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Rhovie-mei Sucab


Joana M. Iniego

Sheryl Ann T. Dionicio
Needs Analysis and
Evaluation In
English Specific
Needs analysis
key component in ESP course design
and development and its role is
clearly indisputable

The corner stone of ESP and leads to
much focused course

needs analysis is a pivotal step that
the other steps rest on
Evaluation in ESP situations
concerned with the
effectiveness and efficiency of
learning; with achieving the

Needs analysis in
now encompasses
the following :

A. Professional information about the

B. Personal information about the

C. English language information about
the learners

D. The learners lacks

E. Language learning information

F. Professional communication information
about (A)

G. What is wanted from the course;

H. Information about the environment in
which the course will be run means analysis

Three different models for Needs
by Dudley-Evans and St. John

TSA (Target Situation Analysis)

PSA (Present Situation Analysis)

LSA (Learning Situation Analysis)

The TSA/ Target Situation
Aspect of a needs analysis basically tries to
glean information from the students about what
they are hoping to be able to do with the
language by the end of the course and certainly
into the future

The term Target Situation Analysis (TSA) was, in
fact, first used by Chambers in his 1980 article in
which he tried to clarify the confusion of
terminology. For Chambers TSA is
communication in the target situation. In his
work Munby (1978) introduced Communicative
Needs Processor
According to Hutchinson and Waters (1987) the
history of ESP indicates that Munby is the first
specialist who enounces a highly detailed set of
procedures for discovering target situation needs
, in 1978 in his noteworthy contribution entitled
Communicative Syllabus Design. "Communication
Needs Processor" or "CNP is first most through and
widely known model on needs analysis. For
Hutchinson and Waters:

The CNP consists of a range of questions about key
communication variables (topic, participants,
medium, etc.) which can be used to identify the
target language needs of any group of learners
In Munbys CNP, the target needs and target
level performance are established by
investigating the target situation, and his
overall model clearly establishes the place of
needs analysis as central to ESP, indeed the
necessary starting point in materials or course
design (West, 1998). In the CNP, account is
taken of the variables that affect
communication English for Specific Purposes
world, Issue 4, 2008,
Introduction to Needs Analysis. Mehdi Haseli
Songhori 5 needs by organizing them as
parameters in a dynamic relationship to each
other (Munby, 1978: 32)
Communication Needs Processor
Profile of Needs
Meaning Processor
The Language Skills Selector
The Linguistic Encoder
The Communicative Competence
The PSA/Present Situation

The term PSA (Present Situation Analysis) was first
proposed by Richterich and Chancerel (1980). In
this approach the sources of information are the
students themselves, the teaching establishment,
and the user-institution, e.g. place of work
(Jordan, 1997). The PSA can be carried out by
means of established placement tests. However,
the background information, e.g. years of
learning English, level of education, etc. about
learners can provide us with enough information
their present abilities which can thus be
predicted to some extent .

Pedagogic Needs

The term pedagogic needs analysis was
proposed by West (1998) as an umbrella
term to describe the following three elements
of needs analysis. He states the fact that
shortcomings of target needs analysis should
be compensated for by collecting data
about the learner and the learning
environment. The term pedagogic needs
analysis covers deficiency analysis, strategy
analysis or learning needs analysis, and
means analysis.
The LSA/ Learning Situation
is often how language teachers think. These are
the types of skills strategies and other cognitive
aspects of learning which we are trying to
guide our students towards

It is important for in ESP practitioner in the
planning of their course to be able to translate
both TSA and LSA goals to specific language
forms which relate to the content area, genre,
or fields that they are trying to get the students
to be able to work and function in
The purposes, goals, and ways of doing a
needs analysis are many, but they all boil
down to one simple thing a needs
analysis makes the class more focused
and therefore more successful.

The Theoretical model of
Needs Analysis
Course Design

The only way we can accurately
evaluate the students, ourselves, and
the course itself is to use the needs
analysis as a guide. If the needs
analysis needs to be used to guide
us in designing and running the class
then it must also serve to help us
evaluate the course. Just as we
would not know what and how to
teach without the needs analysis, we
would not know how to evaluate with
the needs analysis

the distinction between evaluation and
assessment is a very fuzzy one. Its very
difficult to evaluate our course without taking
student assessment into consideration and the
same techniques we use for evaluation can
also be used for assessment and vice versa

we dont have to wait till the end of the course
to do with these things. We can evaluate and
assessed on a weekly or daily basis
depending on the way our course is run

According to Soriano (1995, as cited in
Channa, 2013 ) the most frequent
reasons for needs analysis to be
conducted are justification for funding,
regulations or laws that mandate needs
analysis, resource allocation and
decision-making determining the best
use of the limited resources and as part
of program evaluations (p.XV).
Richards (2001) states that needs
analysis in language teaching can be
used for a number of different purposes,
for example:

To find out what language skills a learner needs in
order to perform a particular role, such as sales
manager, tour guide or university student

To help determine if an existing course adequately
addresses the needs of potential students

To determine which students from a group are most in
need of training in particular language skills

To identify a change of direction that people in a
reference group feel is important

To identify a gap between what students are able to
do and what they need to be able to do

To collect information about a particular problem
learners are experiencing

1. Berwick, R. 1989. Needs assessment in language
programming: from theory to
practice. // In R.K. Johnson (Ed.) The Second Language
Curriculum. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. 2. Brindley, G.P. 1989 The role of
needs analysis in
adult ESL programme design. // In R.K. Johnson (Ed.) The
Second Language
Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 3.
Dudley-Evans T. and
St.John. 1998. Developments in English for Specific Purposes.
Cambridge University Press. 4. Holliday,A. and T.Cooke.
1982. An ecological
approach to ESP. In issues in ESP. Lancaster Practical Papers
in English Language
Education 5. Lancaster: Lancaster University. 5. Hutchinson, T.
and A. Waters. 1987. English for Specific Purposes.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.