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Controlling points, Faults,

Causes and Remedies


Involved in Different
Finishing Processes of Knit
Fabric
SUPERVISING FACULTY:

RAJIB SAHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING
SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY

NAME ID NUMBER

IMRAN HOSSAIN

2009000400079

MD.SAIFUDDIN KHAN

2009000400034

Faruk Ahammed

2009000400007

TANZIR

2009000400016
MD.AMINUL ISLAM 2009000400104

MD.SAIFUDDIN KHAN

2009000400034

In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to
the processes that convert the woven or
knitted cloth into a usable material and more
specifically to any process performed after
dyeing the yarn or fabric to improve the look,
performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finished
textile or clothing.

The precise meaning
depends on context.

To improve the appearance of the fabric,
To improve the feel of the fabric by softening,
stiffening, etc.
To improve wearing qualities of cloth by making
it shrink resistant, crease resistant or free from
pills and soiling.
To make garments hold their shape and enable
them to be worn without ironing.
To impart special properties to the fabric for
specific end uses.
To set the texture of certain fabrics and make
others dimensionally stable.
To produce stronger and more durable fabrics.


Mechanical
Chemical
Temporary
Permanent
Or Durable
Temporary
Permanent
Or Durable
Calendaring
Raising
Starching
Finishing
Resin,
Softening,
Mercirization,
Water
Repellent.
For Tubular Form:
Hydro-extractor

De-watering

Dryer

Tube compactor

For Open Form :
Hydro-extractor

De-watering

Dryer

Slitter

Stenter

Open Compactor

Functions:
To extract water from fabric.
It is used for collar, cuff, and when fabric
quantity is low.

Controlling point:
Speed

Faults Causes Remedies

Crease Mark
Damp fabric moving at
high speed in twisted
form, in the Hydro
extractor (Centrifuge)
Use anti Crease, during
the Scouring & the
Dyeing process
(The use of anti Crease,
swells the Cellulose &
prevents the formation of
Crease marks)
Spread the fabric in loose
& open form & not in the
rope form, in the Hydro
Extractor.
Faruk Ahammed

2009000400007

Function:
To remove excess water from the fabric,
about 70-75%.
Facilates the use of softener.

Controlling points:
Speed
Padder Pressure
Ballooning

Faults Causes Remedies

Wet Squeezer Marks
These marks are caused
due to the excessive
pressure, of the squeezer
rolls of the Padding
Mangle, on the wet fabric
Use the Padding mangle,
only for the application
of the softener.
Use a hydro extractor
(Centrifuge) for the
extraction, to avoid the
squeezer roll marks.
Soon after extraction,
open the fabric manually,
to prevent crease marks
in the damp fabric.
Softener Mark
Improper mixing of the
Softener.
Improper running time of
the fabric during
application of softener.
Entanglement of the
fabric during application
of softener.
Maintaining proper reel
sped & pumps speed.
Proper Mixing of the
softener before addition.
Prevent the entanglement
of the fabric during
application of softener.
Function:
Slit the tube fabric into open from
Remove excess water from fabric about 70-
75% water
Controlling points:
Slitting point
Speed
Padder Pressure
Ballooning

Faults Causes Remedies
Crease mark
If ballooning is not
controlled
Proper ballooning of
the fabric should be
controlled by air flow
before it passes
through padder
Softener spot
If softener solution is
not properly prepared.
If padder roller is not
properly cleaned.
Softener solution
should properly be
prepared.
Padder roller should be
cleaned properly.
Improper slitting
Slitting is not done
following the slitting
mark.
Observe whether
sensor /operator is
working properly.
Function:
To dry the fabric
Both open & tube form fabric can be dried
here
Mainly GSM highly fabric is dried.

Controlling points:
Speed
Temperature


IMRAN HOSSAIN

2009000400079

Faults Causes Remedies
Overheating and Shade
Variation.
If speed and temperature
of fabric is not properly
controlled.
Temperature & speed
should be controlled
properly.
Function:
Sometimes used to dry wet fabric
Controlled GSM of fabric
Controlled Dia of fabric
Controlled shrinkage of fabric
Controlled Spirality of fabric
Item set of synthetic Fabric.

Controlling point:
Temperature & Speed:
For curing of pigment dyed fabric

For Heat Setting
Fabric type Temperature Speed
Lycra 190c 17-20 m/min
Polyester 185c 17-20m/min
Overfeed
Padder pressure
Skew and Bow
Faults Causes Remedies
Startch stains and white lines on
finished cloth
Starch stains and white lines
on the finished cloth are
produced because of
incomplete dissolution of the
starch in the padding liquour.
Fabric should be desized and
restarched.
Longitudinal Creases
Longitudinal creases are
produced if the cloth passes
on non-uniform cylinders
after starching.
The cloth should be padded
in a solution of hot water and
dried on an even surface.
Wrong and narrow width
Frequent stoppages during
mercerization or drying
produce cloth with non-
uniform width.
Cloth should be passed again
through the Stenter to get the
required width.
TANZIR
2009000400016

Faults Causes Remedies
Softener Mark
Improper mixing of the Softener.
Improper running time of the
fabric during application of
softener.
Entanglement of the fabric
during application of softener.
Maintaining proper reel sped &
pumps speed.
Proper Mixing of the softener
before addition.
Prevent the entanglement of the
fabric during application of
softener.

