: organizations attempt to sell their products or services to other organizations electronically, from their own private e-marketplace. This model is similar to the B2C model in which the buyer is expected to come to the seller’s site and place an order.  Buy-Side Marketplaces: organizations attempt to buy needed products or services from other organizations electronically, usually from their own private e-marketplace. One buy-side model is a reverse auction. Here, a company that wants to buy items places a request for quotation (RFQ) on its Web site, or in a third-party bidding marketplace.


– B2B


 E-procurement. Purchasing by using electronic support is referred to as e-procurement. In addition to reverse auctions e-procurement uses other mechanism. Two popular ones are group purchasing and desktop purchasing.
– Group purchasing the requirements of many buyers are aggregated so that they total a large volume, and thus merit more seller attention. Once buyers’ orders are aggregated, they can be placed on a reverse auction, and a volume discount can be negotiated. – Desktop purchasing. In this variation of e-procurement, suppliers’ catalogs are aggregated into an internal master catalog on the buyer’s server, so that the company’s purchasing agents can shop more conveniently. Desktop purchasing is most suitable for maintenance, replacement, and operations (MRO) indirect items, such as office supplies.


– B2B


 Electronic Exchanges are E-marketplaces in which there are many sellers and many buyers.
– Vertical distributors for direct materials: These are B2B marketplaces where direct materials (materials that are inputs to manufacturing) are traded in an environment of long-term relationship, known as systematic sourcing. – Vertical exchanges for indirect materials: Here indirect materials in one industry are purchased on an “as-needed” basis (called spot sourcing). Buyers and sellers may not know each other. In such vertical exchanges, prices are continually changing, based on the matching of supply and demand. – Horizontal distributors: These are “many-to-many” e-marketplaces for indirect (MRO) materials, such as office supplies, used by any industry. Prices are fixed or negotiated in this systematic sourcing-type exchange. – Functional exchanges: Here, needed services such as temporary help or extra space are traded on an “as-needed” basis (spot sourcing). Prices are dynamic, and they vary depending on supply and demand.


– B2E

Companies are finding many ways to do business electronically with their own employees. They disseminate information to employees over the intranet, they allow employees to manage their fringe benefits and take training classes electronically. Also, many companies have electronic corporate stores that sell a company’s products to its employees, usually at a discount.
Some other uses:

 Sales force automation is a technique of using software to automate
the business tasks of sales, including order processing, contact management, information sharing, inventory control, order tracking, customer management and sales forecast analysis.

 E-Commerce Between strategic business units (SBUs)  E-Commerce Between and Among Employees

E-government is the use of Internet technology in general and ecommerce in particular to deliver information and public services to citizens, business partners and suppliers, and those working in the public sector.

It can be divided into three major categories:  government-to-citizens (G2C)  government-to-business (G2B)  government-to-government (G2G)


– C2C

Customer-to-customer (C2C) e-commerce refers to ecommerce in which both the buyer and the seller are individuals (not businesses). C2C is conducted in several ways on the Internet, where the best-known C2C activities are auctions.

 C2C Auctions.  Classified Ads.  Personal Services.  Support Services to C2C.

E-Commerce Support Services
B2B and B2C applications require payments and order fulfillment. Portals require content, etc.

These services include:  e-infrastructure (mostly technology consultants, system  e-process (mainly payments and logistics)  e-markets (mostly marketing and advertising)  e-communities (different audiences and business

developers and integrators, hosting, security, and networks)

 e-services (CRM, PRM, and directory services)  e-content (supplied by content providers)

E-Commerce Support Services
Electronic Payments are an integral part of doing business, whether in the traditional way or online. Unfortunately, in most cases traditional payment systems are not effective for EC, especially for B2B.
       Electronic checks (e-checks) are similar to regular checks. They are used mostly in B2B Electronic credit cards make it possible to charge online payments to one's credit card account. Purchasing cards, the B2B equivalent of electronic credit cards. Electronic cash (e-cash) appears in three major forms: stored-value cards, smart cards, and person-to-person payments. Electronic Bill Presentment and Payments allow customers to pay their recurring monthly bills, such as telephone, utilities, credit cards, etc. online. E-wallets are mechanisms that provide security measures to EC purchasing. The wallet stores the financial information of the buyer, including credit card number, shipping information, and more. Virtual credit cards are a service that allow you to shop with an ID number and a password instead of with a credit card number.

