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Oil Analysis

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About POLARIS
Oil Analysis
Wear Debris Analysis
Data Interpretation/Alarm Limits
Sampling Methods
Information Technology
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Significant Accomplishments
Since start-up in 1999:

Established customers in all 50
states and over 15 countries
Total customer base of over 40,000
Reports available in 3 languages
300% growth rate over past 2 years
Among top 25 fastest-growing
privately-held companies in
Indianapolis for past 3 years
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Industries Served
Power Generation
Transportation
Oil & Gas
Industrial
POLARIS
Laboratories
supports oil analysis
and reliability
maintenance
programming in a
wide variety of
industry applications.
Const/Mining

Marine
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Facility Locations
Houston
Salt Lake City
Three locations 1
database
Accessible within 48
hours by ground
24-48 hour turnaround
Local technical sales
support

Indianapolis
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One Lab Three Locations
BIG Advantages
Ship your sample to the closest lab reducing transit time and cost
One phone number to call for entire program
Centralized Customer Service ensures a thorough knowledge of
your program
Centralized Data Analysis ensures consistent commenting and
recommendations on all data from each of our laboratories
One database secures data history even when samples are sent to
a different lab
Redundancy for disaster recovery
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Fluids Tested
Oil
Test for wear metals and contamination
Monitor fluid properties and suitability for
use
Fuel
Troubleshoot filter problems
Determine compliance with supplier
specifications
Coolant
Detect corrosive chemicals
Monitor silicate levels
Determine compliance with OEM
antifreeze concentration
recommendations
POLARIS specializes in testing oil,
fuel, coolants and water-based fluids.
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ISO 17025
A2LA Accreditation
Takes quality standard of
ISO 9000 to higher level
Ensures traceability back
to standard
Determines uncertainties
and repeatability
Is highest level of quality
attainable by a laboratory
backed by the most
stringent accrediting
body in the industry


ISO 9000
Guide 25
ISO 17025
ISO
17025
A2LA
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About POLARIS
Oil Analysis
Wear Debris Analysis
Data Interpretation/Alarm Limits
Sampling Methods
Information Technology
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OIL IS THE LIFEBLOOD
OF MANY SYSTEMS
Oil analysis is like a blood test
A sample is taken
Sample is documented
Sample is delivered to a lab
Tests are performed
Results are interpreted
Diagnostic report is issued
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Oil Analysis Basics
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WHY DO OIL ANALYSIS?
To monitor changes in lubricant properties
To identify contamination and its affect on
a lubricant properties
To determine type and severity of wear
occurring
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WHAT DOES OIL ANALYSIS TELL US?
Determine condition of the oil
Monitoring changes in the lubricant to determine if the oil is
suitable for continued use
Determine condition of the unit
Analysis provides clues that can identify problems so they can
be corrected before permanent damage occurs
Evaluates wear data
Determine effectiveness of maintenance
strategy
Run to failure
Preventive
Predictive

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MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES
Unplanned Maintenance
Run it to failure
Very high maintenance cost
Short component life
No historical data or root cause analysis
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MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES
Preventive Maintenance
Interval-based Maintenance
Moderately high cost
Short component life for unique equipment
No root cause analysis
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MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES
Predictive Maintenance
Condition-based and Planned
Lowest overall cost
Considers unique component characteristics
Provides trending that can predict problems
and failures
Increases component life
Maintenance guided by root cause analysis
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TESTING LUBRICANT PROPERTIES
Viscosity
Viscosity Index
TAN
TBN
Oxidation
Nitration
Demulsibility

Foaming
Rust
Copper Corrosion
RPVOT
Pour Point
Flash Point
Aniline Point
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VISCOSITY
Shear force/shear rate
Factors that affect viscosity
Temperature/relationship by grade
Pressure
Measurement
Comparative classifications
Viscosity Index

Viscosity is a lubricants resistance to flow at a
given temperature.
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VISCOSITY
The force required to slide one object over another
when the two surfaces are fully separated by a fluid is
dependent on the fluids viscosity


Stationary Surface
Moving Surface
Sheared
Liquid
Shear Force (per area)
Viscosity =
Shear Rate (flow)
The higher a fluids
viscosity, the greater
the force (energy)
required to slide the
surfaces at a given
speed and gap
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OPERATING
CONDITION
VISCOSITY
NEEDED
HIGHER LOAD

