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WELCOME

Why Focus on MAHAC Process
Industry

 Complexity of Reactions
 Diversity and spread
 Domino/Cascade effects-Offsite
 High Inventories, Nature of materials
 Severity of impact
Benefits-from Chemical Spectrum

 Audio Cassettes Paints
 Bubble gum Perfumes
 Cooking Gas Petrochemicals
 Detergents Pharmaceuticals
 Fertilisers Plastics
 Leather chemicals Semiconductors
 Masking tapes Tyres
Activity Flow Chart-Project conception

 Engineering Design
 Technology Options/Selection
 Layout Planning /Layout
 Construction
 Trial Runs
 Stabilisation
 Perfecting Operation
 Validation
Hazards

 Every activity has an element of Hazard
 Hazard leads to Risk
 Risk Leads to Consequence
 Consequence impacts vary
 Weather/Environment factors influence gravity
 Safe guards and Controls mitigate/ minimise

impact
Risk Analysis

 SinceHazard is inherent, Risk analysis is
essential
 Broadly there are 5-steps to Risk Analysis
“HSE UK Leaflet”-ADAPT TO SPECIFIC NEED

“Step 1
 Identify the hazards
Step 2
 Decide who might be harmed and how
Step 3
 Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions
Step 4
 Record your findings and implement them
Step 5
 Review your assessment and update if necessary”
Step 1-Hazard Identification

General applicable
 Raw Material Pipe/ Tanker receipt
 Pump Transfer
 Storage
 Line out to Production Block
Hazard Sources-Illustrated examples

 Equipment related
 Process related
 Controls related
 Natural causes
 Security related issues:-Arson, Vandalism,

IEDs
Piping

 Leaks from Valves
 Flanges, Gaskets, Drains/Vents
 Disconnection of Earthing/Bonding
 Fatigue /Metallurgical failures
Tanker truck

 Excess pressure build up in the tanker
 Improper earthing/bonding
 Leakage/spill
 Hot parts of the truck
 Run downs and Spread
 Physical impacts
 Movement during loading
Pumps

 Seal/gland leaks
 Electrical Panels =Sparking
/arcing/flashovers
 Loss of integrity of FLP fittings
 Short circuit
Storage

 Containment failure
 Leaks/Overflow in Tank area
 Storage Nozzle/Pipe connection leaks
 Instantaneous release of liquid/Vapour
 Continuous release of liquid/Vapour
Production/Process

 Equipment
 Reactors,
Exchangers, Boilers, Hot Oil
systems, Chillers,Centrifuges, Dryers,
Scrubbers, etc
Raw Material
 Combustible
 Flammable
 Explosive
 Toxic
 Corrrosive
 Spontaneous igniting
 Reactive
 Incompatible etc
Reactions

 Hydroforming
 Catalyticcracking
 Polymerisation
 High pressure Synthesis
 Hydrogenation
 Halogenation
 Grignard, Fridel Kraft, Amination etc
Process Parameters

 Pressure
 Temperature
 Flow
 Level
 Monitoring & Measurement
Results

 Equipment + Materials+ Reactions+ Process
parameters= Products/Bye products
 Material Balance
 Un-reacted wastes
 Recovery, Recycle, Reuse, Reduce
 Scrubbing, Treatment, Transfer, Emit
Deviations

Leads to Risk.
Design Changes without evaluation
Operational
 Failureof Utilities or Cooling system
 Scrubbing system failures,
 Malfunction /Failure of Process Controls
 Parameter deviations
Incident -Consequences

 Fire
 Explosion
 Toxic release
Step-2
Consequences- Who might be harmed

 People
 Environment
 Equipment
 Materials
Incident--What it Means
 Property Damage /Personnel harm
 Plant Start-up Delays
 Restricted Output
 Downtime
 Repairs Cost
 Insurance Costs
 Public Reaction
 Societal impact
 Economic Impact
Related Consequences

