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Nursing Research

Board Review
Research defined
• A systematic search for
understanding, an attempt to gain
solutions, discover and develop an
organized body of knowledge
Nursing Research
• Concerned with the systematic
study and assessment of nursing
problems or phenomena, finding
ways to improve nursing practice
and patient care through creative
studies, initiating change and taking
action to make new knowledge
useful to nursing
Foundation of nursing
knowledge
• Customs and traditions
• Authority
• Staff development and experience
General types of research

• Basic Research
– Search for new knowledge
• Applied Research
– Application of knowledge to solve
problems
• Action Research
– Study of certain problem where
conclusions are drawn
Characteristics of
research
1. Involves gathering of new data from
new sources
2. Directed towards the solution of
problem
3. Analytical and empirical
4. Requires expertise
5. Logical, honest and innovative
6. Can be replicated
7. Carefully recorded
Purposes of NURSING
research
1. Provide scientific basis for nursing
practice
2. Develop new techniques, tools. New
knowledge
3. Provide solutions to problems
concerning health
4. Help determine the areas of need in
nursing
5. Prepare oneself to be a diligent
researcher. It is on duty of a NURSE.
NP and NS
• Nursing process is similar to
research process
• both consist of a number of closely
related activities that overlap
• Both involve problem solving and
the use of logical systems of
inductive and deductive reasoning
Overview of the step in NR

• There are variety of steps in


conducting research
• Most authors differ slightly but they
have common sequence
Steps in nursing research
1. Identify problem
2. Conduct literature review
3. Identify theoretical concept
4. Formulate hypothesis
5. Operationalize variables
6. Select research design
7. Ascertain and select sample
8. Conduct a pilot study
9. Collect data
10. analyze data
11.Interpret results
12.Disseminate information
steps
1. Formulate the Problem
• Define the problem
• Define purpose of research
• Review related literature
• Formulate theoretical framework
• Define the population
• State the SPECIFIC research problem
• State the assumptions
• State the scope and limitation
• Define the research terms
steps
2. Formulate the hypothesis

3. Determine research design and


methodology

4. Select and develop tools for data


collection

5. Develop analysis of data plan


steps
6. Collect the data

7. Organize and process the data

8. Analyze and interpret the data

9. Formulate conclusions

10. Write the research reports


Formulate the problem
• Curiosity or burning interest form
the researcher may lead to the
formulation of a problem
• The problem must be:
– Feasible
– Important
– Clearly defined
– Observable
– Satisfies the interests of the
QUALIFIED researcher
Review of related
literature
1. To define research questions, models
and tools that may be useful in
problem identification
2. To provide comparative data that are
available for analysis
3. To compare one’s findings with other
theoretical an conceptual frameworks
4. To identify studies that may be
replicated
Formulate theoretical
framework
• Useful guides are the data from
literature
• Previous theories
Delineate the population
• The POPULATION refers to the
largest body of the individuals being
research
• SAMPLING is the process of
selecting a PORTION of the
POPULATION to represent the
whole
Delineate the population
• Factors that can influence sample
size include:
1. Accessibility
2. Cost
3. Amount of time available
Delineate the population
TYPES OF SAMPLING

1. Probability sampling
• Individuals are given chance to be
selected

1. Non probability sampling


• Selection is based upon the criteria of
researcher, persons are NOT given
equal chance
Delineate the population
PROBABILITY SAMPLING
• Simple random= selection is done
by chance, usually lottery or table
of random numbers
• Stratified random sampling=
population is divided into LEVELS
or strata and selection is done per
level
Delineate the population
PROBABILITY SAMPLING
3. Systematic Random sampling= this
consist of establishing a pattern
like: every 5th person, every 8th
household
4. Cluster sampling= involves
selection of sample form various
section of the population
Delineate the population
NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING
• CONVENIENCE sampling/accidental
sampling= data are collected from
anyone available

• Snowball or network sampling=


data are collected from those
referred by another person
Delineate the population
NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING
3. Purposive sampling= selection of
subjects based on certain
characteristics

4. Cross cultural= variety of culture

5. Cross sectional= one point only


Scope and limitations
• Scope is the extent to which the
study will be made

• Limitations are perceived


weaknesses

• Delimitations are restrictions that


the researches places on the study
STEP 2
Formulate Hypothesis
Hypothesis is a scientific guess. It is
only tested not proved
1. Simple hypothesis
2. Complex hypothesis
3. Null hypothesis= assumption that
there is NO difference
Step 2
Variable
• A quality, property or characteristic
of a person or thing to be studied
that can be quantitatively measured

• It is a factor that varies


Step 2
Variable
1. INDEPENDENT Variable= the
presumed CAUSE. The one
MANIPULATED by the researcher

