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CONTROL CHART FOR

ATTRIBUTES
BY
MOHAMMAD AIZRULSHAH BIN
KAMARUDDIN
ATTRIBUTES
attribute refers to those quality characteristics
that conform to specifications or do not conform
to specifications.

quality characteristic for which a numerical value
is not specified.( good, nice, pass)

Use when:
Where measurements are not possible
Where measurements can be made but are not made
because of time, cost, or need.





DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONTROL CHART FOR
ATTRIBUTES AND FOR VARIABLES
Variables answer the question how much? and are measured in
quantitative units, for example weight, voltage or time.
Attributes answer the question how many? and are measured as a
count, for example the number of defects in a batch of products.
No. ATTRIBUTES VARIABLES
1 Measurement are not possible. Characteristics of product quality can
be measured.
2 No units. Have units.
3 Decision is made whether the product
meets the specifications or not.
The values of measurements can be
recorded.
4 No measuring tools/equipments. Have measuring tools/equipments.
5 p,100p, np, c & u charts. X bar & R charts, X bar & charts

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
ATTRIBUTES CHARTS

ADVANTAGES
1) overcome the quality problems that can not be determined quantitatively.
Missing parts, incorrect color, and so on, are not measureable is
applicable.
2) Inspection can be done more quickly by skilled workers.
3) Some quantities may be examined at the same time.

DISADVANTAGES
1. No specifications and references. Inspection is performed based on the
experience of operator.






NONCONFORMING (DEFECTIVE) AND NONCONFORMITIES (DEFECTS)

NONCONFORMITIES (DEFECTS)-kecacatan

A quality characteristic that does not meet certain prescribed
(specifications) is said to be a nonconformity (or defect),
A nonconformity is defined as a quality characteristic that does
not meet some specification.
For example, if the length of steel bars is expected to be
501.0 cm, a length of 51.5 cm is not acceptable.

NONCONFORMING (DEFECTIVE)-cacat/rosak

A product with one or more nonconformities, such that it is
unable to meet the intended standards and is unable to function
as required, is a nonconforming item (or defective),

A nonconforming item has one or more nonconformities that
make it nonfunctional.
TYPES OF ATTRIBUTES
2 different groups of control charts for attributes.

Charts for nonconforming units.
This category includes control charts that focus on proportion:
The proportion/fraction of nonconforming items (p-chart).
The percent of nonconforming items (100p-chart).
The number of nonconforming items (np-chart)

1) Charts for nonconformities
This category with 2 charts that focus on the
nonconformity itself.
The chart for the total number of nonconformities
or count of nonconformities (c-chart).
The charts for nonconformities per unit or count
of nonconformities per unit (u-chart), is applicable
to situations in which the size of the sample unit
varies from sample to sample.




CHARTS FOR NONCONFORMING UNITS.

1) P-CHART (Proportion Chart Or Proportion Defective
Chart Or Fraction Nonconforming Chart)

The p chart is used for data that consist of the proportion of the
number occurrences of an event to the total number of occurrences.
It is used in quality to report the fraction or percent nonconforming in
a product, quality characteristic, or group of quality characteristics.
As such, the fraction nonconforming is the proportion of the number
nonconforming in a sample or subgroup to the total number in the
sample or subgroup.





* If the lower control limit resulted in a negative value, which is a
theoretical result. In practice, a negative proportion nonconforming
would be impossible. Therefore, the lower control limit value of
negative is changed to zero.
Establish The Revised Center Line And Control Limits




EXAMPLE 1 (P-CHART):
The following table gives the inspection results for the blower motor in an
electric hair dryer for the motor department.

i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for p-
chart.
ii. Sketch the p-chart.
iii. If any points are out of control, calculate revised central line and limits.




Subgroup No 1;
n = 300
np =12




SOLUTION (P-CHART):
Revised (p-chart)





2) 100P-CHART (Percent Nonconforming Chart)
The procedures in data collecting and calculations is same as in the P-
chart, but the presentation techniques in percent nonconforming.















EXAMPLE 2 (100P-CHART):
The following table gives the inspection results for the blower motor in an electric hair
dryer for the motor department.
i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for 100p-chart.
ii. Sketch the 100p-chart.
iii. If any points are out of control, calculate revised central line and limits.