HIGHER
TEMPERATURE

INCREASED
SPEED
VISCOSITY SELECTION
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TOTAL ACID NUMBER
Measures amount of both organic and
inorganic acid present
Indicates oxidation or contamination from
other corrosives
ASTM D-664M reported as mg/KOH per/g of
sample
Caution level >2X starting point of new oil
Severe level >4X starting point of new oil
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TAN AND TBN BY TITRATION
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OXIDATION
Breakdown of a lubricant due to age and operating
conditions
Prevents additives from performing properly
Causes the formation of acids and increases viscosity
Testing done by Infrared Analysis (FTIR)
Reported as aus/cm (absorption units per centimeter)
25 condemnation level by CAT & Waukesha
>30 is severe and will lead to corrosive wear
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NITRATION
Indicates excessive blow-by from cylinder walls and/or
compression rings
Indicates presence of nitric acid, which speeds up oxidation
Too much disparity between oxidation and nitration points to
air-to-fuel ratio problems
As oxidation/nitration increases, so does TAN and viscosity,
while total base number will decrease
Testing done by Infrared Analysis (FTIR)
Reported as aus/cm (Absorption units per centimeter)
25 condemnation level by CAT & Waukesha
>30 is severe and will lead to corrosive wear

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FTIR - FUEL, SOOT,
OXIDATION, NITRATION
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REPORTING MEASUREMENTS
Fuel % Soot % Water % Vis @ 40 Vis @ 100 AN BN Oxi Nit
Per Cent By
Volume
Viscosity In
Centistokes cSt
at Specified
Temperature
Neutralization
Number Expressed
In Mg/KOH/g
FT-IR Results
Expressed In
Absorbance Units
Per Centimeter
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CONTAMINANT LIMITS
Oil Silico
n
Sodium Potassiu
m
Fue
l %
Soot
%
Oxidatio
n
Nitration
Diesel
Engine
20 70 20 2 2 20 20
160 250 250 6 6 30 30
Transmission
20 50 20
N/A
N/A 25 N/A
160 90 150
N/A
N/A 40 N/A
Gear Box
20 75 80
N/A
N/A 30 N/A
256 307 180
N/A
N/A 50 N/A
Hydraulic
15 25 10
N/A
N/A 20 N/A
65 114 78
N/A
N/A 35 N/A
Natural Gas
Engine
20 50 20
N/A
0.5 20 20
160 175 165
N/A
1.1 25 25
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METALS BY ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS
Wear Metals
Contaminants
Lubricant
Additives
Fe Cr Ni Al Cu Pb Sn Cd Ag Ti V Si Na K Mo Sb Mn Li B Mg Ca Ba P Zn
13 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 2449 0 1260 1144
Reported in concentrations of parts per million - ppm
*Refer to POLARIS Wear Metals Map
Multi - Source
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ICP SPECTROMETER
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FLAGGING POINTS & ALARM
LIMITS
sample information YOU provide
the lab
OEM/equipment specifications
lubricant specifications
laboratory database of samples
with same criteria
statistical analysis of real life
laboratory data
Where do the numbers come from?
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SETTING ALARM LIMITS
Statistics used to establish alarm limits for wear
metal concentrations
Mean (average, indicated by x) and standard
deviation (the distance the spread of numbers
are from the mean, indicated by ) are
determined for each population of elemental
concentrations
How many standard deviations from the mean (-
3 to +3) alarm limits will be set is based on
frequency distribution
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ALARM LIMIT SPECIFICS
Base alarm limits on specific information
Unit Type
Diesel Engine
Turbine
Compressor
Reciprocating, Rotary Screw, Centrifugal
Gear System
Helical, Double Helical, Hypoid, Worm
Hydraulic System
Bearing
Babbitt, Roller, Spherical Roller, Needle
Pump
Piston, Gear, Vane
Unit Manufacturer
Unit Model Number
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Information Pyramid
Transmission
217
PPM
Iron
Flagging
Point
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Information Pyramid
Transmission
217
PPM
Iron
Flagging
Point
Automatic Transmission
149
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Information Pyramid
PPM
Iron
Flagging
Point
Transmission
217
Automatic Transmission
149
Allison
171
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Information Pyramid
PPM
Iron
Flagging
Point
Automatic Transmission
