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Origin of calculus

The word Calculus comes from the

Greek name for pebbles

Pebbles were used for counting and

doing simple algebra

Google answer

A method of computation or calculation

in a special notation (like logic or

symbolic logic). (You'll see this at the

end of high school or in college.)

The hard deposit of mineralized plaque

that forms on the crown and/or root of

the tooth. Also referred to as tartar.

Google answers

The branch of mathematics involving

derivatives and integrals.

The branch of mathematics that is

concerned with limits and with the

differentiation and integration of

functions

My definition

The branch of mathematics that

attempts to do things with very large

numbers and very small numbers

Formalising the concept of very

Developing tools to work with very

large/small numbers

Solving interesting problems with these

tools.

Examples

Limits of sequences:

lim a

n

= a

n

Examples

Limits of sequences:

lim a

n

= a

THATS CALCULUS!

(the study of what happens when n gets very

very large)

n

Examples

Instantaneous velocity

Examples

Instantaneous velocity

Examples

Instantaneous velocity

Examples

Instantaneous velocity

both go to 0

distance

time

= lim

Examples

Instantaneous velocity

THATS CALCULUS TOO!

(the study of what happens when things

get very very small)

both go to 0

distance

time

= lim

Examples

Local slope

both go to 0

variation in F(x)

variation in x

= lim

Important new concepts!

So far, we have always dealt with actual

numbers (variables)

Example: f(x) = x

2

+ 1 is a rule for taking

actual values of x, and getting out actual

values f(x).

Now we want to create a mathematical

formalism to manipulate functions when x is

no longer a number, but a concept of

something very large, or very small!

Important new concepts!

Leibnitz, followed by Newton (end of 17th century),

created calculus to do that and much much more.

Mathematical revolution! New notations and new

tools facilitated further mathematical developments

enormously.

Similar advancements

The invention of the 0 (India, sometimes in 7th century)

The invention of negative numbers (same, invented for

banking purposes)

The invention of arithmetic symbols (+, -, x, = ) is very

recent (from 16th century!)

Plan

Keep working with functions

Understand limits (for very small and very

large numbers)

Understand the concept of continuity

Learn how to find local slopes of functions

(derivatives)

= differential calculus

Learn how to use them in many applications

Chapter V:

Limits and continuity

V.1: An informal introduction

to limits

V.1.1: Introduction to limits at

infinity.

Similar concept to limits of sequences at

infinity: what happens to a function f(x) when

x becomes very large.

This time, x can be either positive or negative

so the limit is at both + infinity and - infinity:

lim

x +

f(x)

lim

x -

f(x)

Example of limits at infinity

The function can converge

The function

converges to a

single value (1),

called the limit of

f.

We write

lim

x +

f(x) = 1

Example of limits at infinity

The function can converge

The function

converges to a

single value (0),

called the limit of

f.

We write

lim

x +

f(x) = 0

Example of limits at infinity

The function can diverge

The function

doesnt

converge to a

single value but

keeps growing.

It diverges.

We can write

lim

x +

f(x) = +

Example of limits at infinity

The function can diverge

The function

doesnt

converge to a

single value but

its amplitude

keeps growing.

It diverges.

Example of limits at infinity

The function may neither converge nor

diverge!

Example of limits at infinity

The function can do all this either at +

infinity or - infinity

The function

converges at -

and diverges at +

.

We can write

lim

x +

f(x) = +

lim

x -

f(x) = 0

Example of limits at infinity

The function can do all this either at +

infinity or - infinity

The function

converges at +

and diverges at -.

We can write

lim

x +

f(x) = 0

Calculus

Helps us understand what happens to a

function when x is very large (either

positive or negative)

Will give us tools to study this without

having to plot the function f(x) for all x!

So we dont fall into traps

V.1.2: Introduction to limits at

a point

Limit of a function at a point:

New concept!

What happens to a function f(x) when x

tends to a specific value.

Be careful! A specific value can be

approached from both sides so we have

a limit from the left, and a limit from the

right.

Examples of limits at x=0

(x becomes very small!)

The function can have asymptotes (it

diverges). The limit at 0 doesnt exist

Examples of limits at x=0

The function can have a gap! The limit

at 0 doesnt exist

Examples of limits at x=0

The function can behave in a complicated

(exciting) way.. (the limit at 0 doesnt exist)

Examples of limits at x=0

But most functions at most points

behave in a simple (boring) way.

The function has a

limit when x tends

to 0 and that limit

is 0.

We write

lim

x 0

f(x) = 0

Limits at a point

All these behaviours also exist when x

tends to another number

Remember: if g(x) = f(x-c) then the

graph of g is the same as the graph of f

but shifted right by an amount c

Limits at a point

f(x) = 1/x

g(x) = f(x-2) = 1/(x-2)

x

0 2

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