SOLUTION (100P-CHART):
Subgroup No 1;
n = 300
np =12


Revised(100p-chart)





3) Np CHART (Number Nonconforming Chart Or Number Defective Chart)

The number nonconforming chart (np chart) is almost the same as
the p chart.
Is an alternative chart that may be substituted for the p-chart.
The np-chart allows the actual number of defective /
nonconforming units to be plotted diretcly.
The np chart easier for operating personnel to understand than
the p chart.
The inspection results are posted directly to the chart without any
calculations.
Formulas are:



where : P
o
= fraction nonconforming















EXAMPLE 3 (Np-CHART):
The following table gives the inspection results for the blower motor in an electric hair
dryer for the motor department.
i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for np-chart.
ii. Sketch the np-chart.

SOLUTION (Np-CHART):









CHARTS FOR NONCONFORMITIES UNITS

The other group of attribute charts is the nonconformity charts.
A p chart is controls the proportion nonconforming of the product
or service, while the nonconformities chart controls the count of
nonconformities within the product or service.
An item is classified as a nonconforming unit whether it has one
or many nonconformities.

1) C-CHART (Count Of Nonconformities Chart Or Count Of Defects Chart)
Used to control the average number of nonconformities
(defects) per inspection unit in samples of fixed size.
The inspection unit may be one item or multiple items.
Ex: Imperfections in a large roll of paper, rust spots on steel
sheets, mold marks on fiberglass canoes, billing error, errors on
forms, etc.
The centerline for the c-chart is c bar, and the control limits for
the c-chart are calculated as follows:




























UCL & LCL is the upper and lower control limits for c-chart




Establish The Revised Center Line And Control Limits




EXAMPLE 4 (C-CHART):
The following table gives the date, number inspected and count of
nonconformities for Product A.
i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for c-
chart.
ii. Sketch the c-chart.
iii. If any points are out of control, calculated revised central line and control
limits.












Date Number inspected, n Count of
nonconformities, c
Feb 1 96 89
2 115 162
3 108 150
4 56 82
5 120 143
6 98 134
7 102 97
8 115 145
9 88 128
10 71 83
SOLUTION (C-CHART):




Revised (c-chart)





2) u-CHART (Count Of Nonconformities/Unit Chart)
A c-chart is used when the sample size is constant. If the area of
opportunity changes from one sample to another, the center line
and control limits of a c-chart change as well. For situation in
which the sample size varies, a u-chart is used.
For companies who inspect all items produced or service
rendered (provided) for the presence of nonconformities, the
output per production run can vary because of fluctuating supplies
of labor, machinery, and raw material; consequently (thatfore), the
number inspected per production run changes, thus causing
varying sample sizes. When the sample size varies a u-chart is
constructed to monitor the number of nonconformities per unit.
Even though the control limits changes as the sample size varies,
the center line of a u-chart remains constant, which permits
meaningful comparisons between the samples.









Used to control the average number of nonconformities (defects) per
sample when the sample size varies and the inspection unit is 1 unit. Ex:
An inspected unit of one such as canoe, an airplane, 1000 square feet of
cloth, a ream of paper, 100 income tax forms, etc.
The inspected unit can be any size that meets the objective; however, it
must be constant.
The u chart can also be used when the subgroup size is constant.
The centerline for the u-chart is u bar, and the control limits for the u-
chart are calculated as follows:















EXAMPLE 5 (U-CHART):
The following table gives the date, number inspected and count of
nonconformities for Product A.
i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for u-
chart.
ii. Sketch the u-chart.












Date Number inspected, n Count of
nonconformities, c
Feb 1 96 89
2 115 162
3 108 150
4 56 82
5 120 143
6 98 134
7 102 97
8 115 145
9 88 128
10 71 83
SOLUTION (U-CHART):
feb-1,
n = 96, c = 89

*Calculates all the u, ULC & LCL values from feb-2 to feb-10
Date Number
inspected,
n
Count of
nonconformities,
c
Feb 1 96 89
2 115 162
3 108 150
4 56 82
5 120 143
6 98 134
7 102 97
8 115 145
9 88 128
10 71 83

UCL

1.59
1.56
1.57
1.70
1.56
1.59
1.58
1.56
1.61
1.65

LCL

0.91
0.94
0.93
0.80
0.94
0.91
0.92
0.94
0.89
0.85
Nonconformities Per
Unit,
u
0.93
1.41
1.39
1.46
1.19
1.37
0.95
1.26
1.45
1.16