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Transmission
217
Allison
171
HT754CR 68
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Transmission
217
Automatic Transmission
149
Allison
171
HT754CR
68
10m
Fltr
60
Information Pyramid
PPM
Iron
Flagging
Point
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217
10m
Fltr
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Information Pyramid
Iron
PPM
Flagging
Point
Lack of
information
allows 165
ppm where
failure may
occur!!!
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WEAR METAL LIMITS
Oil Iron Chrome Nickel
Aluminum
Coppe
r
Lea
d
Tin
Gas Turbines
7 1 1 4 6 4 3
35 5 7 20 24 28 30
Rotary Screw
Compressors
62 1 2 5 15 5 7
217 7 6 32 120 40 56
Injection
Molding
19 1 1 1 42 6 1
95 5 4 8 88 54 10
Roller Bearing
141 4 2 16 26 13 7
493 14 8 59 208 104 56
Sleeve
Bearing
40 1 1 16 26 20 44
1379 6 4 47 208 160 352
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DIESEL ENGINE LIMITS BY MFR
MFR Iron Chrome Nickel
Aluminum
Coppe
r
Lead Tin
Cummins
60 7 4 14 21 47 5
390 46 20 98 147 353 40
CAT
66 6 3 9 37 24 5
429 39 15 63 259 180 40
Navistar
77 7 3 6 17 20 5
501 46 15 42 119 150 40
Volvo
74 6 5 13 44 16 5
481 39 25 91 308 120 40
Mack
92 6 5 8 61 14 5
598 39 25 56 427 105 40
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DIESEL ENGINE LIMITS BY MODEL
CAT Iron Chrome Nickel
Aluminum
Coppe
r
Lead Tin
3406E
43 3 3 5 54 5 4
280 20 15 35 378 38 32
3304
49 6 3 9 38 7 5
319 39 15 63 266 53 40
3512B
19 3 3 6 43 7 3
124 20 15 42 301 53 24
3516
13 3 3 4 48 5 3
85 20 15 28 336 38 24
C15
57 4 3 6 100 7 6
371 26 15 42 700 53 54
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TREND ANALYSIS
Oil Analysis works best when at least three samples
have been taken over a short period of time so that
trends can be identified
Result trends over a sufficient period of time are more
useful than absolute numbers when trying to determine
what is occurring in a sampled machine.
Trending and graphing offer an easy to read
instantaneous analysis of the condition of the equipment,
condition of the lubricant, and level of contamination.
Never base a decision to tear down a machine on the
results of only one (1) oil analysis report
Refer to Interpreting Data Map
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TREND ANALYSIS
Physical property trends help determine if the
best lubricant is being used
Trend analysis helps in scheduling regular
maintenance such as oil and/or filter changes
Trend analysis helps establish best
practices maintenance procedures
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TREND ANALYSIS
Topping off will skew the trend and
should be noted when the sample is
submitted to the laboratory for processing
Note sump or reservoir capacity
Note if multiple components are lubricated
from same sump, i.e. motor or turbine,
gearbox, compressor
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WHAT IS CONSIDERED
SIGNIFICANT CHANGE?
Wear Metals
an increase of 5 to 20 ppm - depending on the
metal and the unit type - or an increase of
100%, whichever is larger
Contaminant Metals
an increase of 5 to 10 ppm or an increase of
100%, whichever is larger
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WHAT IS CONSIDERED
SIGNIFICANT CHANGE?
Water
an increase of 100%, or any increase that
approaches the advisory levels of that sample
point
Total Acid Number
an increase of 0.1 for R&O oils
an increase of 0.2 for AW oils
an increase of 0.3 for EP oils


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WHAT IS CONSIDERED
SIGNIFICANT CHANGE?
Viscosity
an increase or decrease of 5%
increases usually indicate lubricant degradation
decreases indicate product contamination
Direct Read Ferrography
a 50% increase of either DRS or DRL
ISO Particle Count
an increase of 2 classes in any of the
reporting ranges (2/5/15 or 4/6/14)
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HOW TO READ
OIL ANALYSIS REPORTS
Does the report suggest maintenance action?
Yes
Consider all other available diagnostic information (vibration,
thermography, in-line sensors)
Act on the recommendation or order more testing.
If lube change recommendation is due to contamination, ACT ON
RECOMMENDATION to ensure fluid integrity
No
Is re-sampling recommended?
Yes
Send second sample immediately or at half normal sample interval to
verify results
No
Monitor unit vitals and sample at normal interval