E-Commerce Support Services

Mobile Computing
In the traditional computing environment it was necessary to come to the computer to do some work on it. All computers were connected to each other, to networks, servers, etc. via wires.

 Mobile Computing
– The first phase was to make computers small enough so they can be easily carried - Mobile devices – The second solution to the need for mobile computing was to replace wires with wireless communication media. – The third phase was a combination of the first two, namely to use mobile devices in a wireless environment. Referred to as wireless mobile computing, this combination enables real-time connections between mobile devices and other computing environments. Ubiquitous Computing – computing anytime anywhere

Mobile Commerce
M-commerce and m-business is any e-commerce or e-business activities performed in a wireless environment. It is not merely a variation on existing Internet services; it is a natural extension of e-business creating new opportunities.

 Typical Applications include:
– – – – – Financial applications Inventory management Field Service management Product locating Real Estate

Mobile Computing Basic Terminology
         Personal digital assistant (PDA). A small portable computer, such as Palm
handhelds and Pocket PC devices.

Short Message Service (SMS). A technology, in existence since 1991, that
allows sending short text messages.

Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS). An extension of SMS that is capable of
simple animation, tiny pictures, and short melodies.

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). The next generation of wireless
messaging, this technology will be able to deliver rich media browsing from wireless devices. applications.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). A technology that offers Internet Smartphones. Internet-enabled cell phones that can support mobile Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity). Refers to a standard 802.11b which most of the
wireless local area networks are based on.

Global positioning system (GPS) . A satellite based tracking system that
enables the determination of a GPS device’s location.

WLAN. Wireless local area network

Mobile Computing

– Characteristics

Mobile computing has two major characteristics that differentiate it from other forms of computing: mobility and broad reach.

Mobility (and localisation) implies portability based on the fact that users carry a mobile device everywhere they go. Therefore, users can initiate real-time contact with other systems from wherever they happen to be. Broad reach is the characteristic that describes the accessibility of people. They can be reached at any time.
Ubiquitous Computing Constant connectivity

Mobile Computing
    

– Attributes

The characteristics of M-commerce, mobility and broad reach break the barriers of geography and time. Creating unique value added attributes.

Ubiquity refers to the attribute of being available at any location at
any given time. A mobile terminal in the form of a smartphone or a PDA offers ubiquity.

Convenience. It is very convenient for users to operate in the

wireless environment. All they need is an Internet enabled mobile device such as a smartphone.

Instant connectivity. Mobile devices enable users to connect easily
and quickly to the Internet, intranets, other mobile devices and databases.

Personalization. Personalization refers to customizing the
information for individual consumers.

Localization of products and services. Knowing the users

physically location at any particular moment is key to offering relevant products and services.

Mobile Computing
     

– Drivers

The development of mobile computing and m-commerce is being driven by number of factors.

Widespread availability of mobile devices. The number of cell
phones exceeds 1.3 billion

No need for a PC. The Internet can be accessed via smartphone or
other Internet-enabled wireless devices.

The handset culture. The widespread use of cell phones Vendors are pushing m-commerce. Both mobile communication
network operators and manufacturers of mobile devices.

Declining prices and increased functionalities. Improvement of bandwidth. To properly conduct m-commerce, it is
necessary to have sufficient bandwidth. 3G (third-generation) technology provides the necessary bandwidth, at a data rate of up to 2 Mbps.