2. DEPENDENT VARIABLE= the


presumed EFFECT or the response.
It is otherwise called CRITERION
VARIBALE
Step 2
Variable
3. EXTRANEOUS or UNCONTROLLED
or CONFOUNDING variable=
variable that may affect the
dependent variable
Step 2
Variable
Dichotomous variable= sex
Polychotomous variable= many
categories
Step 3
Research Design
1. EXPERIMENTAL research
• Conducted in a specialized setting

1. NON experimental research


• Conducted in a natural setting such as
hospital, clinic
Step 3
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH approach
• Describes and interprets what IS
and reveals conditions and
relationships that EXIST or DO
NOT exist
• Survey, Case analysis,
comparative studies, relationship
studies
Step 3
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH approach
Survey
• Data are gathered from a relatively
LARGE number of cases at a particular
time
1. Normative survey= norms or typical
condition
2. Social survey= current social problem
3. Community survey
4. School survey
Non-experimental
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Less expensive CANNOT establish causal


relationships
Completed in SHORT timeNOT used for diagnosis
and explanation
Cooperation of subjects NOT always useful for
easily obtained theory development
Translation of findings is Difficult to get financial
more acceptable to aid
consumers of research
Use for PREDICTIVE CANNOT be applied to test
purpose a program or procedure
Step 4
Select data collection method
1. Reliability= ACCURACY or
precision of the tool. The
measurements are the same if
REPEATED
Step 4
Select data collection method
2. VALIDITY= relevancy of
measurements. It measures what it
is supposed to measure
Step 4
Select data collection method
3. SENSITIVITY= measures the fine
differences among the subjects
Step 5
Develop the data analysis plan
consider how the data should be
analyze
Step 6
COLLECTION OF DATA
1. Use of existing records
2. Observation
3. Questionnaire
4. interview
Data
Nominal data Data that can be organized into
CATEGORIES of a defined
property but cannot be
compared
Ordinal Used when data can be
assigned categories that can be
ranked
Interval Have equal numerical distance
between intervals. NO ZERO
SCALE
Ratio Highest form of measure, similar
to interval BUT with ZERO
POINT
Step 6
Questionnaire
• The most common
• Written in a form that is distributed
• Questions constructed and pre-tested carefully
1. FREE response/ unstructured= respondents can
write
2. Close-ended/Structured= respondents just
check the prepared response
Step 6 Questionnaire
Advantages Disadvantages
Simple method Responses may lack
depth
Less time consumed Omission of items
Data gathered can be Responses may not
widely scattered be the actual
responses
Researcher does not Printing, distribution
need to see respondents and collection are
personally
expensive and maybe
difficult
Step 6
INTERVIEW
• Second most common
• Relevant ideas and depth van be
explored

1. Structured interview= read to the


respondents
2. Unstructured interview= guide
questions only
Step 6 Interview
Advantages disadvantages
Complete answers Requires more time
possible
Misunderstanding Interpersonal relationship
minimized between subject and
researcher may not be
the same
Topics can be pursued Cost, time, effort are
even greater than
interview
No items omitted

Subjects does not have to


be literate
Step 6
Observation
• Most directive means
• Common in nursing care research

1. Participant observation=
investigator blends with subject
2. Non-participant= use of weighing
scale, BP to monitor quantitative
changes
Step 6: Observation
Advantages Disadvantages

Valuable in studying Observed clients are


nursing practice subject to bias
Inexpensive. Can be Events may occur rapidly
continued anytime and impossible to record

Subjects are available Extensive training


necessary
Simple to develop Time needed to wait for
the occurrence
Allows view of situation Difficult to be always
PRESENT to view
Step 6
HAWTHORNE effect
• People may INTENTIONALY change
their behavior because they know
that they are being studied
Step 6
HALO effect
• Observer may have the TENDENCY
to rate certain subjects as either
LOW or HIGH depending on the
impression the subject gives to the
observer
Step 7
ORGANIZE AND PROCESS DATA
• Editing
• Coding
• Scoring
• Sealing summarizing
• Use of tables and computer to
calculate the data
Step 7
ORGANIZE AND PROCESS DATA
For QUALITATIVE DATA
• Rate and percentages

For QUANTITATIVE DATA


• Measures of central tendency and
measures of variation
Step 8
ANALYZE the DATA
• Draw meaning from the finding
• The researcher should be able to
say if the NULL hypothesis is
accepted or rejected
Step 9
FORMULATE CONCLUSIONS and
Recommendations
These are judgment about the data
collected and the suggestions of
possible application of the research
Step 10
WRITE THE RESEARCH REPORT
• Report may be prepared for
publication
• The MAIN purpose is to disseminate
the findings of the study for others
to utilize
Ethical Issues in Research

1. Confidentiality
2. Autonomy
3. Beneficence
4. Non-maleficence
5. Justice