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=

momentum=mass×velocity 360° 2π × distance

ang. mom.=mass×velocity ×radius

4π 2

p2 = a3

force=mass × acceleration G(M 1 + M 2 )

p2=a3 2GM

vescape =

R

GM 1M 2

Fg = 2

1 2

K .E. = mv

d 2

c=3 × 108 m/s

G=6.67× 10-11 m3 /(kg s2)

Moon Rise/Set by Phase

• The different phases also rise and set at different times:

– At full moon, the moon is opposite the sun, so it rises at sunset,

culminates at midnight, and sets at dawn

– At new moon, the moon is on the same side as the sun, and so

is only in the sky during the day (rises at dawn, sets at dusk)

– First quarter rises at noon, culminates at 6pm, and sets at

midnight

– Last quarter rises at midnight, culminates at 6am, and sets at

noon

• Note: the moon spends as much time in the sky in

daytime as at night!

Moon Rise/Set by Phase

• Now let’s step through the Universe in powers of 10:

Tides and Phases

the phase of the Moon.

Note spring tides means

extreme high and low

tides

Tides

http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&ll=51.64359,-2.622986&spn=0.755036,1.779785&t=p&z=9

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtUmLLlm7S0&feature=related

The sky varies with latitude but not longitude.

What causes the seasons?

Note - not because one hemisphere is closer to the sun!!!

Axis tilt changes directness of

sunlight during the year.

Kepler’s Third Law

100 billion stars

Where do we sit?

How did we come to be?

Are we ever sitting still?

Earth rotates on axis: > 1,000 km/hr

Earth orbits Sun: > 100,000 km/hr

in Local Group

Universe

expands

100 billion stars

Momentum=m×v

Ang Momentum=m×v×r

p2=a3

1 2

K .E. = mv

2

100,000 ly diameter

in 1 second it accelerates 10 m/s

after 5 seconds it is at 50 m/s

The change of mass has no effect

4π 2 a3

p =

2

a 3 in m, s, kg p =

2

G(M1 + M 2 ) M

a 3

33

p2 = in A.U., years, Solar masses p= = 3 years

M 3

See over

angular size physical size

= 1parsec = 3.26ly = 206,265 AU

360° 2π × distance

physical size =

360°

physical size = = 4.84 × 10 −5 parsecs = 10A.U

360°

Angular Size

360 degrees

angular size = physical size ×

2π × distance

appears smaller if it is

farther away.

We see apparent retrograde motion when

we pass by a planet in its orbit.

• How did Copernicus, Tycho, and Kepler challenge the

Earth-centered idea?

— Copernicus created a Sun-centered model; Tycho provided the

data needed to improve this model; Kepler found a model that fit

Tycho’s data.

1. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.

2. As a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps our equal areas in

equal times.

3. More distant planets orbit the Sun at slower average speeds:

p2 = a3.

— His experiments and observations overcame the remaining

objections to the Sun-centered solar system.

• Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

– An object moves at constant velocity if no net force is

acting.

– Force = mass × acceleration.

– For every force, there is an equal and opposite reaction

force.

GM 1M 2 4π 2

Fg = p2 = a3

G(M 1 + M 2 )

d2

Conservation Laws

• Conservation of momentum

• Conservation of angular momentum

• Conservation of energy

You are an astronomer on planet Nearth, which orbits a distant star. It has recently

been accepted that Nearth is spherical in shape, though no one knows its size. One day,

while studying in the library of Alectown, you learn that on the equinox your sun is

directly overhead in the city of Nyene, located 1300 due north of you. On the equinox,

you go outside in Alectown and observe that the altitude of your sun is 81 .

Measurements:

Nyene to Alectown

• distance ≈ 1300km

• angle difference = 90°- 81°

• angle difference = 9°

• CN * 9/360 = 1300

• CN = 1300 * 360/9 = 52000 = 5.2 × 104

Equations to memorize Equations I will give you

speed=distance/time angular size physical size

=

momentum=mass×velocity 360° 2π × distance

ang. mom.=mass×velocity ×radius

4π 2

p2 = a3

force=mass × acceleration G(M 1 + M 2 )

p2=a3 2GM

vescape =

R

GM 1M 2

Fg = 2

1 2

K .E. = mv

d 2

c=3 × 108 m/s

G=6.67× 10-11 m3 /(kg s2)

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