 Legal
 Statutory
 Insurance
 Public Liability
Desirable Approach

 Avoid Major
 Manage Medium
 Live with Low risk
 Treat, Tolerate, Transfer, Terminate
 ALARP
 ALASA
 Within Permissible Limits
Step-3 Basis—Risk Analysis

 Structured & Relevant
 Qualitative & Quantitative
 Adopt applicable methodology
 CCPS AIChE publication, HSE- UK,
 US EPA, European Directives
 Risk Templates used by Accreditation
agencies and such
Hazard Analysis

Typical Applications
Activity Technique
 Design PHA
 Detailed Engineering Fault Tree / Event Tree
Analysis
 Construction / Startup Checklist/Safety Review
 Pilot Plant Operation / HAZOP
 Routine Operation
Hazard Analysis (Contd)

 Decommissioning What–If, Checklist Analysis
 Expansion HAZOP/Relative
Ranking
 R&D What – If
 Incident Investigation What– If / FMEA /
HRA
Step-4 Considerations for
Impact Derivations
 On Site risk tabulation
 Hazmat Inventory volumes
 Hazard ratings-NFPA,
 Maximum Credible Scenarios shortlist
 Weather factors, Environmental risk
 Exposure factors--Acute/Chronic
Step 5 -Impact estimation/
Assessment Review

F & E and Mond Indexing
 TLV/PEL/TEEL/ERPG references
 BMPPD values estimation
 AMPPD values estimation
 Software derivations
 Recording Risk Impact
 Assessing Protection & Controls
Protection & Controls

 Design /Layout integrated
 Management controls
 Process Safety Management
 Operational Controls
 Procedural Controls
 Administrative Controls
 Emergency combat protection
Design & Layout

 Codes & Standards
 Regulatory specifications
 Demographical considerations
 Domino/Cascade effects
 Land use zoning aspects
 Later additions
Management Controls

 Setting Objectives & Goals
 Legal Register compliance
 Audits—Internal, Multi-Disciplinary, External ,
Statutory
 Audit follow through
 Activity Planners
 Performance Review
Good Audits

 Clarity in Scope definition
 Standards referenced
 Audit methodology—LPRM Specialist- Core competency,No
rigid formats, No boundaries,
Out of the Box approach, Bare all/ Tell all
Partners/ Benchmark Facilitators-Reputation driven.
 Pre-audit survey/information input
 Physical visit—Opening meeting,
Site co-ordinators, Physical tour, Interaction, Documents
review, Audit notes, Draft sum-up, Closing meeting, Focus
area identification, Action plan Roadmap, Final report
AUDIT CHECKLIST REFERENCES

 BIS 14489
 5-STAR
 ISRS
 OHSAS
 DUPONT SYSTEMS
 DOW CHECKLIST
 PSM
Document Management

 Design, Installation, Operation, Final
Qualification acceptance criteria
 Maintenance and History cards
 Inspection and Condition monitoring trends
People Management

 Training
 NEST,STOP, CARE
 Participative forums
 Self- Regulating mindset
 Beyond Compliance
Process Safety Management

 Process Safety Information
 Process Hazard Analysis
 Standard Operating Procedures
 Training
 Contractor control
 Pre-start up safety review
 Mechanical Integrity
PSM Contd

 Non-routine work authorisations
 Management of Change
 Investigation of incidents
 Emergency Preparedness
 Compliance audit
 Employee participation
Operational Controls
 Built in Equipment Safeguards
 LOPA
 SIL
 Instrument Controls-Alarm/Trip/Interlock
 Remote ESD
 DCS
 PLC
 SCADA
Procedural Controls

 SOPs
 WI
 Checklists
 Permits to Work
Change Management/Equipment Management

Featured in Link
http://www.scribd.com/doc/
20319667/Safety-in-Chemical-and-
Hydrocarbon-process-Industry-
Change-Management
Change Management-Key aspects
 Change involves thinking holistically
 Change may necessitate downtime
 Interruption due to incidents can affect safety of
personnel and Business economics.
 Each change review should be situation specific.
 General references cannot displace internal
Multi-disciplinary review and validation.
 Yet changes can become necessary to continually
improve Safety, Health & Environment
Preparedness

