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HOW TO WRITE

CHAPTER 5
(Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations)
The whole research study is
summarized the synopsis of the
research objectives, hypothesis,
research methodology, sampling
designs, consideration in determining
sample, the subjects, research
instruments, measurement and data
collection and processes, and
statistical treatment.
This part of the study states in
concise form the findings based on
the analysis and interpretation of the
data gathered out of the research
instruments used and presented
according to specific problem in
Chapter 1. Generalization in the form
of conclusions are presented and the
solutions to the problems are offered
in the form of recommendations.
GUIDELINES IN WRITING THE SUMMARY OF
FINDINGS
1. A brief statement about the main purpose of the study be
stated.
2. The findings may be lumped up all together but clarify
demands specific questions under the statement of
problem must be written first to be followed by the
findings that would answer it. The specific questions
should follow the order they are given under the
statement of the problem.
3. Every statment of fact should consist of
words, numbers or statistical measures
woven into a meaningful statement. No
deductions on the interpretation be made.
4. The findings should be concisely stated.
CONSLUSIONS
The final part of the study are joined
together harmoniously with the findings. The
results should be arranged in a logical order
based on the statement of the problem. The
hypothesis which is the antecedent of a
conditional proposition is either accepted or
rejected.
GUIDELINES IN WRITING THE CONCLUSION
1. Conclusions should not contain numerals.
2. Conclusions should appropriately answer the
specific questions raised at the beggining of
the investigation.
3. Conclusions should be drawn from the direct
effects of the findings
4. Conclusions should be explicit and definite, leaving
merely implied giving the researcher a bit of doubt.
The use of qualifiers such as, probably, perhaps,
maybe should be avoided.
5. Conclusions should not be repetitions of any
statements anywhere in the research, thesis or
dissertation. In any event, they may be
recapitulations if necessary, however, they should be
avoided differently and should convey the same
information as the statement summarized.
SOME SUGGESTIONS CAN PROVIDE HELPFUL TIPS
TO THE RESEARCHERS IN DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
1. Know the area / locale in which the research
has been conducted.
2. What is in the research literature?
3. Focus on the meaning / essence of the results.
4. If theory is involved, either existing or a new
theory is reproduced, show the similarity
between the results and the theory.
5. If possible, suggest future investigation
that might lead to address unsolved
problems and provide an extension of
knowledge.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations are based on the
conclusions of the study. Give a detailed
description of the suggestion for future action
based on the significance of the findings. It
includes implications for future use of findings and
recommendation for future research. Appeals to
people or agencies concerned to help solve the
problems should be stated categorically.
GUIDELINES IN WRITING THE
RECOMMENDATION
1. It should have the aim and effort to solve
problems in the study
2. It should ensure a continuous benefit being
accorded to the universe mankind involved.
3. It should recommend a further study or
investigation in a wider perspective and
application.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
The bibliography is the last part of any research
work where the list of readings on a particular
subject that are used or consulted in the preparation
of the thesis / dissertation or that are referred to in
the text are alphabetically arranged. The bibliography
as a part of the research work is placed after the
recommendations. It provides the reader and other
researchers the scope of the research study.
APPENDICES
The page for appendices is placed after the
bibliography. These are the supplementary
materials used in the preparation of the thesis /
dissertation, these include questionnaire, letter to
authority to conduct the study and its approval,
letter to the respondents / participants of the
investigation, supporting documents, etc.
CURRICULUM VITAE
This is the last part of a thesis /
dissertation. The information should include
the:
I Personal
Name
Address
Date of Birth
Place of Birth
Civil Status
II Educational
Attainment
Elementary
Secondary
Undergraduate
Graduate
III Civil Service /
Government
Examination Passed
IV Work Experience
Teaching
Administrative
V Scholarships / Grants Received
VI Productive Scholarship and Creative Works
Publications
Books
Articles
Invention
Researches Conducted
Honors / Award Received
Institutional
Local / Regional / National / International
Professional Standing and Recognition
Officer
Member
Membership in Professional Organization
Officer
Member
Seminars / Training Programs / Conferences /
Workshops Attended
Institutional
Local / Regional / National / International
Education Travel
Sponsoring agency / institution
Community / Extension Services
Organizer / Consultant
Resource Speaker
Participant
GUIDELINES IN EVALUATING A THESIS OR
DISSERTATION
Being able to write a critical analysis of a thesis or
dissertation is a valuable experience for a graduate
research student.
The following are guidelines in evaluating a thesis
or dissertation:
The Title and Abstract
The title and abstract should be clear and concise.
The Problem and Hypothesis
The problem should be clearly stated and delimited.
The significance of the problem should be established and
should recognize the intended beneficiaries.
The relevance, strength and utilization of concepts and
theories to the research work should be clearly stated.
The hypothesis should be clearly stated and should be
testable.
The assumptions, limitations, and delimitations should be
stated.
Important terms to be defined should be arranged in
alphabetical order.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
It should be well organized, both foreign and local.
It should adequately cover important findings.
The relevance and the justification of the reviewed
literature to the present study local and foreign should
provide a balanced presentation conducted in various
readings.
The literature cited should have direct relevance to the
problem and the hypothesis.
A synthesis should be provided.
Methodology
The research design should be described in detail.
The research design should be adequate.
The justification of the research method used should
be stated.
The relevant variables should be recognized.
The data gathering instruments should be
appropriate, valid, reliable, and established and how
developed and validated.
A brief description of the place where the
subjects were obtained should be described.
The samples and sampling technique used,
sampling size, and how it is determined.
Include details of data collection procedure.
Results
It should be presented according to the objectives of the study;
preferably topical presentation.
Statistical treatment of should be appropriate.
Use of tables and figures should be appropriate.
Plain reading and explanation of tables, figures, and graphs should be
supplied.
The analysis of data relationships should be logical.
Analysis and interpretations of results should be clear.
The problem / hypothesis should be restated clearly and appropriately.
Findings and conclusions should justify the data presented and analyzed.
Summary
The synopsis of the research objectives, hypothesis, research
methodology and findings should be stated clearly.
Conclusions
Brief statements about the generalizations should be inferred
from the results / findings.
Reccomendations
State the detailed description of the suggestions for future
action based on the significance of the findings.
Attainability and practicability of recommendations.
Include reccomendations for future research.
Bibliography / References
Include the list of readings / works by a
particular author.
Include the list of source materials that are used
/ consulted in the preparation of the thesis or
dissertation. This will include books, unpublished
studies, journals, periodicals, and other
materials.
Appendices
The list of supplementary materials that were used
in the thesis or dissertation should be presented.
These materials include questionnaire, letter
requesting permission and its approval from
authority to conduct the study, distribute
questionnaires to the respondents, legal
documents and other relevant illustrative materials.