Crease Mark
Poor opening of the fabric rope.
Shock cooling of synthetic
material.
If pump pressure & reel speed is
not equal
Due to high speed m/c running.
Maintaining proper reel sped &
pumps speed.
Lower rate rising and cooling the
temperature.
Reducing the m/c load.
Higher liquor ratio
GSM variation & width variation for
lycra fabric.
Improper heat setting Mention properly heat setting.
Faults Causes Remedies
Spirality problem Improper skew control
Skewness of the fabric should
be controlled specially for
single jersey fabric.
Overheating
If temperature and speed is
not properly controlled.
temperature and speed should
properly be controled.
Width problem
Improper width setting
during stentering.
Improper heat setting of
lycra fabric.
Width should properly be set
during stentering.
Heat setting should properly
be done.
Function:
Increases G.S.M. of fabric
Control dia of fabric
Calendar the fabric


MD.AMINUL ISLAM
2009000400104

Controlling points:
Overfeed
Width
Padder pressure:

Chart Of Padder Pressure For Different Types of fabrics:
Fabric Pressure (lb/inch
2
)
Single jersey 9-18
1*1 RIB 18-33
Double pique 18-27
Others 18
Faults Causes Remedies

Folding Marks
High pressure of the fabric Take
Down rollers of the Knitting
machine, on the grey fabric, is
one of the main causes.
Too much pressure of the feeding
rolls of the Calendar &
Compactor is, the primary cause
of the folding marks, in the
knitted fabric.
Adjust the gap between the two
rolls, as per the thickness of the
fabric sheet (Pique, S.J. etc.)
Gap between the two Calendar
rolls should be just enough, to let
the rolls remove, the wrinkles in
the fabric, but put no pressure on
the fabric sheet, especially in the
case of Pique & structured
fabrics

Skewing or Diagonal Grain Lines
(Wales)
Improper feeding of the fabric,
while Calendaring &
Compacting.
Keep a slit line on one side of the
tubular fabric.
Use the slit line, as a reference
line, to keep the grain lines
straight, while feeding the fabric
slowly, on the Calender, or the
Compactor machines
Faults Causes Remedies

GSM Variation
Roll to roll variation in
the, process parameters,
of the fabric, like;
Overfeed & Widthwise
stretching of the dyed
fabric, on the Stenter,
Calendar & Compactor
machines.
Roll to roll variation in
the fabric stitch length.
Make sure that all the
fabric rolls in a lot, are
processed under the same
process parameters.
The Knitting Machine
settings, like; the Quality
Pulley diameter etc.
should never be
disturbed.
Softening treatment is one of the most important
chemical after treatments in the textile industry. By
softening treatment textile can achieve not only soft
handle but also:

Some smoothness.

More flexibility.

Drape and Pliability.

Antistatic properties.

Luster.

Soft handle.

Types of softeners:
There are mainly four types of softeners which
are discussed below:
Cationic Softeners.
Anionic Softeners.
Non-ionic Softeners.
Silicon based Softeners.
Chemical Softness Lubricity Hydro-
philicity
Substant
ivity
Stability
to
yellowin
g
None
foaming
Anionic + ++ ++ ++
Cationic +++ +++ +
Non-ionic + ++ +
Silicones +++ +++ to + +++ +++ to + ++
Comparison among various properties of different softeners :
We all have tried our level best in accomplishing the project. Although
we know there was a vast chance and field for working with the project but
due to some lack of time we came up with best. We are greatly thankful to
the management and staffs of the companies namely MASCO TEXTILES
INDUSTRIES, NAZ BANGLADESH LTD AND PADMA POLY COTTON KNIT
FABRICS LTD. Without their constant support it could not have been
possible. In our project we came up mainly with different kinds of finishing
faults in different machines and their remedies. We express our heartiest
thanks to our project supervisor and honorable teacher, RAJIB SAHA,
Assistant Professor of the Department of Textile Engineering for his logical
guidelines, constant inspirations, necessary instructions and proper
supervision. We could have done much better if we could have gathered
more practical based knowledge.

.

First of all, I am grateful to the ALMIGHTY ALLAH for enabling us
to complete the project successfully.

I would also like to thank our respected teachers of SOUTHEAST
UNIVERSITY for giving us the opportunity and helping us in all
possible ways to finish the project successfully and also for their
valuable suggestions. My deepest appreciation goes to our
honorable Chairman Professor SYED FAKHRUL HASSAN, Head,
Department of Textile Engineering, SEU and A.N.M AHMEDULLAH
SIR, CO-ORDINATOR OF THE DEPARTMENT for their continuous
encouragement and valuable suggestions. We express our
heartiest thanks to our project supervisor and honorable teacher,
RAJIB SAHA, Assistant Professor of the department for his logical
guidelines, constant inspirations, necessary instructions and
proper supervision

A special thanks to all other faculty members for their
continuous encouragement and valuable suggestions all
throughout our work.