1. Review highest severity
reports first
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2. Review cautionary reports
Pay particular attention to cautionary data as it becomes
more useful as more data is acquired trends will
become easier to identify and appropriate actions to take
will appear clearer.
Sample results are borderline - some wear and
contamination results may be flagged but dont
necessarily indicate failure mode or results are not
significant enough to warrant action.
HOW TO READ
OIL ANALYSIS REPORTS
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3. Review normal reports
As time permits, review normal reports to learn what
normal results are for each unit sampled. Trends are
then more easily recognized.
HOW TO READ
OIL ANALYSIS REPORTS
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SAMPLE INFORMATION
Unit Type and ID should give as much detail as
possible. What kind of compressor, gearbox,
engine, etc. influences flagging parameters and
depth of analysis. Different applications and
metallurgies require different lubrication and have
great impact on how results are interpreted.
Manufacturer and
Model can also
identify metallurgies
involved as well as
the OEMs standard
maintenance
guidelines and
possible wear
patterns to expect.
Lube Manufacturer, Type and
Grade identifies a lubes
properties and its viscosity and is
critical in determining if the right
lube is being used.
Severity Status Levels:
0Normal
1Some items have violated initial flagging points yet are still
considered minor.
2A trend is developing.
3Simple maintenance and/or diagnostics are recommended.
4Failure is eminent if maintenance not performed.
A Lab # is assigned to the
sample upon entry for
processing and serves as a
reference number when
communicating questions or
concerns with the laboratory.
Filter Types and their
Micron Ratings are
important in analyzing
particle countthe
higher the micron
rating, the higher the
particle count results.
Sump Capacity
identifies the total
volume of oil (in gallons)
in which wear metals
are suspended and is
critical to trending wear
metal concentrations.
Lube Time is how long the
oil has been used. Unit
Time is the age of the
equipment and Lube
Added is how much oil has
been added since the last
sample was taken.
Make note of the difference
between the Date Sampled and
the Date Received by the lab.
Turnaround issues may point to
storing samples too long before
mailing or mail service problems.
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UNDERSTANDING RESULTS
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS
Combinations of these Wear Metals can
identify components within the machine that
are wearing. Knowing what metals a unit is
made of can greatly influence an analysts
recommendations and determine the value
of elemental analysis.
Knowledge of the environmental conditions under
which a unit operates can explain varying levels of
Contaminant Metals. Excessive levels of dust and
dirt can be abrasive and accelerate wear.
Additive and Multi-Source Metals may turn up in test results for a variety of
reasons. Molybdenum, antimony and boron are additives in some oils.
Magnesium, calcium and barium are often used in detergent/dispersant additives.
Phosphorous is used as an extreme pressure additive in gear oils. Phosphorous,
along with zinc, are used in anti-wear additives (ZDP).
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TEST DATA
Depending on lube grade,
Viscosity is tested at 40
and/or 100 C and reported in
centiStokes.
Too much disparity between oxidation and nitration
can indicate air to fuel ratio problems. As
Oxidation/Nitration increases, TAN will also
increase and TBN will begin to decrease.
High Fuel Dilution decreases unit
load capacity. Excessive Soot is a
sign of reduced combustion
efficiency.
Total Acid Numbers higher than that of new lube
indicate oxidation or some type of contamination.
When TAN and Total Base Number approach the
same number, the lube should be changed or
sweetened, meaning more lube should be added.
The ISO Code is an index number that represents a range of particles within a specific
micron range, i.e. 4, 6, 14. Each class designates a range of measured particles per
one ml of sample. The particle count is a cumulative range between 4 and 6 microns.
This test is valuable in determining large particle wear in filtered systems.
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UNDERSTANDING RESULTS
FLAGGING AND COMMENTING
125
^^^^^
Numbers with carrots
printed below them denote
test results the analyst has
flagged because they
exceed pre-set warning
parameters and warrant
closer examination or
require action.
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Test Reports
Report 24 metals (wear,
contaminant, multi-source
& additive
10 graphs on every report
5 severity status levels
Flags clearly identifiable on
all reports
New lube reference
availability
Reports accessible by
internet, fax and paper
Report Particle Sizes and
ISO Code

