spillway

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spillway

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Associate Professor,

Department of Civil Engineering, I.T.U.

altunkaynak.net

altunkaynak.net

Spillway: Structural component of the dam that evacuates

flood wave from reservoir to river at the downstream.

Is safety valve of the dam

DESIGN RETURN PERIOD

From 100 yrs for diversion weir to 15,000 yrs or more

(Probable Maximum Flood-PMF) for earth-fill dams

TYPES OF SPILLWAYS

More common types are:

(1) Overflow (Ogee crested)

(2) Chute

(3) Side Channel

(4) Shaft

(5) Siphon

altunkaynak.net

altunkaynak.net

1) OVERFLOW SPILLWAYS

Allows the passage of flood wave over its crest

Used on often concrete gravity, arch and buttress dams

Constructed as a separate reinforced concrete structure

at one side of the fill-typed dams

Classified as uncontrolled (ungated) and controlled (gated)

Most of the spillways are overflow types

They have large capacities

They have higher hydraulic conformities

They can use successfully for all types of dams

altunkaynak.net

Ideal Spillway Shape

The underside of the nappe of a sharp-crested weir when

Q=Q

max

H

Sharp crested

weir

AIR

H

AIR

P

H

o

y

o

h

a

E G L

The Overflow spillway

altunkaynak.net

A-Design Discharge of Spillway

Design discharge of an overflow spillway can be

determined by integrating velocity distribution over the

cross-sectional flow area on the spillway from the crest to

the free surface.

Q

o

= C

o

L H

o

3/2

The equation can be obtained as below

where

Q

o

is the design discharge of spillway

C

o

is discharge coefficient

L is the effective crest length

Ho is total head over the spillway crest

altunkaynak.net

USE Fig. to modify C

o

for inclined upstream face.

USE Fig. to obtain C

o

for heads other than design head.

USE Fig 4.8 to reflect apron effect on C

o.

USE Fig. to reflect tail-water effect on C

o.

Determined from Figures for the vertical overflow spillways

as a function of P (spillway height) / H

o

(total head)

The overall C

o

multiplying each effects of each case

altunkaynak.net

B-Design Discharge of Spillway

If the gates are partially opened, the discharge can be computed

as following

Q = 2/3 (2g)

0.5

C L (H

1

3/2

- H

2

3/2

)

C: Discharge Coefficient determined from Figure 4.10

Where

g is the gravitational

C is the discharge coefficient for a partially open gate

L is the effective crest length

H

1

and H

2

are the heads as defined in Figure 4.4

altunkaynak.net

CREST GATES

Provide additional storage above the crest

See Fig. 4.11 for Primitive types of gates.

See Fig. 4.11 for Underflow gates.

Common types: radial and rolling

CREST PROFILES

The ideal shape of overflow spillway crest under design

conditions for a vertical upstream face is recommended by

USBR (1987)

x

y

R=0.5 H

o

R=0.2 H

o

0.175 H

o

0.282 H

o

Origin of Coordinates

altunkaynak.net

The values of K and n in the parabolic relation given in

Fig. 4.12 can be determined from Figure 4.13.

The pressure distribution on the bottom of the spillway face

depends on

The smoothness of the crest profile.

The upstream face of the crest is formed by smooth curves

in order to minimize the separation

For a smooth spillway face, the velocity head loss over the

spillway can be ignored.

Important Note:

altunkaynak.net

If H (head) > H

o

p < p

atm.

overflowing water

may lose contact with the spillway face, which

results in the formation of a vacuum at the point of

separation and CAVITATION may occur.

In order to prevent cavitation, sets sets of

ramps are placed on the face of overflow spillways

so that the jet leaves the contact with the surface.

Subatmospheric

Pressure Zone

Spillway

Crest

Flow Direction

H

o

H>H

o

EGL

Development of negative pressures at the spillway crest for H>H

o

altunkaynak.net

Energy Dissipation at the Toe of Overflow Spillway

Excessive turbulent energy at the toe of an overflow spillway

can be dissipated by a hydraulic jump, which is a phenomenon

caused by the change in the stream regime from supercritical

to subcritical with considerable energy dissipation.

should be done to prevent scouring at the river bed.

P

E

1

y

2

y

1

E

2

H

o

h

L

E

EGL

(O) (1)

(2)

altunkaynak.net

Sequent depth of the hydraulic jump, y

2

can be determined

from the momentum equation between sections (1) and (2).

Ignoring the friction between these sections, the momentum

equation for a rectangular basin can be written as

with

altunkaynak.net

and after simplification

and

F

r1

is the flow Froude number at section (1).

Where

The energy loss through the hydraulic jump in a rectangular basin

is computed from

altunkaynak.net

Case 1:

If the tailwater depth, y

3

, is coincident with the

sequent depth, y

2

, the hydraulic jump forms just at

toe of the spillway as shown in Figure below

y

2

=y

3

y

1

(1)

(2)

Flow conditions for y

2

=y

3

altunkaynak.net

Case 2:

If the tailwater depth is less than the required sequent depth,

the jump moves toward the downstream, as can be seen from

Figure below.

This case should be eliminated, because water flows at a very

high velocity having a destructive effect on the apron.

y

2

>y

3

y

1

(1) (2)

Flow conditions for y

2

>y

3

altunkaynak.net

Case 3 :

If the tailwater depth is greater than the required sequent

depth as shown in Figure below

y

2

<

y

3

Flow conditions for y

2

<y

3

altunkaynak.net

REMINDERS:

2) If y

2

(tailwater depth) is subcritical a HYDRAULIC

JUMP between y

1

and y

2

(toe and tailwater, see case1).

3) y

2

(conjugate depth) determined from Eq. for

rectangular basin.

1) y

1

(depth at the toe) a supercritical depth and

determined from Energy Eq. between upstream of

spillway and the toe

altunkaynak.net

CHUTE SPILLWAYS

SIDE CHANNEL SPILLWAYS

SHAFT SPILLWAYS

SIPHON SPILLWAYS

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