ENGG.

METROLOGY for MECHATRONICS (GTI/MCT/07/01)

1.0) Engg. Measurements
By SREERAJ

OBJECT OF MEASUREMENT
MEASUREMENT :

Help to timely detect inaccurately machined parts and to avoid rejects and defects.
HOW TO MEASURE?
1)MEASURING INSTRUMENT :

Any device that may be used to obtain a dimensional or surface measurement.
2)GAUGES

Intended for quickly checking

STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENT 1) International standard Metre.
In 1960 11th general conference on weights and measures adopted the International System of Units(SI).

2) Imperial Standard Yard. LINE AND END STANDARDS
In line standard unit of length is defined as the distance between the centres of engraved lines as in a steel rule. rule In the end standards it is the distance between the end faces of the standard as

CLASSIFICATION OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
ACCURA CY
PRECISION INSTRUMENTS Eg : Micrometre,Vernier caliper etc. NON-PRECISION INSTRUMENTS Eg : Graduated rule,Scale etc. DIRECT READING : Used to determine the actual dimension and size.

MODE

IN DIRECT or TRANSFER TYPE : It transfer the measurement from the work to a direct measuring instrument and a comparison is made. LINE MEASURING DEVICES END MEASURING DEVICES

TYPE

Most measuring instruments have specific and limited uses, although some can be used for more than one purpose. Some are measuring linear dimensions , some are for angular or geometric dimensions and some are devoted for measuring surface finish. Some are for reference purposes as standards of comparison.

PRINCIPAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 1.LINEAR
A.NON PRECISION
(a) Steel Rule (b) Calipers (c) Dividers (d) Telescopic Gauge (e) Depth Gauge (a) Micrometers (b) Vernier Calipers (c) Height Gauges (d) Slip Gauges

2.ANGULAR
A.NON PRECISION
(a) Protractors (b) Adj.Bevel (c) Engineers Square (d) Combination set

3.TAPER

B.PRECISION

B.PRECISION
(a) Bevel Protractors (b) Dividing Head (c) Sine bar (d) Angle Gauges (e) Spirit Levels (f) Clinometers (g) Autocollimators

4.SURFACE
(a) Straight edge (b) Surface Table (c) Surface Gauge (d) Optical Flat (e) Profilometer (f) Use of Laser

C.COMPARATORS D.MEASURING MACHINES

LINEAR MEASUREMENT – NON PRECISION Includes the measurement of length,diameter,height,thicknessetc.Basic principle of linear measurement is that of comparison with standard dimensions on suitably engraved instrument or device. STEEL RULE

It is one of the most useful tool in the shop for taking linear dimensions of blanks and articles to an accuracy of from 1.0 to 0.5 mm. This hardened steel strip rules are available in different lengths 150,300,500 and 1000mm.Usually marked in both

A caliper is used to transfer and compare a dimension from one object to another or from a part to a scale or micrometer where the measurement cannot be made directly. There are 4 types mainly. OUTSIDE CALIPER

CALIPER S

It is a two legged steel instrument with its legs bent inwards. It is used for measuring or comparing thickness, diameters, and other outside dimensions. A steel rule must be used in conjunction with them if a direct reading is desired. The size of a caliper is

INSIDE CALIPER An inside caliper is exactly similar to an outside caliper in appearance with its legs bent outward. This is used for comparing or measuring hole diameters, distances between shoulders or other parallel

SPRING CALIPER
For finer work the use of spring caliper both outside and inside advocated. A loop spring on top of the joint between the two legs applies force tending to separate the legs at the bottom. An adjusting nut and screw keep the legs in position. When a spring caliper is applied to an object , it must make sure

HERMAPHRODITE CALIPER This is sometimes called odd-leg caliper. It has one pointed leg like a divider and one bent leg as shown in fig. The caliper is extremely useful for scribing lines parallel to the edge of the work and for

TRANSFER CALIPER

This is convenient for measuring recessed work where ordinary calipers cannot be with drawn. The nut is first locked and the caliper opened or closed against the work. The nut is then loosened and the leg swung clear of the obstruction leaving

DIVIDER S

A divider is similar in construction to a caliper except that both legs are straight with sharp hardened points at the end. This is used for transferring dimensions , scribing circles, and doing general lay out works. A large circle or an arc having a large radius may be made with a

TELESCOPIC GAUGE

This is used for measuring the inside size of slots or holes. The gauge consist of a handle and two plungers, one telescopic in to the other and both under spring tension. The plungers can be locked in position by turning a knurled screw at the end of the handle. The measurement is made by first compressing plungers and locked in position and after inserting to the slot it is allowed to

DEPTH GAUGE
This is used for measuring the depth of blind holes, slots, grooves, the height of shoulders in holes etc. this is essentially a narrow steel rule to which a sliding head is clamped at right angles to the rule. The head forms a convenient marker in places where

LINEAR MEASUREMENT PRECISION
VERNIER CALIPER

Primarily intended for measuring both inside and outside diameters of shaft, thickness of parts etc. to an accuracy of

INTERNAL JAW

LOCKING NUT MAIN SCALE

VERNIER SCALE FIXED JAW MOVABLE JAW

A vernier scale is the name given to any scale making use of the difference between two scales which are nearly, but not quite alike, for obtaining small differences.

