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Introduction to Manufacturing

Process

Dr.R.ANAND,
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology-Trichy

Introduction
Most of the products that we use in our day-to-day life do
not occur by nature in their present form and dimension.
We require some raw materials from which those products
are manufactured or produced.
There are various processes available to transform the raw
material into its final shape and dimensions.
These processes that the industries use to convert the raw
materials into their finished products are called Production
processes or Manufacturing processes.
They include not only the physical processes associated
with transforming the shape of the raw materials but also
the allied processes like process planning, production
control, assembly and quality assurance.

Machining Processes:
In machining processes, the required shape and dimensions of the
final component is obtained by removing the unwanted parts of the raw
material in the form of chips.

Casting Processes:
In casting processes, the required shape and dimensions of the
final component is obtained by pouring the molten material into a mold
cavity where, upon solidification, it takes the shape of the cavity.

Forming Processes:
In forming processes, the required shape and dimensions of the
final component is obtained by deforming the raw material.


Engineering materials
Material selection is one of the important step
in engineering design.
Study about the properties of material is
required to select the proper material.


Classification of engineering materials

Classification of materials
1. Metals
2. Non-metals
3. Composites
Metals
1. Ferrous (Pure iron + carbon)
Cast Iron
Carbon and Alloy steel
Stainless steel
Tool and Die steel
2. Non-ferrous
Aluminium and its alloys
Copper and its alloys
Titanium and its alloys
Magnesium and its alloys
FERROUS METALS

Ferrous metals are wrought iron (with less than 0.2% carbon), cast iron
(with 3.5-5% carbon), steel (with 0.1-1.2% carbon).
They may also be alloys of iron and other elements.
Ferrous alloys are the most commonly used engineering materials. Its
density is around 7800 kg/m
3
.

Cast Iron:
Carbon is present in Cast Iron in the free form and it is usually present in the range of
1.8% to 4.5%. In addition, silicon, manganese, sulphur and phosphorus are also
contained in varying amounts.
Depending upon the form of carbon present, several types of cast iron are obtained.
These include
Gray Cast Iron,
White Cast Iron,
Chilled Cast Iron & Ductile Cast Iron (Nodular Cast Iron),
Malleable Cast Iron


Carbon Steels
Plain carbon Steels are alloys of Iron and Carbon. They are further classified as
Low carbon steel (upto 0.30% C)
Medium carbon steel (0.30 to 0.60%)
High carbon steel (above 0.60% C)

Alloy Steels:
Steels that contain nickel, chromium, cobalt, vanadium etc. apart from
carbon as alloying elements are called as alloy steels.
Stainless Steels:
It contains at least 10% chromium, with or without other elements.
Based on the structures, stainless steels can be grouped into three
grades:
Austenitic: Typically contains 18% chromium and 8% nickel and is
widely known as 18-8.
Ferritic: Contains very little nickel and either 17% chromium or 12%
chromium with other elements such as aluminum or titanium.
Martensitic: Typically contains 12% chromium and no nickel.
Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are usually classified as magnetic and
austenitic stainless steels non-magnetic.
Tool and Die Steels:
Tool and die steels are specially alloyed steels.
They are designed for high strength, toughness (resistance to impact)
and wear resistance at room and elevated temperatures.

FERROUS METALS

NONFERROUS METALS


Nonferrous metals and alloys cover a wide range of materials, from the
more common metals such as aluminium, copper and magnesium to
high-strength, high-temperature alloys such as those of tungsten,
titanium, tantalum and molybdenum.