 Despite all this and the inescapable
Human Error factor it is essential to be well
prepared to handle Emergencies to
Control, Contain incidents with
Nil or Minimal consequential damage
Emergency handling

 Site specific Emergency Preparedness Plan
 Drills—Site/Process Specific
 Evaluation template for Drills
 Inclusion of Natural perils scenarios—Storm,
Building Collapse
 Security related –IED, Arson, Terrorism, Malicious
damage, Riots
SHE Management

 Technology selection, Design Safeguards, Layout form a key triangle
in Facility Construction.

 Process/Protection controls, Condition monitoring, Site Audits, form
the triangle for smooth operations.

 Management Controls, Standard Operating Procedures, Training, form
the key 3 Administrative measures.

 Regulations, Codes and Standards and Third party Audits complete
the key elements for successful Management of SHE.
Systematic Analysis/Approach
 Avoids GUESS
 “Going Unorganised Eliminating Systematic
Study”
 Enables Focus on Realistic, Practical, Attainable
solutions balancing EHS/Business activities
 Risk Management Plan can be tailored integrating
Regulatory needs/EHS Plan/Business Economics.
 Lends greater credibility to justify implementation
costs of Safeguards
Company Benefits

 Good corporate citizen
 Reputation management
 Cost effectiveness
 Continual improvement
 Cause focused /Not consequence centric
 Proactive Vs Reactive
 Rework avoid
Abbreviations List -AL
 AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers
 ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practical
 ALASA As Low As Societal Acceptable
 AMC Annual Maintenance Contract
 AMPPD Actual Maximum Probable Property Damage
 BIS Bureau of Indian Standards
 BMPPD Base Maximum Probable Property Damage
 CARE Constant Accident Reduction Efforts
 CCA Cause Consequence Analysis
 CCPS Centre for Chemical Process Safety
 DCS Distributed Control System
 EHS Environment, Health & Safety
 ERPG Emergency Response Planning Guideline
 ESD Emergency Safety Device
 ETA Event Tree Analysis
AL
 F&E Fire & Explosion
 FLP Flameproof
 FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
 FRLS Fire Resistant Low Smoke
 FTA Fault Tree Analysis
 HAZOP Hazard Operability
 HR Heat Resistant
 HRA Human Reliability Analysis
 HSE Health & Safety Executive
 ID Identity
 IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health
 IED Improvised Explosive Devices
 IP Ingress Protection
 ISRS International Safety Rating System
AL
 LOP Loss of Profit
 LOPA Layer of Protection Analysis
 LPRM Loss Prevention Risk Management
 MAHAC Major Accident Hazard Category
 MOC Material of Construction
 MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
 MTO Material Transfer Order
 NDT Non Destructive Testing
 NEST New Employee Safety Training
 NFPA National Fire Protection Agency
 O&M Operation & Maintenance
 OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
 OHSAS Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series
 OSEP On Site Emergency Plan
AL
 P & ID Piping & Instrumentation Diagram
 PDCA Plan, Develop, Check and Act
 PEL Permissible Exposure Limit
 PEME People, Environment, Materials, Equipment
 PHA Process Hazard Analysis
 PLC Programme Logic Control
 PM Preventive Maintenance
 PSM Process Safety Management
 R&D Research & Development
 RCA Root Cause Analysis
 SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
 SHE Safety, Health & Environment
 SIL Safety Integrity Level
 SOP Standard Operating Procedure
 STOP Safety Training Observation Program
AL
 TEEL Temporary Emergency Exposure Limit
 TLV Threshold Limit Value
 US EPA United States Environment Protection Agency
 WI Work Instructions
 ZH Zero Halogen
Source credits: CCPS, HSE -UK,US- EPA, SCAPA,CFR-1910
DuPont, Dow Publications,Dow F &EI
Practical Experiences
Professional contributions
Interactions with Chemical Industry,OEMs.