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JF 608 QUALITY CONTROL

JF 608 QUALITY CONTROL

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ATTRIBUTES

BY

MOHAMMAD AIZRULSHAH BIN

KAMARUDDIN

ATTRIBUTES

attribute refers to those quality characteristics

that conform to specifications or do not conform

to specifications.

quality characteristic for which a numerical value

is not specified.( good, nice, pass)

Use when:

Where measurements are not possible

Where measurements can be made but are not made

because of time, cost, or need.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONTROL CHART FOR

ATTRIBUTES AND FOR VARIABLES

Variables answer the question how much? and are measured in

quantitative units, for example weight, voltage or time.

Attributes answer the question how many? and are measured as a

count, for example the number of defects in a batch of products.

No. ATTRIBUTES VARIABLES

1 Measurement are not possible. Characteristics of product quality can

be measured.

2 No units. Have units.

3 Decision is made whether the product

meets the specifications or not.

The values of measurements can be

recorded.

4 No measuring tools/equipments. Have measuring tools/equipments.

5 p,100p, np, c & u charts. X bar & R charts, X bar & charts

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF

ATTRIBUTES CHARTS

ADVANTAGES

1) overcome the quality problems that can not be determined quantitatively.

Missing parts, incorrect color, and so on, are not measureable is

applicable.

2) Inspection can be done more quickly by skilled workers.

3) Some quantities may be examined at the same time.

DISADVANTAGES

1. No specifications and references. Inspection is performed based on the

experience of operator.

NONCONFORMING (DEFECTIVE) AND NONCONFORMITIES (DEFECTS)

NONCONFORMITIES (DEFECTS)-kecacatan

A quality characteristic that does not meet certain prescribed

(specifications) is said to be a nonconformity (or defect),

A nonconformity is defined as a quality characteristic that does

not meet some specification.

For example, if the length of steel bars is expected to be

501.0 cm, a length of 51.5 cm is not acceptable.

NONCONFORMING (DEFECTIVE)-cacat/rosak

A product with one or more nonconformities, such that it is

unable to meet the intended standards and is unable to function

as required, is a nonconforming item (or defective),

A nonconforming item has one or more nonconformities that

make it nonfunctional.

TYPES OF ATTRIBUTES

2 different groups of control charts for attributes.

Charts for nonconforming units.

This category includes control charts that focus on proportion:

The proportion/fraction of nonconforming items (p-chart).

The percent of nonconforming items (100p-chart).

The number of nonconforming items (np-chart)

1) Charts for nonconformities

This category with 2 charts that focus on the

nonconformity itself.

The chart for the total number of nonconformities

or count of nonconformities (c-chart).

The charts for nonconformities per unit or count

of nonconformities per unit (u-chart), is applicable

to situations in which the size of the sample unit

varies from sample to sample.

CHARTS FOR NONCONFORMING UNITS.

1) P-CHART (Proportion Chart Or Proportion Defective

Chart Or Fraction Nonconforming Chart)

The p chart is used for data that consist of the proportion of the

number occurrences of an event to the total number of occurrences.

It is used in quality to report the fraction or percent nonconforming in

a product, quality characteristic, or group of quality characteristics.

As such, the fraction nonconforming is the proportion of the number

nonconforming in a sample or subgroup to the total number in the

sample or subgroup.

* If the lower control limit resulted in a negative value, which is a

theoretical result. In practice, a negative proportion nonconforming

would be impossible. Therefore, the lower control limit value of

negative is changed to zero.

Establish The Revised Center Line And Control Limits

EXAMPLE 1 (P-CHART):

The following table gives the inspection results for the blower motor in an

electric hair dryer for the motor department.

i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for p-

chart.

ii. Sketch the p-chart.

iii. If any points are out of control, calculate revised central line and limits.

Subgroup No 1;

n = 300

np =12

SOLUTION (P-CHART):

Revised (p-chart)

2) 100P-CHART (Percent Nonconforming Chart)

The procedures in data collecting and calculations is same as in the P-

chart, but the presentation techniques in percent nonconforming.

EXAMPLE 2 (100P-CHART):

The following table gives the inspection results for the blower motor in an electric hair

dryer for the motor department.

i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for 100p-chart.

ii. Sketch the 100p-chart.

iii. If any points are out of control, calculate revised central line and limits.