Aluminium and its alloys:
The main reason in selecting aluminium and its alloys are their high strength-
to-weight ratio, their resistance to corrosion for many chemicals, their high
thermal and electrical conductivity, reflectivity and appearance and their ease
of formability and machinability. Its density is around 2700 kg/m
3
.
Aluminium alloys can be divided into two major groups depending on their
method of fabrication:
Wrought alloys, which are shaped by plastic deformation
Casting alloys, which are made by casting process

The uses of aluminium and its alloys are in containers and packaging
(aluminium cans and foils) and in transportation (aircraft and aerospace
applications, automobiles and marine craft)

NONFERROUS METALS


Copper and its alloys:

Copper and its alloys have properties somewhat similar to those of aluminium and its
alloys. In addition, they are among the best conductors of electricity and heat and they have
good corrosion resistance.

Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc and has numerous applications, including
decorative objects
Bronze, which is an alloy of copper and tin having good strength and hardness for
applications such as bearings etc

Titanium and its alloys:

Titanium and its alloys have excellent corrosion resistance for applications where
strength considerations are secondary.
Aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, manganese and other alloying elements are added
to titanium alloys to impart properties such as improved workability, strength and
hardenability.

Magnesium and its alloys:

Magnesium is the lightest engineering metal and it has good vibration damping
characteristics. Its alloys are used in structural and non-structural applications wherever
weight is of primary importance.
Magnesium alloys are used in aerospace applications, high-speed machinery, and
transportation and materials handling equipment.

NONFERROUS METALS
Plastics:

Plastics are materials that are composed principally of naturally occurring
and modified or artificially made polymers often containing additives such as
fibres, filler, pigments and the like that further enhance their properties.

Plastics include thermoplastics, thermoset materials and elastomers.

Ceramics:
A ceramic is often broadly defined as any inorganic non-metallic material.
Some of the useful properties of ceramics and glasses are high melting temperature,
strength, stiffness, hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance and low
density.

Composites:
Composites are formed from two or more types of materials. Examples include
polymer/ceramic and metal/ceramic composites. Since the overall properties of the
composites in the required orientations are superior to those of the individual
constituents, they are widely used for many engineering applications.


Classifications of manufacturing processes

Manufacturing Processes
1. Casting
2. Forming
i. Forging
ii. Rolling
iii. Extrusion
iv. Drawing
3. Metal joining
i. Welding Gas, Arc
ii. Brazing
iii. Soldering
4. Machining
i. Lathe
ii. Drilling
iii. Milling
Casting
Casting is a manufacturing process by which a
liquid material is usually poured into a mold,
which contains a hollow cavity of the desired
shape, and then allowed to solidify.
The solidified part is also known as a casting,
which is ejected or broken out of the mold to
complete the process.
Casting is most often used for making complex
shapes that would be otherwise difficult or
uneconomical to make by other methods.
Patterns

Patterns in sand casting are used to form the mold cavity. One major
requirement is that patterns (and therefore the mold cavity) must be
oversized
to account for shrinkage in cooling and solidification, and
to provide enough metal for the subsequence machining operation(s)
Basic production steps in sand casting
Foundry sands


The typical foundry sand is a mixture of fresh
and recycled sand, which contains 90% silica
(SiO2), 3% water, and 7% clay.
The grain size and grain shape are very
important as they define the surface quality of
casting and the major mold parameters such as
strength and permeability.


Casting method - moulding

Casting process Pouring of molten
metal

Wax moulding

Cores

Cores serve to produce internal surfaces in
castings. In some cases they have to be supported
by chaplets for more stable positioning:
Cores
Cores are made of foundry sand with addition of
some resin for strength by means of core boxes


METAL FORMING PROCESS

Plastic Deformation Processes

Operations that induce shape changes on the workpiece by
plastic deformation under forces applied by various tools and
dies.

Bulk Deformation Processes

These processes involve large amount of plastic deformation.
The cross-section of workpiece changes without volume change.
The ratio cross-section area/volume is small.
For most operations, hot or warm working conditions are
preferred although some operations are carried out at room
temperature.


