FERROUS METAL

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Iron Steel Stainless steel

IRON

One of the most abundant metallic material in the earth’s crust (about 4-5%) Found in the form of ores as oxides, carbonates, silicates, and sulfides The most important iron-bearing minerals or iron ores are hematite and magnetite

IRON (cont.)

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The most commonly used ore is Hematite (Fe2O3) Contains about 70% of pure iron Specific gravity in the range of 4.5 to 5.3

PRODUCTION OF IRON
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Iron is produced in a blast furnace The main function of the blast furnace is to reduce the ore to metal, followed by separation of the metal from the impurities The iron ore in the form of pellets is charged into the furnace with coke and limestone

BLAST FURNACE

IRON (cont.)
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The mined ore is crushed to small particles of size 25 mm These particles are further reduced to fine powder, which is later converted to pellets or sinters Sintering is a process of application of neat that results in the conversion of fine ore into hard and porous lumps (10 to 50 mm) Pelletizing is a process of forming balls of 10 to 20 mm in diameter in the presence of moisture and additives such as bentonite or lime

BLAST FURNACE
The main function of the blast furnace is to reduce the ore to metal, followed by the separation of metal from the impurities  In the furnace Iron ore + coke + limestone  Coke – a carbonaceous solid produced from coal, petroleum, or other raw materials by thermal decomposition  Limestone – act as a flux that holds the silica and alumina impurities of the ore and coke

BLAST FURNECE (cont.)

A powerful air blast through the bottom raises the temperature sufficiently to burnt coke, melt iron, and burn off oxygen Temperature increases to 1650 °C (3000 °F), enough to melt the iron Molten iron collected at the bottom of the furnace (contain high carbon content), called as “pig iron”

BLAST FURNACE (cont.)

A nonmetallic product, consisting essentially silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases, is produced simultaneously with the molten iron This product is called slag

Pig Iron
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Is not pure iron Saturated with carbon (3.5 to 4.5 % - taken from the coke) Contains manganese (0.25-1%), silicon(1-2%), and other materials Melting point 1670 °C

Pure Iron
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Carbon content – 0.01 – 0.02% Silicon – less than 0.01% Manganese – 0.01 – 0.02 Melting point – 1535 °C Tensile strength – 335 MPa

Steel Making Process

Iron Products

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Come in three commercial forms Wrought iron (has the least carbon) Steel (0.25-1.7%) Cast iron (has the most carbon -5%) Carbon affects the microstructure and properties of iron products

STEEL
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Is a combination of iron and carbon Carbon content may range between about 0.01 and 1% Manganese (less than 1.6%) Phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon (less than 0.6%) Produced in a basic oxygen furnace (BOF), open hearth furnace, or electric arc furnace

Steel alloys

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The alloys are added to molten steel to produce steel of different characteristics, such as hardness, tensile strength, and toughness Alloy materials Manganese – gives strength and toughness to steel Silicon – provides strength and hardening properties Chromium and nickel – corrosion resistant (stainless steel) Molybdenum – improves tensile and hardening properties

Steel Products

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The semi-finished products of varying widths, lengths, and thickness It comes in three types: Blooms Slabs Billets

Steel Products

Iron-Bearing properties

Steel Properties

Steel usually contain less than 1% carbon by weight. Structural steel has less than 0.25% by weight of carbon Manganese is the principal alloying element and is added when the steel is in the molten condition in amounts up to about 1.6%

Carbon content
Affect the microstructure and properties of steel Increase in carbon content will:  Increase the hardness, strength, and abrasion resistance BUT  Decrease the ductility, toughness, and impact resistance  Ductility – measured by the percent elongation during the tension test  Toughness – measured by he area under the stress-strain diagram

Effect of Carbon Content

Properties of Steel
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Are greatly affected by three factors Chemical composition Heat treatment Mechanical work – hot work, cold work

Working Steel

Hot working – mechanical deformation at temperatures slightly above the transformation temperature Cold working – mechanical deformation at temperatures below the transformation temperature Transformation temperature – recrystallization temperature Cold working increase the strength properties but decreases the ductility

Mechanical Properties

Yield point – is a stress at which there is a marked increase in strain without an increase in strain Yield strength – is measured as stress corresponding to a known strain or an offset (proof stress)

Stress-Strain

Stress-Strain

Steel sections

Structural shapes

Applications

Applications

Applications

Applications

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