You are on page 1of 32

Dental Handpieces

and Accessories
Chapter 35
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Chapter 35

Lesson 35.1
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Learning Objectives
Pronounce, define, and spell the Key Terms.
Discuss the historical importance of the
dental handpiece.
Describe the low-speed handpiece and its
use in dentistry.
Describe the attachments used on the low-
speed handpiece.
Describe the high-speed handpiece and its
uses.
Review other handpieces used in dentistry.
(Contd)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Learning Objectives
Contd)
Identify dental handpieces and correctly attach them
to the dental unit.
Describe rotary instruments and how they are used.
List the parts of a bur.
Give the composition, shape, and use of the carbide
and diamond burs.
Identify accessories and correctly attach them to the
low-speed handpiece.
Identify rotary cutting instruments and correctly attach
them to the appropriate dental handpiece or
attachment.
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Introduction
Rotary instruments are used to complete
different functions in the cutting, polishing,
and finishing of tooth structure
and the restoration process
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Evolution of Rotary Equipment
1940s
Introduction of rotary instruments
Belt-driven handpiece
Development of diamond cutting burs
1950s
Invention of tungsten carbide
Development of the air-driven turbine handpiece
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dental Handpiece
The handpiece is the most frequently used
piece of machinery in dentistry. It provides
power to a rotary instrument that is used to
complete the actual cutting or
polishing of tooth structure
and castings.
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low-Speed Handpiece
Design
Straight in appearance
Standard length and shorty
Speeds range from 10,000 to 30,000 rotations per
minute (rpm).
Powers the rotary instrument in both a forward
and a backward motion
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 35-2 Low-speed handpiece.
(From Boyd L: Dental instruments: a pocket guide, ed 3, St Louis, 2009, Saunders.)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uses of the Low-Speed Handpiece
Clinical
Removal of soft decay and finishing of cavity
preparations
Finishing and polishing of restorations
Coronal polishing and removal of stains
Porcelain adjustments
Root canal treatment
Laboratory
Trimming and contouring of temporary crowns
Trimming and relining of removable partials and
dentures
Trimming and contouring of orthodontic
appliances
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low-Speed Attachments
Straight attachments
Long-shank laboratory bur
Prophylaxis angle attachments
Contraangle attachment
Latch-type rotary instruments
Mandrel
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prophylaxis Angle
Used during polishing procedures to hold the
prophylaxis cup and bristle brush
Two types
Plastic disposable prophy angle
Metal prophy angle
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 35-5 Disposable prophy cup and brush.
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High-Speed Handpiece
Design
One-piece unit with a slight curve
Operated by air pressure
Operates at speeds as high as 450,000 rpm
Maintains a water-coolant system
Friction-grip locking system for rotary instruments
Fiberoptic lighting
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 35-6 High-speed handpiece.
(From Boyd L: Dental instruments: a pocket guide, ed 3, St Louis, 2009, Saunders.)

Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uses of the High-Speed Handpiece
Removal of decay
Removal of old or faulty restorations
Reduction of the crown portion of a tooth in
preparation for a crown or bridge
Preparation of an outline and retention
grooves for a new restoration
Finishing or polishing of a restoration
Sectioning of a tooth during a surgery
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ultrasonic Handpiece
Design
Attaches to the dental unit
Powered by electricity
Primarily used for prophylaxis appointments
Attachments similar in appearance to scaling
instruments
Delivers a pulsating spray of water
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 35-9 Ultrasonic handpiece.
(From Boyd L: Dental instruments: a pocket guide, ed 3, St Louis, 2009, Saunders.)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uses of the Ultrasonic Handpiece
Removal of calculus
Removal of stains
Removal of bonding materials from the tooth
surface after orthodontic appliances are
removed
Removal of cement after orthodontic bands
are removed
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laser Handpiece
Design
Laser light beam, conducted through a fiberoptic
cable, instead of rotary instruments
Resemblance to a standard handpiece
Water-coolant system
Air-coolant system
(Contd)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laser Handpiece
(Contd)
Uses
Cauterizing soft tissue
Vaporizing decayed tooth structure
Advantages
Usually painless
Generally no need for anesthesia
Speed of procedure
Disadvantage
Cannot be used on teeth with existing restorations
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Air-Abrasion Handpiece
Design
Small version of a sandblaster
High-pressure delivery of aluminum oxide particles
through a small probe
Uses
Preparation of teeth for sealants
Removal of external stains
Class I through class VI preparations
Endodontic access
Crown margins
Preparation of the a tooth surface for the cementation
of a cast restoration (e.g., crown or veneer)
(Contd)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Air-Abrasion Handpiece
(Contd)
Uses
Preparation of teeth for sealants
Removal of external stains
Class I through class VI preparations
Endodontic access
Crown margins
Preparation of the tooth surface for the
cementation of a cast restoration (e.g., a crown or
veneer)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laboratory Handpiece
Design
Operates at speeds as high as 20,000 rpm
Uses laboratory burs
Greater torque than that of handpieces used
intraorally
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Handpiece Maintenance
General considerations
Wear personal protective equipment and follow
universal precautions.
Clean debris from the external surface.
Clean the internal components of the handpiece.
Handpiece must be dry before being packaged.
Wrap the handpiece for sterilization.
Sterilize the handpiece.
Wipe the light port on the fiber-optic with an
alcohol swab to remove any excess lubricant.
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 35

Lesson 35.2
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
Describe rotary instruments and how they are
used.
List the parts of a bur.
Give the composition, shape, and use of the
carbide and diamond burs
Identify accessories and correctly attach them
to the low-speed handpiece.
Identify rotary cutting instruments and
correctly attach them to the appropriate
dental handpiece or attachment.
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rotary Cutting Instruments
Three basic parts to a rotary instrument
Shank: Portion that fits into the handpiece.
Straight shank
Latch type shank
Friction grip shank
Neck: Portion of the rotary instrument that
connects the shank and the head.
Head: The cutting, polishing, or finishing portion.
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 35-13 Bur parts and types of shanks: A, Long straight lab.
B, Latch-type. C, Friction grip.
(From Robinson D, Bird D: Essentials of dental assisting, ed 3, Philadelphia, 2001, Saunders.)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dental Burs
Rotary instruments with sharp cutting head.
Uses
Tooth preparation.
Excavation of decay.
Finishing cavity walls.
Finishing restoration surfaces.
Taking out old fillings.
Finishing crown preparations.
Separating crowns and bridges.
Adjusting and correcting acrylic temporaries.
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 35-15 Finishing rotary instruments
(Courtesy Miltex, Inc, York, Pennsylvania.)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fig. 35-16 Abrasive materials for rotary instruments.
(D, From Boyd L: Dental Instruments: A Pocket Guide, ed 3, St. Louis, 2009, Saunders.)
Copyright 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.