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Part one Introduction of

N600-16.7/538/538 steam
turbine
NCEPU
Zhu Ping

simple work flow diagram and T-S chart of Rankine cycle
Feedwater pump(3-4):This equipment boosts feedwater to the pressure
what we want and sent feedwater to boiler.
Boiler(4-1):In boiler, the feedwater will be heated to superheated steam.
Steam Turbine(1-2): Superheated steam flow into steam turbine and
expansion, transfer the steam heat energy to mechanical enery of rotor.
Condenser(2-3): After working, exhaust steam flows into condenser and
be condensed to saturated water.
B
T
C
P
S
T
1
2
3
4
2’
4’
1’
1.Simple power plant work process
Efficiency of Rankine cycle is as follows:
Where, and are the average temperature of steam exothermic
process and endothermic process. So, if we raise up the average
temperature of steam endothermic process or drop down the average
temperature of steam exothermic process, efficiency of Rankine cycle
will be increased. In modern steam turbine, we always promote the inlet
steam parameters and drop the exhaust steam parameters.
When main steam pressure increasing, steam in the last stages of
turbine becomes very wet (steam moisture should be lower than 10%-
12%), and this moisture steam will erode the turbine blades. So steam
reheating is designed to heat the HP exhaust steam to main steam
temperature. In gerneral, reheat pressue is 20%-25% main steam pressure
to make the heat efficiency of Rankine cycle higher. If the reheat pressue
is too high, that is not good for reducing the steam wet of last stages. If
the reheat pressue is too low, the heat efficiency of Rankine cycle will be
lower.
1
2
1
T
T
t
  
2
T
1
T
2. Steam turbine working principle
In steam turbine, the energy converting can be divided to two step.
First step, the steam issueing from nozzle(4) attains a high velocity.
The velocity attained during steam expansion depends upon the initial
and final steam heat content of nozzle. This process is called „coverting
steam heat energy to kinetic energy‟. Second step, high speed steam
impulse on the moving blade(3) to make the blade moving and rotor(1)
rotating. A stage that mainly make use of the impulsive force of high-
velocity steam is known as an “impulse stage”.
Meanwhile, if the steam issuing from
the moving blade is accelerated, a
reactionary force will be exerted on the
moving blade. This reactionary force is
opposite to the direction of steam flow
out. In practically “reaction stage”
utilize the combination of impulsive
force and reactionary force of high-
velocity steam. Both forces acted on
the moving blade are nearly equal.
3.Type and property

N 600—16.7/538/538


Main steam pressure
Rated Power (MW)
With condencer
Main(/reheat)
steam temperature
Subcritical、single shaft、once reheat、 four
cylinders and four exhaust ports.
TV
GV
Reheater
TV(MSV)—Turbine stop valve (Main steam stop valve);
GV(CV)--Governing Valve(Control valve);
RSV—Reheat intercept stop valve;
IV—Reheat regulation valve.
RSV
IV
HP
I P LP1 LP2
Con.

HP cylinder:one control stage +11 reaction type stages
IP cylinder : 2×9 reaction type stages
LP cylinder : 4×7 reaction type stages
Feed water system:3HP feedwater heaters+1Deaerator
+4 LP feedwater heaters
Lenth of laster stage blade:905mm
Promise net heat rating: 7862kJ/kW.h
Designed exhaust steam pressure: 4.9 kPa ,
Final feedwater temperature(TRL):274 ℃
The definition of unit operating conditions
(1)Nameplate conditions( TRL)
This condition is the acceptance working conditions of the
unit output guarantee (600MW). Its conditions are as
follows:
① Main steam flow is nameplate flow.
② Main steam and reheat steam parameters are rated;
③ LP cylinders exhaust back pressure is an average of
11.8kPa ;
④ Supply of pure water is 3% ;
⑤ Final feedwater temperature is 274 ℃;
⑥ All the thermal systems operation are normal. No Factory
Auxiliary steam Consumption;
⑦ Steam-driven pumps reach the rated feedwater parameters
⑧ Generator efficiency is 98.9 %, Rated power factor 0.90 ,
Rated hydrogen pressure .
(2)Maximum continuous operation power (T—MCR)

Under this conditions, steam turbine can operate
continuously with safety and the output power will be
nearly 634MW.
The other situations are same with nameplate conditions. The
differentia are as follows:
1) LP cylinder steam turbine exhaust back pressure is an
average of 4.9kPa ;
2) Supply of water is 0% ;

(3) Valves whole open(VWO)

4. Guaranteed heat rate
Heat rate (or coal rate) is a very important economic target
for unit operation. It means the heat consumption (KJ) for
generating per kW.h electric energy. Under THA working
conditions, this unit heat rate guarantee does not exceed the
following value : 7862kJ/(kW.h) .
Under the other conditions, the heat rate can be determined
using the following equation:
Turbogenerator Heat Rate=
where:
Wt (kg/h) Main steam flow
Wr (kg/h) Reheat steam flow;
Ht (kJ/kg) The enthalpy of main steam;
△Hr (kJ/kg) After reheater steam enthalpy difference;
Hf (kJ/kg) The ultimate feedwater enthalpy;
kWg (kW) Generator terminal output power;
(kW) Static excitation power consumed.

h kw kJ
i
kW kWg
Hr Wr Hf Ht Wt



  
/
) ( ) (
kW
i 