VERNIER SCALE

49 MM
MAIN SCALE

READING : On the main scale,1cm is divided in to 10 parts, each being 1mm. The vernier scale has 50 divisions. Every 5th division is numbered. The length of 50 divisions on the vernier is equal to the length of 49 divisions (49mm) in the main scale. Therefore, each vernier division = 49/50 = 0.98mm Difference b/w one division on the main scale and one division To read the vernier first note on the vernier is equal to 1-0.98 the centimetres, millimeters, that the zero of = 0.02mm has moved from the zero of the the vernier main scale. Then count the number of divisions on the vernier scale from zero line to

Example :

1) 2 MAIN DIVISIONS 2) 1 SUB DIVISION 3) COINCIDING LINE 15TH

1)2 Main Divisions 20mm 2)1 Sub-Division 1mm

= 2x10mm = 1x1mm

= =

Assignment 1

1)Main divisions 2)Sub divisions 3)Vernier divisions

3 = = 3 x10mm = 30mm= 5 x 1mm = 5 = 37= = 37 x 0.02 = 5mm 0.74mm Total =

ASSIGNMENT 2:

READING : 9.16mm

ASSIGNMENT 3:

READING : 17.16mm

ENGLISH VERNIER CALIPER. An English vernier has an accuracy of 0.001 in. On the main scale, 1 Inch is divided in to 10 equal parts and each 1/10th is divided in to 4 giving ¼ of 1/10th = 1/40 in = 0.025 in. The vernier scale has 25 divisions, which are numbered from 0 to 25. every 5th division is numbered. The length of 25 division on the vernier is equal to the 24 divisions on the main scale. 24 divisions being equal to 24x0.025= 0.6 in. One division on the vernier equals 1/25

MICROMETER

This instrument, invented by William Gascoigne in the 17th century, is often used to measure diameters of wires and spheres , thickness of parts, parallelism of faces etc. To improve accuracy (as with all measurements) we would take several readings and find their average. Thus we could not only ensure accuracy but, by taking readings at different positions along the length, we could test for a consistent diameter along a piece of work. There are different kinds of micrometers available. a) EXTERNAL b) INTERNAL or INSIDE

EXTERNAL MICROMETER. It is primarily used to measure external dimensions like diameters, thickness. Usually these will be having The essential parts of micrometer are, a least count or 1)FRAME of 0.01 is made of steel, cast steel, accuracy : This malleable cast iron or light alloy. mm. 2)HARDENED ANVIL : Usually made of a hardened steel and the face will be given with a highly accurate lapped surface. The anvil shall protrude from the frame for a distance of at least 3mm for the easiness of measure as

3) SCREWED SPINDLE : Extremely hard and stable one-piece spindle (the heart of our accuracy). This spindle does the actual measuring and possesses thread of 0.5mm pitch. 4) GRADUATED SLEEVE or BARREL : It has datum or fiducial line and fixed graduations. 5) THIMBLE : This is tubular cover fastened with the spindle and moves with the spindle. The beveled edge of the thimble is divided in to 50 equal parts, every fifth being numbered. 6) RATCHET or FRICTION STOP : This is a small extension to the thimble. The ratchet slips when the pressure on the screw exceeds a certain amount. This produces uniform

EXTERNAL MICROMETER PARTS

READING : Before using the micrometer it is important to ensure that the faces of the anvil and spindle are clean and to check that the instrument reads zero when they are closed. The thimble is on a screw thread of pitch 0.5mm, so that the gap between anvil and spindle will change by 0.5mm when the thimble is moved through one revolution. The graduations on the sleeve are each of 0.5mm to reflect this. The thimble has a scale of 50 equal divisions, each division is 0.01mm (each individual thimble mark is therefore 1/50th of 0.5mm = 0.01mm).

Each revolution of the ratchet moves the spindle face 0.5mm towards the anvil face. The object to be measured is placed between the anvil face and the spindle face. The ratchet is turned clockwise until the object is ‘trapped’ between these two surfaces and the ratchet makes a ‘clicking’ noise. This means that the ratchet cannot be tightened any more and the measurement can be read.

