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# Equations to memorize Equations I will give you

## speed=distance/time angular size physical size

=
momentum=mass×velocity 360° 2π × distance
4π 2
p2 = a3
force=mass × acceleration G(M 1 + M 2 )

p2=a3 2GM
vescape =
R
GM 1M 2
Fg = 2
1 2
K .E. = mv
d 2
c=3 × 108 m/s
G=6.67× 10-11 m3 /(kg s2)
Moon Rise/Set by Phase
• The different phases also rise and set at different times:
– At full moon, the moon is opposite the sun, so it rises at sunset,
culminates at midnight, and sets at dawn
– At new moon, the moon is on the same side as the sun, and so
is only in the sky during the day (rises at dawn, sets at dusk)
– First quarter rises at noon, culminates at 6pm, and sets at
midnight
– Last quarter rises at midnight, culminates at 6am, and sets at
noon
• Note: the moon spends as much time in the sky in
daytime as at night!
Moon Rise/Set by Phase

## Time the Moon Rises and Sets for Different Phases

• Now let’s step through the Universe in powers of 10:

Tides and Phases

## Size of tides depends on

the phase of the Moon.
Note spring tides means
extreme high and low
tides

Tides

The sky varies with latitude but not longitude.
What causes the seasons?

## Seasons depend on how Earth’s axis affects the directness of sunlight.

Note - not because one hemisphere is closer to the sun!!!
Axis tilt changes directness of
sunlight during the year.

## Why Does Flux Sunlight Vary

Kepler’s Third Law

## Kepler's 3rd Law

100 billion stars
Where do we sit?
How did we come to be?
Are we ever sitting still?
Earth rotates on axis: > 1,000 km/hr
Earth orbits Sun: > 100,000 km/hr

## Milky Way moves

in Local Group

Universe
expands
100 billion stars

Momentum=m×v
Ang Momentum=m×v×r
p2=a3

1 2
K .E. = mv
2
100,000 ly diameter
in 1 second it accelerates 10 m/s
after 5 seconds it is at 50 m/s
The change of mass has no effect

4π 2 a3
p =
2
a 3 in m, s, kg p =
2

G(M1 + M 2 ) M
a 3
33
p2 = in A.U., years, Solar masses p= = 3 years
M 3

See over
angular size physical size
= 1parsec = 3.26ly = 206,265 AU
360° 2π × distance

physical size =
360°

## 2.78 × 10-4 × 2π ×10parsecs

physical size = = 4.84 × 10 −5 parsecs = 10A.U
360°
Angular Size
360 degrees
angular size = physical size ×
2π × distance

## An object’s angular size

appears smaller if it is
farther away.
We see apparent retrograde motion when
we pass by a planet in its orbit.

## Mars Retrograde Motion

• How did Copernicus, Tycho, and Kepler challenge the
Earth-centered idea?
— Copernicus created a Sun-centered model; Tycho provided the
data needed to improve this model; Kepler found a model that fit
Tycho’s data.

## • Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion

1. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.
2. As a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps our equal areas in
equal times.
3. More distant planets orbit the Sun at slower average speeds:
p2 = a3.

## • Galileo solidified the Copernican revolution.

— His experiments and observations overcame the remaining
objections to the Sun-centered solar system.
• Newton’s Three Laws of Motion
– An object moves at constant velocity if no net force is
acting.
– Force = mass × acceleration.
– For every force, there is an equal and opposite reaction
force.

GM 1M 2 4π 2

Fg = p2 = a3
G(M 1 + M 2 )
d2
Conservation Laws

• Conservation of momentum
• Conservation of angular momentum
• Conservation of energy
You are an astronomer on planet Nearth, which orbits a distant star. It has recently
been accepted that Nearth is spherical in shape, though no one knows its size. One day,
while studying in the library of Alectown, you learn that on the equinox your sun is
directly overhead in the city of Nyene, located 1300 due north of you. On the equinox,
you go outside in Alectown and observe that the altitude of your sun is 81 .

Measurements:
Nyene to Alectown
• distance ≈ 1300km
• angle difference = 90°- 81°
• angle difference = 9°

• CN * 9/360 = 1300
• CN = 1300 * 360/9 = 52000 = 5.2 × 104
Equations to memorize Equations I will give you
speed=distance/time angular size physical size
=
momentum=mass×velocity 360° 2π × distance
4π 2
p2 = a3
force=mass × acceleration G(M 1 + M 2 )

p2=a3 2GM
vescape =
R
GM 1M 2
Fg = 2
1 2
K .E. = mv
d 2
c=3 × 108 m/s
G=6.67× 10-11 m3 /(kg s2)