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# Faculty Development Programme

## on Design of Machine Elements

P. Emmanuel Nicholas,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
PSNA CET, Dindigul
Session 1- Contents
Design Process
Tolerances
Stress
Failure Theories
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Design Process
Idea
Real
product
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Design Process Types
of existing designs.
2. Development design - needs considerable
scientific training and design ability in order
to modify the existing designs into a new
idea.
3. New design - needs lot of research, technical
ability and creative thinking.
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Design Process -Steps
1. Recognition of need.
2. Synthesis (Mechanisms).
3. Analysis
4. Evaluation.
5. Detailed drawing.
8. Production.
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Factors influencing design process
Mechanical Properties
Working conditions
Cost

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Material selection - factors
Strength - to resist the load
Hardness - to resist indentation /abration
Toughness - to resist shock loads
Stiffness - resistance against deflection

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Stress
This internal force per unit area at any section
of the body is known as unit stress or simply a
stress.
Tensile/ Compressive (Direct & Bending)
Youngs Modulus
Shear Shear Moduls
bearing stress or crushing stress - compressive
stress at the surface of contact

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Normal Stress (Tensile & Compressive)
Direct Stress
= P/A

Bending Stress
= (M/I ) * y

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Shear Stress
Due to torque
= (T/J )*r
A localised compressive stress at the surface
of contact between two members of a
machine part, that are relatively at rest is
known as bearing stress or crushing stress.
_c= P/(d*t*n)
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Find the stresses acting on diff.
elements
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Principal Stresses
The plane at which no shear stress but only
direct stresses Principal planes
The direct stresses acting on principal planes
Principal stresses
The plane at which maximum shear stress is
acting Plane of shear
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Normal & Shear on the inclined plane
Normal stress acting on a plane inclined
with vertical

And the shear stress

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1 2 1 2
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
n
o o o o
o u t u
+ +
| | | |
= + +
| |
\ . \ .
1 2
sin 2 cos 2
2
o o
t u t u

| |
=
|
\ .
Principal stresses
Maximum principal stress

Maximum principal stress

Maximum shear

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( )
2
2
1 2
1 1 2
1
4
2 2
p
o o
o o o t
+
| |
= + +
|
\ .
( )
2
2
1 2
1 1 2
1
4
2 2
p
o o
o o o t
+
| |
= +
|
\ .
( )
2
1 2
2
max 1 2
1
4
2 2
p p
o o
t o o t

| |
= = +
|
\ .
Failure Theories
Maximum principal stress (or) maximum
normal stress (or) Ranking theory
Failure occurs when the maximum normal stress is
equal to the tensile yield strength.
Max.principal stress=yield strength/n (for ductile
material)
Max.principal stress=ultimate strength/n (for
brittle material)
mostly used for brittle materials.
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Failure Theories (Contd..)
Maximum shear theory (or) Guests theory
(or) Coloumb theory
Failure occurs when the maximum shear stress
developed in the machine member becomes
equal to the maximum shear stress at yielding
Max.shear stress=yield strength/n
mostly used for ductile materials.
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Failure Theories (Contd..)
Maximum strain theory (or) Venants theory
Failure occurs when the maximum strain in the
member equal in the tensile yield strain

Maximum strain energy theory
Failure occurs when the strain energy stored per
unit volume of the member becomes equal to the
strain energy per unit volume at the yield point

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Tolerances
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Tolerances (Contd..)
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Tolerances (Contd..)
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The degree of tightness & looseness between
the mating parts

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Hole/Shaft basis system
Hole/Shaft is kept constant and the shaft/hole
is varied to obtain different types of fits.

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Hole/Shaft basis system (Contd..)
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