Example 1: 1. Read the scale on the sleeve. The example clearly shows12 mm divisions. 2. Still reading the scale on the sleeve, a further ½ mm (0.5) measurement can be seen on the bottom half of the scale. The measurement now reads 12.5mm. 3. Finally, the thimble scale shows 16 full divisions (these are hundredths of a mm). The final measurement is 12.5mm + 0.16mm = 12.66

Example 1 :

Sleeve reads full mm = 12.00 Sleeve reads 0.5 mm = 0.50 Thimble reads =

Example 2 :

Sleeve reads full mm = 16.00 Sleeve reads 0.5 mm = 0.00 Thimble reads = 0.36 Total measurement =

Example 3:

Sleeve reads full mm Sleeve reads 0.5 mm Thimble reads = Total measurement =

= =

Example 4 :

Sleeve reads full mm = Sleeve reads 0.5 mm = Thimble reads = Total measurement

=

Example 5 :

Sleeve reads full mm = Sleeve reads 0.5 mm = Thimble reads = Total measurement

=

ERROR ON MICROMETER Micrometer Correction : A micrometer is said to be having an error when the the zero on the thimble and the zero line on the index line is not collinear while it is in the closed condition. When the zero on the thimble is below the index line, then the zero error must be deducted from the reading and vice versa.

Example : When the micrometer is closed let the reading on the thimble be 47. Let the micro meter reading of the object be 15.58mm. Find the actual reading. Zero error = ( 50-47=3 ; 3x0.01=0.03) Since the zero of the thimble is above the index line zero error is negative. Therefore zero error is -0.03. which implies it should be added with the micrometer reading. Thus the actual reading is 15.58 + 0.03 = 15.61mm.

DEPTH MICROMETER. It is an instrument used to measure the depth of pockets to an accuracy of 0.01mm. Depth micrometer can only be used in places where there is a satisfactory seating for the instrument head, and the bottom of the hole being measured is parallel with the

The principle of measurement is similar to that of an external micrometer. Each one is supplied with three interchangeable spindles and thus has the measuring ranges 0 to 25mm, 25-50mm, 50INSIDE MICROMETER 75mm, 75-100mm. This is intended for the measurement of internal features like bore dia, pocket sizes etc. In principle, it is similar to an external micrometer and is used for measuring holes with a dia over 50mm. Instrument consist of a measuring unit, extension rod with or with out spacing collar, and a handle. The first range can be vary from 50 to 63mm. Further

INSIDE MICROMETER

MEASURING WITH AN INTERNAL MICROMETER

SLIP GAUGES Slip gauges or precision gauges blocks, as they are sometimes called, are used for precise measurement of parts and for verifying measuring tools such as micrometer, comparators, and various limit gauges. Slip gauges often called johannsen gauges after their originator, are rectangular blocks made of alloy steel having a crosssection of about 32mm by 9mm which, before being finished to size, are hardened and finished to a high degree of accuracy. They are also carefully matured so that they are independent of any variation in shape or size.

SLIP GAUGES or GAUGE BLOCKS

SLIP GAUGE BOX

Slip gauges are made in five grades of accuracy: Grade 1,Grade II, Grade 0, Grade 00 and calibration grade. The grade most commonly used in the production of components, tools, and gauges is Grade 1, for rough work Grade II and for checking other gauges and standards Grades 00 and calibration grade. Slip gauges are supplied in sets, the sizes of which varies from a set of about 112 pieces down to one containing 32 pieces. The grade and size of set desirable depend on the class of work for which they are required

During the use the slip gauges are “wrung” together to form the required dimension taking extreme care in handling. The cleanliness of the surface of the slip gauges and a standard temperature of 20°C during measurement is essential for accurate and reliable inspection. A number of slip gauge holders also will be :sold together with WRINGING EFFECT Since the eachmeasuring faces of gauges are box. lapped and made to a high degree of surface finish, when rub with each other these will cling together. This is so called wringing effect of slip gauges.

QUESTIONS- ASSIGNMENT 1)What is a measuring instrument? 2)What is a gauge? 3)Explain different standards of measurement. 4)Differentiate line standard and end standard with eg. 5)Brief- Classification of measuring instrument. 6)With a neat sketch explain briefly A) steel rule B) Calipers i) out side ii) Inside iii) Spring iv) Hermaphrodite v) Transfer vi) Dividers 7) Explain about telescopic gauges- construction & applications.

QUESTIONS- ASSIGNMENT (Cont.) 8)Write a short note on depth gauge. 9)What is a “ Vernier scale ”? 10) Explain about vernier caliper& its parts. 11) With a neat sketch explain about micrometer & its parts. 12) What is meant by error on micrometer? How to consider it while measuring? 13) With a sketch explain about Depth, Internal micrometers. 14) Give a small note on slip gauges & its applications. 15) What are the cares to be taken while dealing with slip gauges?