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What is Calculus?

Origin of calculus
The word Calculus comes from the
Greek name for pebbles
Pebbles were used for counting and
doing simple algebra
Google answer
A method of computation or calculation
in a special notation (like logic or
symbolic logic). (You'll see this at the
end of high school or in college.)
The hard deposit of mineralized plaque
that forms on the crown and/or root of
the tooth. Also referred to as tartar.
Google answers
The branch of mathematics involving
derivatives and integrals.
The branch of mathematics that is
concerned with limits and with the
differentiation and integration of
functions
My definition
The branch of mathematics that
attempts to do things with very large
numbers and very small numbers
Formalising the concept of very
Developing tools to work with very
large/small numbers
Solving interesting problems with these
tools.

Examples
Limits of sequences:
lim a
n
= a



n
Examples
Limits of sequences:
lim a
n
= a


THATS CALCULUS!
(the study of what happens when n gets very
very large)

n
Examples
Instantaneous velocity

Examples
Instantaneous velocity

Examples
Instantaneous velocity

Examples
Instantaneous velocity

both go to 0
distance
time
= lim
Examples
Instantaneous velocity


THATS CALCULUS TOO!
(the study of what happens when things
get very very small)

both go to 0
distance
time
= lim
Examples
Local slope


both go to 0
variation in F(x)
variation in x
= lim
Important new concepts!
So far, we have always dealt with actual
numbers (variables)
Example: f(x) = x
2
+ 1 is a rule for taking
actual values of x, and getting out actual
values f(x).
Now we want to create a mathematical
formalism to manipulate functions when x is
no longer a number, but a concept of
something very large, or very small!


Important new concepts!
Leibnitz, followed by Newton (end of 17th century),
created calculus to do that and much much more.
Mathematical revolution! New notations and new
tools facilitated further mathematical developments
enormously.
Similar advancements
The invention of the 0 (India, sometimes in 7th century)
The invention of negative numbers (same, invented for
banking purposes)
The invention of arithmetic symbols (+, -, x, = ) is very
recent (from 16th century!)
Plan
Keep working with functions
Understand limits (for very small and very
large numbers)
Understand the concept of continuity
Learn how to find local slopes of functions
(derivatives)
= differential calculus
Learn how to use them in many applications
Chapter V:
Limits and continuity

V.1: An informal introduction
to limits


V.1.1: Introduction to limits at
infinity.
Similar concept to limits of sequences at
infinity: what happens to a function f(x) when
x becomes very large.

This time, x can be either positive or negative
so the limit is at both + infinity and - infinity:
lim
x +
f(x)
lim
x -
f(x)
Example of limits at infinity
The function can converge
The function
converges to a
single value (1),
called the limit of
f.

We write
lim
x +
f(x) = 1
Example of limits at infinity
The function can converge

The function
converges to a
single value (0),
called the limit of
f.

We write
lim
x +
f(x) = 0
Example of limits at infinity
The function can diverge

The function
doesnt
converge to a
single value but
keeps growing.

It diverges.
We can write
lim
x +
f(x) = +
Example of limits at infinity
The function can diverge

The function
doesnt
converge to a
single value but
its amplitude
keeps growing.

It diverges.
Example of limits at infinity
The function may neither converge nor
diverge!

Example of limits at infinity
The function can do all this either at +
infinity or - infinity

The function
converges at -
and diverges at +
.

We can write
lim
x +
f(x) = +
lim
x -
f(x) = 0

Example of limits at infinity
The function can do all this either at +
infinity or - infinity


The function
converges at +
and diverges at -.

We can write
lim
x +
f(x) = 0

Calculus
Helps us understand what happens to a
function when x is very large (either
positive or negative)
Will give us tools to study this without
having to plot the function f(x) for all x!
So we dont fall into traps

V.1.2: Introduction to limits at
a point
Limit of a function at a point:
New concept!
What happens to a function f(x) when x
tends to a specific value.
Be careful! A specific value can be
approached from both sides so we have
a limit from the left, and a limit from the
right.
Examples of limits at x=0
(x becomes very small!)
The function can have asymptotes (it
diverges). The limit at 0 doesnt exist
Examples of limits at x=0
The function can have a gap! The limit
at 0 doesnt exist

Examples of limits at x=0
The function can behave in a complicated
(exciting) way.. (the limit at 0 doesnt exist)
Examples of limits at x=0
But most functions at most points
behave in a simple (boring) way.


The function has a
limit when x tends
to 0 and that limit
is 0.
We write
lim
x 0
f(x) = 0
Limits at a point
All these behaviours also exist when x
tends to another number
Remember: if g(x) = f(x-c) then the
graph of g is the same as the graph of f
but shifted right by an amount c

Limits at a point
f(x) = 1/x
g(x) = f(x-2) = 1/(x-2)
x
0 2