Mobile Computing
Link Transport Function

– Value Chain

M-commerce is a complex process involving a number of operations and entities (customers, merchants, mobile operators, etc.).
The key elements in the m-commerce value chain (for delivering content and applications to end users

Provider Technology platform vendors

Maintenance and operation of the infrastructure supporting data communication between mobile users and application providers Server hosting, data backup, and system integration Mechanisms for assisting with transactions, security, and billing

Enabling services Transaction support

Infrastructure equipment vendors Application platform vendor Application developer

Presentation services Conversion of content of Internet-based applications to applications suitable for mobile devices Personalization support User applications Content aggregators

Gathering of users’ preferences, information, and devices in Content developer order to provide individualized applications General and specialized applications for mobile users Design and operation of portals that offer categorized information and search facilities Mobile service provider Mobile portal provider

Mobile Computing Infrastructure

– Hardware

To conduct m-commerce, one needs devices for data entry and access to the Internet, applications, and other equipment.

 Cellular phones Cell phones that are Internet-enabled phones, also known as smartphones.  Attachable keyboard A larger keyboard attachment.  Personal digital assistants (PDAs) with Internet access are now available.  Interactive pagers Two-way pagers with limited mobile computing and m-commerce activities on the Internet.  Screenphones A telephone equipped with a color screen, a keyboard, e-mail service and Internet capabilities.  E-mail handhelds Integrated device, which includes a keypad, e-mail service and Internet capabilities , without the need to dial into an Internet provider for access.  There are many other devices that support wireless operations.

Mobile Computing Infrastructure

– Hardware

M-commerce can also require the following hardware which is essential for wireless connectivity:

 A WAN modem  A wireless LAN or MAN (metro-area network) adapter.  A Web server with wireless support  A WAP gateway  A communications server  An application or database server  An enterprise application server.  A GPS locator

Mobile Computing Infrastructure – Software
There is no widely accepted standard for wireless applications. Therefore, software needs to be customized for each type of device.

Software Microbrowser Operating system (OS) for mobile-client Bluetooth User interface Application middleware Wireless middleware Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Wireless Markup Language Voice XML

Description A browser with limited bandwidth and memory requirements. Provides wireless access to the Internet An OS for mobile devices. Examples: Palm OS, Pocket PC, Win CE. Specialized OS’s: Blackberry and Web browser. Chip technology for short-range communication among wireless devices. See bluethooth.com. Application logic for handheld devices. Provides connecting among applications, databases, and Web-based servers. Links wireless networks to application servers. A set of communication protocols that enables wireless devices to “talk” to a server on a mobile network, so users can access the Internet. Specially designed for small screen. (see wapforum.org). An XML-based scripting language for creating content for wireless systems. An extension of XML designed to accommodate voice.

Mobile Computing Infrastructure

– WWAN’s

At the core of most mobile computing applications are mobile networks. These are of two general types: the wide area and the local area. The wide area networks for mobile computing are known as wireless wide area networks (WWAN).
Communication Tower Base Station Controller (BSC) Mobile Switching Station (MSC)

Mobile Network

Mobile Network Wireless transmission

Mobile Phone (terminal)

Fixed Telephone Infrastructure Mobile Phone

Mobile Computing Infrastructure

– WWAN’s

The success of mobile computing depends on the capabilities of the WWAN communication systems 1G. The first generation of wireless technology. It was an analogbased technology, in effect from 1979 to 1992. existence today, 2G is based on digital radio technology and mainly accommodates text. Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evaluation) that can accommodate limited graphics. supports rich media such as video clips. It started in 2001 in Japan, and reached Europe in 2002 and the United States in 2003 (commercial adoption around 2004-5). display of multimedia and is expected between 2006 and 2010 (commercial adoption later than 2010.

 2G. The second generation of digital wireless technology. In

 2.5G. An interim technology based on GPRS (General Packet Radio  3G. The third generation of digital wireless technology, which

 4G. The expected next generation after 3G. 4G will provide faster

Mobile Computing Infrastructure

– Protocol’s

Through multiplexing protocols mobile communication system providers will be able to service extremely large numbers of users.

Three main protocols:
 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). Used by 1G systems, this protocol gives each user a different frequency to communicate on.  Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Used with some of the more popular 2G systems, this protocol assigns different users different time slots on a given communications channel.  Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). Used with most 2.5G and 3G systems, this protocol separates different users by assigning different codes to the segments of each user’s communications.