SOLUTION (100P-CHART):

Subgroup No 1;

n = 300

np =12

Revised(100p-chart)

3) Np CHART (Number Nonconforming Chart Or Number Defective Chart)

The number nonconforming chart (np chart) is almost the same as

the p chart.

Is an alternative chart that may be substituted for the p-chart.

The np-chart allows the actual number of defective /

nonconforming units to be plotted diretcly.

The np chart easier for operating personnel to understand than

the p chart.

The inspection results are posted directly to the chart without any

calculations.

Formulas are:

where : P

o

= fraction nonconforming

EXAMPLE 3 (Np-CHART):

The following table gives the inspection results for the blower motor in an electric hair

dryer for the motor department.

i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for np-chart.

ii. Sketch the np-chart.

SOLUTION (Np-CHART):

CHARTS FOR NONCONFORMITIES UNITS

The other group of attribute charts is the nonconformity charts.

A p chart is controls the proportion nonconforming of the product

or service, while the nonconformities chart controls the count of

nonconformities within the product or service.

An item is classified as a nonconforming unit whether it has one

or many nonconformities.

1) C-CHART (Count Of Nonconformities Chart Or Count Of Defects Chart)

Used to control the average number of nonconformities

(defects) per inspection unit in samples of fixed size.

The inspection unit may be one item or multiple items.

Ex: Imperfections in a large roll of paper, rust spots on steel

sheets, mold marks on fiberglass canoes, billing error, errors on

forms, etc.

The centerline for the c-chart is c bar, and the control limits for

the c-chart are calculated as follows:

UCL & LCL is the upper and lower control limits for c-chart

Establish The Revised Center Line And Control Limits

EXAMPLE 4 (C-CHART):

The following table gives the date, number inspected and count of

nonconformities for Product A.

i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for c-

chart.

ii. Sketch the c-chart.

iii. If any points are out of control, calculated revised central line and control

limits.

Date Number inspected, n Count of

nonconformities, c

Feb 1 96 89

2 115 162

3 108 150

4 56 82

5 120 143

6 98 134

7 102 97

8 115 145

9 88 128

10 71 83

SOLUTION (C-CHART):

Revised (c-chart)

2) u-CHART (Count Of Nonconformities/Unit Chart)

A c-chart is used when the sample size is constant. If the area of

opportunity changes from one sample to another, the center line

and control limits of a c-chart change as well. For situation in

which the sample size varies, a u-chart is used.

For companies who inspect all items produced or service

rendered (provided) for the presence of nonconformities, the

output per production run can vary because of fluctuating supplies

of labor, machinery, and raw material; consequently (thatfore), the

number inspected per production run changes, thus causing

varying sample sizes. When the sample size varies a u-chart is

constructed to monitor the number of nonconformities per unit.

Even though the control limits changes as the sample size varies,

the center line of a u-chart remains constant, which permits

meaningful comparisons between the samples.

Used to control the average number of nonconformities (defects) per

sample when the sample size varies and the inspection unit is 1 unit. Ex:

An inspected unit of one such as canoe, an airplane, 1000 square feet of

cloth, a ream of paper, 100 income tax forms, etc.

The inspected unit can be any size that meets the objective; however, it

must be constant.

The u chart can also be used when the subgroup size is constant.

The centerline for the u-chart is u bar, and the control limits for the u-

chart are calculated as follows:

EXAMPLE 5 (U-CHART):

The following table gives the date, number inspected and count of

nonconformities for Product A.

i. Determine the trial central line and control limits for each subgroup for u-

chart.

ii. Sketch the u-chart.

Date Number inspected, n Count of

nonconformities, c

Feb 1 96 89

2 115 162

3 108 150

4 56 82

5 120 143

6 98 134

7 102 97

8 115 145

9 88 128

10 71 83

SOLUTION (U-CHART):

feb-1,

n = 96, c = 89

*Calculates all the u, ULC & LCL values from feb-2 to feb-10

Date Number

inspected,

n

Count of

nonconformities,

c

Feb 1 96 89

2 115 162

3 108 150

4 56 82

5 120 143

6 98 134

7 102 97

8 115 145

9 88 128

10 71 83

UCL

1.59

1.56

1.57

1.70

1.56

1.59

1.58

1.56

1.61

1.65

LCL

0.91

0.94

0.93

0.80

0.94

0.91

0.92

0.94

0.89

0.85

Nonconformities Per

Unit,

u

0.93

1.41

1.39

1.46

1.19

1.37

0.95

1.26

1.45

1.16

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