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About POLARIS
Oil Analysis
Wear Debris Analysis
Data Interpretation/Alarm Limits
Sampling Methods
Information Technology
57
SAMPLING
Objectives
Maximize data density
Minimize data disturbance
Determine proper frequency
Sampling Considerations
Sampling location
Sampling hardware
Sample bottle
Sample procedure
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ACTIVE ZONE SAMPLING
Sample from live fluid zones
Sample from turbulent zones such as
elbows
Sample downstream of bearings, gears,
pumps, cylinders and actuators
Sample machine during typical working
conditions and at normal operating
temperature
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ACTIVE ZONE SAMPLING
Dont sample from dead pipe legs or
hoses
Dont sample from laminar zones
Dont sample after filters or from sumps
Dont sample when machine is cold or
not operating
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ACTIVE ZONE SAMPLING
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SAMPLING PROCEDURES
Sampling Valve - Best
Suction Pump - Second Best
Drain Plug - Least Best
Dip Method - Not Recommended
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SAMPLING DEVICES
Quick Draw
Used on systems with 4-100
lbs. psi with a permanently
installed valve and a
disposable cap/needle/tube
assembly
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SAMPLING DEVICES
Push Button Valve
Used on systems with 4-100 lbs. psi
and does not require tubing
Vacuum Pump
Used on non-pressurized systems
pump is attached to sample jar,
tubing is inserted into pump and
then dipstick or reservoir halfway
pump activated until jar full
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BEST PRACTICES SUMMARY
Samples are taken at normal operating temperature
from an active zone upstream of filters and
downstream of machine components
Sampling valves and devices are flushed and clean
sample bottles are used at each sampling interval
Samples are taken at the proper frequency
Lube type, equipment ID and hours on the oil and the
machine are accurately recorded
Samples are forwarded immediately to the laboratory
via a trackable shipping service

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THE IMPORTANCE OF TIME
Trend analysis is most effective when
sampling intervals are consistent.
Samples should be taken according to
schedule and shipped to the laboratory
immediately.
Turnaround issues can often be
attributed to the amount of time that
elapses from when the sample is taken
to the time it ships.
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Why was Aluminum Flagged?
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High Viscosity
VALUES EXPRESSED IN PARTS PER MILLION (PPM) BY WEIGHT LUBE FLUID DATA
WEAR METALS CONTAMINANT ADDITIVE METALS
L
U
B
E

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@

1
0
0

C
T
A
N
12 1 0 3 3 1 1 0 0 2 7 9 0 141 774 221 13.9 0.86
750
14 2 0 4 5 1 0 0 3 2 2 3 0 208 635 236 14.1 2.6
790
15 2 0 3 6 2 2 0 5 2 3 3 0 208 635 236 16.2 2.6
720
15 2 1 3 6 3 2 0 5 3 4 4 0 275 615 235 16.8 3.2
750
CHG. I-R I-R I-R I-R I-R
WATER HCARB OXID NITR GLYC
Y 1 771 18 20 0
Y 1 722 22 21 0
N 1 784 22 21 0
Y 1 752 22 21 0
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VALUES EXPRESSED IN PARTS PER MILLION (PPM) BY WEIGHT LUBE FLUID DATA
WEAR METALS CONTAMINANT ADDITIVE METALS
L
U
B
E

I
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O
N
C
H
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1
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T
A
N
12 1 0 3 3 1 1 0 0 2 7 9 0 141 774 221 13.9 0.86
750
14 2 0 4 5 1 0 0 3 2 2 3 0 208 635 236 14.1 2.6
790
15 2 0 3 6 2 2 0 5 2 3 3 0 208 635 236 14.2 2.6
720
15 2 0 3 6 3 2 0 70 3 4 4 0 275 615 235 14.8 2.6
750
CHG. I-R I-R I-R I-R I-R
WATER HCARB OXID NITR GLYC
Y 1 771 18 20 0
Y 1 722 22 21 0
N 1 784 22 21 0
Y 1 752 22 21 0
High Silicon
69
Iron Wear but why?
VALUES EXPRESSED IN PARTS PER MILLION (PPM) BY WEIGHT
WEAR METALS CONTAMINANT ADDITIVE METALS
L
U
B
E

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N
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P
H
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P
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O
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S
15 1 0 3 3 1 1 0 10 2 7 2 0 141 774
750
21 8 0 4 5 1 0 0 18 5 7 2 0 208 635
790
97 21 0 3 6 2 2 0 35 6 7 4 0 208 635
720
211 30 0 3 6 2 2 0 78 5 8 3 0 275 615
750
CHG. I-R I-R I-R I-R I-R
WATER HCARB OXID NITR GLYC
Y 1 771 18 20 0
Y 1 722 22 21 0
N 1 784 22 23 0
Y 1 752 22 22 0
70
Any
Questions?