Mobile Computing Infrastructure

– WLAN’s

Wireless local area networks (WLAN) - another technology, has been making its way to the forefront as the market factors impeding its growth are being addressed. It is like a wired LAN but without the cables transmitting and receiving data over the airwaves.  Wireless access point - a transmitter with an antenna, connected to a wired LAN that provides an Internet connection. (A wireless
access point provides service to a number of users within a small geographical perimeter known as a “hot spot”)

 

Wireless network card incorporated with laptops, desktops, or PDAs will provide access WLAN’s employ the Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) standard developed by the IEEE
– – – 802.11b Speeds up to 11Mbps 802.11a and 802.11g Speeds up to 54 Mbps Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP) a built-in security system in Wi-Fi encrypts the communications between a client machine and a wireless access point.

Mobile Computing
Mobile financial applications include:

– Financial Services

      

Banking: offer mobile access to financial and account information. Wireless payments: provides mobile phones with a secure
purchasing tools capable of instantly authorizing payments

Micropayments: electronic payments for small-purchase amounts
(generally less than $10) Wireless wallets: Software (e-wallet) that stores an online shopper’s credit card numbers and other personal information.

Bill payment services: Paying bills directly from a mobile device Brokerage services: stock trades and quotes Money transfers: from one account to another

These service have the potential to turn a mobile device into a business tool, replacing banks, ATMs, and credit cards by allowing a user to conduct financial transactions any time and from anywhere

Mobile Computing

– Shopping

Shopping from wireless devices enables customers to perform quick searches, compare prices, use a shopping cart, order, and view the status of their order using their mobile wireless devices.

Some shopping applications include:  Restaurant chains enabling consumers to place an order for pick up or delivery virtually any time, anywhere.  eBay offers “anywhere wireless” services as does Amazon.com  Purchasing movie tickets by wireless device

Mobile Computing

– Advertising

Knowing the current location of mobile users (using GPS) and their preferences or surfing habits, marketers can send user-specific advertising messages to wireless devices.

This location-sensitive advertising, will informing a user about:
    sales at a specific shop or mall today’s specials at a restaurant loyalty programs and much more

all when a potential buyer is within close proximity.
The most promising avenues of success for wireless advertising will incorporate it with other advertising media, Web sites or physical locations.

Mobile Computing

– Mobile Portals

These are customer channels, optimized for mobility, that aggregates and provides content and services to mobile users.
The services provided by mobile portals include:  News  Sports  E-mail  Entertainment  Travel information  Restaurants  Event information  Leisure-related services (e.g., games, TV and movie listings)  Community services  Stock trading.

Mobile Intrabusiness and

Enterprise Applications

Today’s m-commerce applications are mainly used within organizations.

 Support Of Mobile Workers: are those working outside the corporate premises. Service technician’s, Sales personnel, Delivery workers, etc.  Wearable Devices. Employees may be equipped with a special form of mobile wireless computing devices
– – – – Camera. Screen. Keyboard/Touch-panel display. Speech translator

Mobile Computing – Enterprise Applications continued

 Job Dispatch. To assign jobs to mobile employees, along with info about the task.
– – – – – – – – transportation (delivery of food, oil, newspapers, cargo, courier services) Utilities measurement (gas, electricity, phone, water) Field service (computer, office equipment, home repair) Health care (visiting nurses, doctors, social services) Security (patrols, alarm installation). Tractors Mystery shoppers Collaboration

 Supporting Other Types of Work.

Mobile Computing

– Intrabusiness Applications

Wireless applications in the non-Internet environment have been around since the early 1990s.

 Wireless networking, used to pick items out of storage in warehouses via PCs mounted on forklifts  Delivery-status updates, entered on PCs inside distribution trucks  Collection of data such as competitors’ inventories and prices in stores using a handheld (but not networked) device, from which data were transferred to company headquarters each evening.  Taking physical inventories

Mobile Computing

– Mobile B2B

Mobile computing solutions (B2B and supply chain management) enable organizations to respond faster to disruptions by shifting resources related to critical events as they occur. The wireless environment has enhanced these c-commerce transactions.

