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Chapter 30

Brazing, Soldering, Adhesive, Bonding


& Mechanical Fastening process
Brazing
Joining process

A filler metal is placed between two
workpieces and heated until melted

Two main types of Brazing
Ordinary
Braze welding

Use of flux is very important
Filler Metals
Available in a wide range of brazing temperatures

They come in a wide range of shapes

Choice of the filler metal and its composition are important

Diffusion of the filler metal in to the workpeice is an important
consideration
Fig: a) Brazing b) Braze welding operation
Fluxes
The use of flux in brazing is very important

Generally made of:
Borax
Boric acid
Borates
Fluorides
Chlorides

Wetting agents may also be added
Brazing Methods
Torch Brazing

Performed by heating the joint with a torch

Depositing the filler metal in the joint

Suitable part thickness (0.25 6.0)mm

Not a automated process

More than one torch can be used in this process
Furnace Brazing
Precleaned & Preloaded with brazing metal
Heated in a furnace
Fig:An example of furnace brazing a)before b) after
Brazing Methods
Other Types Of Brazing
Induction Brazing

Resistance Brazing

Dip Brazing

Infrared Brazing

Diffusion Brazing
Braze Welding
Prepared like fusion welding

Filler metal is deposited at the joint with the use of an
oxyacetylene torch

Considerably more filler is used

Temperature is minimal compared to that of fusion
welding; part distortion is minimal
Brazing Process Capabilities
Dissimilar metals can be assembled with good joint strength

Shear strength of brazed joints can reach 800Mpa
Fig:Joint Designs commonly used in brazing operations.The clearance between the two parts being brazed is
an important factor in joint strength.If the clearance is to small, the molten braze metal will not fully
penetrate the interface.
Good/Poor Designs
Soldering
Different types of soldering

Torch
Furnace
Iron
Induction
Resistance
Dip
Infrared
Ultrasonic
reflow (paste)
Wave
Reflow Soldering
Solvents present in the paste are evaporated

The Flux in the paste is activated and the fluxing
action occurs

The components are carefully preheated

The solder particles are melted and wet the joint

The assembly is cooled
Wave Soldering
Popular approach to attaching circuits to circuit boards
Fig: a)Screening or stenciling paste onto a printed circuit
board: 1) Stenciling process 2) a section of a typical
stencil pattern b) wave soldering process
Types Of Fluxes
Inorganic acids or salts
clean the surface
rapidly

Noncorrosive resin-
based used in
electrical applications

Soldering is used
extensively in
electronics industry
Adhesive Bonding

Products are joined and assembled by the use of
Adhesives

Adhesives properties to be considered
Strength
Toughness
Resistance to various fluids
Ability to wet the surface to be bonded
Types of adhesives
Surface must be clean for joining parts

Should avoid joints that might be subjected to peeling forces
Design for adhesive bonding
Adhesive Peeling Test
Fig : Characteristic behavior of (a) brittle (b) tough adhesive in a peeling test
Joint Design in Adhesive Bonding
Fig:Various joint design in adhesive bonding.
Configurations for adhesive bonds
Fig : (a) single lap (b) double lap (c) scarf (d) strap
Mechanical Fastening
Threaded Fasters
Bolts
Screws
Nuts

Other Fastening Methods
Stapling
Crimping
Snap-in Fasteners
Shrink and press fits
Rivets
Fig:a)solid b)tubular c) split (bifurcated) d) compression
Fig : Design guidelines for riveting (a)Exposed shank is too long; the result is buckling instead of upsetting
(b)Rivets should be placed sufficiently far from edges to avoid stress concentrations (c)Joined sections
should allow ample clearance for riveting tools (d) section curvature should not interfere with the riveting
process
Joining Plastics
Heat softens the plastic to a molten state

Then pressure added & fusion takes place

External Heat Sources
Hot air
Heated tools & dies
Electrical-Resistance
Lasers

Internal Heat Sources
Ultrasonic welding
Friction welding
THE END