Classification of Bulk Deformation Processes

Forging:
The work piece is compressed between two opposing
dies so that the die shapes are imparted to the work.
There are many different kinds of forging processes
available, however they can be grouped into three
main classes:
Drawn out: length increases, cross-section decreases
Upset: Length decreases, cross-section increases
Squeezed in closed compression dies: produces
multidirectional flow



Forging operation

Hand forging

Hand forging

Shaft forging

Forging products

Forging products

Rolling

Compressive deformation process in which the
thickness of a plate is reduced by squeezing it
through two rotating cylindrical rolls.

Rolling operation

Rolling mill

Rolling of rod

Rolling of sheet metal

Hot rolling operation

Extrusion
The work material is forced to flow through a
die opening taking its shape


Extrusion operation

Tube extrusion

Extrusion products

Drawing
The diameter of a wire or bar is reduced by pulling it through a die opening
(bar drawing) or a series of die openings (wire drawing)




Drawing is a forming process in which the metal is stretched over a
form. In deep drawing the depth of the part being made is more than half its
diameter.
Deep drawing is used for making automotive fuel tanks, kitchen sinks,
2 piece aluminum cans etc.
METAL CUTTING PROCESS

Lathes:
In a turning or facing operation on a lathe, the work piece rotates
to provide the cutting motion, and the feed is by motion of the
cutting tool.
Lathes are used for the production of all kinds of components
which are symmetrical about their axis of rotation.
Drilling Machines:
The cutting action results from the rotary movement of the
cutting tool or work piece, with a feed motion of the work piece
or tool, in the direction of the rotating axis.
Drilling machines are used for drilling, boring, counter-sinking,
reaming and tapping operations.
Milling Machines:
In the case of milling, both the tool and the work piece can move
horizontal or vertical direction.
Milling machines are used to produce flat surfaces, sink, and
slot.

Basic Operation of a Lathe

A lathe is a machine tool which turns cylindrical
material, touches a cutting tool to it, and cuts the
material.


Photographic view of Lathe

CNC Lathe

Three Important Elements

1.Cutting speed
It expresses with the number of rotations (rpm) of the chuck of a lathe.
2. Depth of cut
The cutting depth of the tool affects to the processing speed and the roughness
of surface.
3. Feed rate
The sending speed of the tool also affects to the processing speed and the
roughness of surface.

LATHE OPERATIONS


Turning

Turning is a machining process to produce parts round in shape by a
single point tool on lathes.
The tool is fed either linearly in the direction parallel or perpendicular
to the axis of rotation of the work piece, or along a specified path to
produce complex rotational shapes.
The primary motion of cutting in turning is the rotation of the work
piece, and the secondary motion of cutting is the feed motion.

Operations in Turning

Turning is not a single process but class of many and different
operations performed on a lathe.

Turning of cylindrical surfaces
The lathe can be used to reduce the diameter of a part to a desired
dimension. The resulting machined surface is cylindrical.

Lathe operations-Turning

Turning of flat surfaces

A lathe can be used to create a smooth, flat face very accurately
perpendicular to the axis of a cylindrical part. Tool is fed radially or
axially to create a flat machined surface.
Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a work
piece to produce a flat surface.


Lathe operations- facing

Lathe operations-Contour profiling/Taper
turning
Cutting tool has a simple shape, but the feed motion is complex;
cutting tool is fed along a contour thus creating a contoured
shape on the work piece. For profiling, special lathes or devices
are required.

Lathe operations- Knurling
This is not a machining operation at all, because it
does not involve material removal. Instead, it is a
metal forming operation used to produce a regular
crosshatched pattern in the work surface.

Lathe operations-Threading
Threads are cut using lathes by advancing the cutting tool at a feed
exactly equal to the thread pitch. The single-point cutting tool cuts
in a helical band, which is actually a thread.
Another possibility is to cut threads by means of a thread die
(external threads), or a tap (internal threads). These operations are
generally performed manually for small thread diameters.
Lathe operations- Forming
Cutting tool has a shape that is imparted to the work
piece by plunging the tool into the work piece.
In form turning, cutting tool is complex and expensive
but feed is linear and does not require special machine
tools or devices.