 By integrating the mobile device into the supply chain, it is possible to
– – – – – make mobile reservations of goods check availability of a particular item in the warehouse order a particular product provide security access to confidential financial data reduce clerical mistakes and improve operations

Mobile Computing

– Mobile B2C

A large number of applications exist that support consumers and provide personal services.

   

B2C transactions Personalize Merchandise Notification Mobile games Hotels services

Mobile Computing

– Mobile B2C


 Wireless telemedicine
– – storage of data and transferring of digital images from one location to another videoconferencing used for “real-time” consultation between a patient in one location and a medical specialist in another. News Weather Sports online language translation

– – – –

Mobile Computing

– Location-based Commerce

Location-based commerce (l-commerce) refers to the localization of products and services. From a consumer’s viewpoint, l-commerce offers safety. From a business supplier’s point of view, lcommerce offers an opportunity to provide services that meet customers’ needs.

 The l-commerce services revolve around five key areas:
– – – – – Location: determining the basic position of a person or a thing (e.g., car or boat). Navigation: plotting a route from one location to another. Tracking: monitoring the movement of a person or a thing (e.g., a package or vehicle). Mapping: creating maps of specific geographical locations. Timing: determining the precise time at a specific location. online language translation

Mobile Computing

– L-Commerce Technologies

Providing location-based services requires the following location-based and network technologies: – Position Determining Equipment (PDE). This equipment identifies the location of the mobile device. (GPS) – Mobile Positioning Center (MPC). The MPC is a server that manages the location information sent from the PDE. – Location-based technology. This technology consists of groups of servers that combine the position information with geographic- and location-specific content to provide an l-commerce service.
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Geographic content. Geographic contents consists of streets, road maps, addresses, routes, landmarks, land usage, Zip codes, and the like. (GIS) Location-specific content. Location-specific content is used in conjunction with the geographic content to provide the location of particular services.

Mobile Computing
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– L-Commerce Applications

There are many applications related to Location Based Commerce: Location-based advertising.
• • • The wireless device is detected, and similar to a pop-up ads on a PC, advertising is directed towards the PC. A dynamic billboard ad will be personalized specifically for the occupant of an approaching car. Ads on vehicles (taxicabs, trucks, buses) will change based on the vehicles location.

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E-911 emergency cell phone calls Telematics and telemetry applications: integration of computers and wireless communications in order to improve information flow (OnStar system by GM)

Mobile Computing

– L-Commerce Applications

Mobile Computing

– Pervasive Computing

A world in which virtually every object has processing power with wireless or wired connections to a global network. The user doesn’t have to think about how to use the processing power in the object; rather, the processing power automatically helps the user perform a task (Invisible Computing Everywhere).

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RFID (radio frequency identification) tag attached to items for sale. Active badges worn as ID cards by employees. Memory buttons are nickel-sized devices that store information relating to whatever it is attached to. Contextual computing, refers to the process of understanding the user’s interactions within a valid context, to better understand what the consumer needs, and what products or services they might possibly be interested in at this time. Context awareness refers to capturing a broad range of contextual attributes to better understand those needs.

Mobile Computing

– Pervasive Computing


 Smart homes provide a local Intranet where appliances

within the home communicate with each other and television, lighting, heating controls and home security are programmed and monitored by the system. transmission, remembering your seat position, adjusting the temperature, making the suspension work better, helping you see in the dark, and warning when tire pressure is low. In the shop, the onboard microprocessors are used to diagnose problems. can be made to be “smart.” – Barcodes. – Auto Identification (Auto-ID) – RFID: It is used in wireless tollbooth systems, such as EZ Pass.

 Smart Cars have microprocessors controlling the radio,

 Smart “Things” Several other devices and instruments

Mobile Computing

– Pervasive Computing


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Smart Schools. Exploring communication between students, teachers,
and the environment to create a smart learning environment. (m-learning)

Intelligent Elder- Care Smart Offices. Digital Cities.

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