Miscellaneous operations
Some other operations, which do not use the single-
point cutting tool, can be performed on a lathe, making
turning one of the most versatile machining processes.
Drilling
It is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut
or enlarge a hole in solid materials.
The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It
cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the
work piece, which forms chips at the cutting
edge.
Hand drilling machine
Hand drill is
commonly used
for drilling of
small holes
Drill press

Drill press is preferable when the location and orientation of the hole must be
controlled accurately

Radial drilling machine
This is the largest drill press designed to drill up to 100-mm
diameter holes in large work parts. It has a radial arm along which
the drilling head can be moved and clamped.

Drilling method
Drilling Operations

Core drilling is used to increase the diameter of an existing hole;
Step drilling is used to drill a stepped (multi-diameter) hole in a
solid material;
Counter boring provides a stepped hole again but with flat and
perpendicular relative to hole axis face. The hole is used to seat
internal hexagonal bolt heads;
Countersinking is similar to counter boring, except that the step is
conical for flat head screws:
Reaming provides a better tolerance and surface finish to an initially
drilled hole. Reaming slightly increases the hole diameter. The tool
is called reamer;
Center drilling is used to drill a starting hole to precisely define the
location for subsequent drilling. The tool is called center drill. A
center drill has a thick shaft and very short flutes. It is therefore very
stiff and will not walk as the hole is getting started;

Various Drilling Operations

Drilling tools and reaming operation

Milling
The conventional milling machines provide a
primary rotating motion for the cutter held in the
spindle, and a linear feed motion for the work
piece, which is fastened onto the worktable.
Milling machines for machining of complex
shapes usually provide both a rotating primary
motion and a curvilinear feed motion for the
cutter in the spindle with a stationary work piece.
Column-and-knee milling machines

The column-and-knee milling machines are the
basic machine tool for milling. The name
comes from the fact that this machine has two
principal components, a column that supports
the spindle, and a knee that supports the work
table.
There are two different types of column-and-
knee milling machines according to position of
the spindle axis:
-horizontal
-vertical

Types of milling


Down (climb) milling, when the cutter rotation is
in the same direction as the motion of the work
piece being fed, and
Up (conventional) milling, in which the work piece
is moving towards the cutter, opposing the cutter
direction of rotation:

Two basic types of column-and-knee milling machines, (left)
horizontal and (right) vertical

Photographic view of Horizontal milling
machine

Photographic view of Vertical milling
machine
MILLING OF FLAT SURFACES

Peripheral Milling
- In peripheral milling, also called plain milling, the axis
of the cutter is parallel to the surface being machined,
and the operation is performed by cutting edges on the
outside periphery of the cutter.
- The primary motion is the rotation of the cutter. The
feed is imparted to the work piece.

Face milling

In face milling, cutter is perpendicular to the
machined surface. The cutter axis is vertical, but
in the newer CNC machines it often is horizontal.
In face milling, machining is performed by teeth
on both the end and periphery of the face-milling
cutter.
MILLING OF COMPLEX SURFACES

Form milling
In form milling, the cutting edges of the peripheral cutter
(called form cutter) have a special profile that is imparted
to the work piece.
Cutters with various profiles are available to cut different
two-dimensional surfaces.

Profile milling

In profile milling, the conventional end mill is used to
cut the outside or inside periphery of a flat part.
The end mill works with its peripheral teeth and is fed
along a curvilinear path equidistant from the surface
profile.

Surface contouring

The end mill, which is used in surface contouring has a
hemispherical end and is called ball-end mill.
The ball-end mill is fed back and forth across the work piece
along a curvilinear path at close intervals to produce complex
three-dimensional surfaces.
Similar to profile milling, surface contouring require relatively
simple cutting tool but advanced, usually computer-controlled
feed control system.



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