GRID COMPUTING

CONTENTS:
             

Introduction What is Grid Computing Characteristics of Grid Components of Grid Advantages Challenges Grid development option Motivations for Grid Computing How Grid Works Grid Protocol Strategies for Grid Application Enablement Area of Application Summery References

1

Introduction

What is a distributed environment? “A non-centralized network consisting of numerous computers that can communicate with one another and that appear to users as parts of a single, large, accessible "storehouse" of shared hardware, software, and data”

2

Introduction - Single Computer
•The Operating System enables easy use of –Input/Output devices –Processor –Disks –Display –Instruments

Application Software Operating System Disks, Processor, Memory, …

3

Introduction - Local Area Network
User just perceives “shared resources”, with no regard to location in the organisation LAN resources act like a single virtual computer Middleware (LAN O/S) presents that image

Application Software
Middleware for sharing computers, servers, printers, … Operating System on each computer

Resources connected by a LAN

4

Introduction - Grid
•Grid middleware creates the image of the Grid being a single virtual computer (Ideally) Issues •Heterogeneity – hardware, software, culture •Scalability •Reliability – tolerate permanent partial failure •Viable computing model batch processing •Access control
–Authentication –Authorisation –Single sign on

Application Software Interface between app. and grid
Grid Middleware on each resource Operating System on each resource

Resources connected by internet

5

WHAT IS GRID COMPUTING ?

It is the distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple yet , large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large connected heterogeneous system sharing resources.

What is not a Grid?
 

A bunch of PC’s on a network (It’s a lot more than that) A cluster, a network attached storage device, a network etc. (each is an important component of grid, but by itself each does not constitute a grid)

6

WHAT IS GRID COMPUTING ?

Distributed Computing

Loosely Coupled Heterogeneous Single Administrator Tightly Coupled Homogenous Cooperative Working Large Scale Cross Organization Geographical Distribution Distributed Management

Cluster Computing
  

Grid Computing
   

7

Characteristics of Grid

Co-ordinated resource sharing
 

No centralised point of control Different administrative domains.

Standard, open, general-purpose protocols and interfaces
 

NOT specific to an application support multiple VO’s

Delivering non-trivial qualities of service

Co-ordinated to deliver combined services, greater than sum of the individual components

8

Components of Grid

Resources

networking, computers, storage, data, instruments, … the “operating system of the grid” Procedures for gaining access to resources

Grid Middleware

Virtual Organization management

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Advantages :
       

Virtualized Sharing of Resources Secure reliable access to Resources Autonomic management of Resources Proper Utilization of Resources Fast Computation (nearly achievable to Super Computing by Parallel Computing) Virtually a very Large Capacity Economic No need of nodes homogeneity

10

Challenges
       

Non-determinism Infrastructure dependencies Distributed and partial failures Time-outs Dynamic nature of the structure Multiple heterogeneous platforms Security The ‘Human Factor’

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Grid development option

A function of Business need, Technology and Organizational flexibility

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Grid development option

A function of Business need, Technology and Organizational flexibility

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Grid development option

A function of Business need, Technology and Organizational flexibility

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Motivations for Grid Computing

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Motivations for Grid Computing

Increase Capacity
Exploits distributed recourses to provide capacity for high demand applications

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Motivations for Grid Computing

Increase Capacity
Exploits distributed resources to produce capacity for high demand applications

Improve Efficiency /Reduce Cost

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Motivations for Grid Computing

Provide Reliability / Availability

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Motivations for Grid Computing

Reduce “Time to Results”

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Motivations for Grid Computing

Provide Reliability / Availability
  

Use Distributed processes Monitor Work Process Restart failed jobs

Support Heterogeneous system

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Motivations for Grid Computing

Enable collaborations

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How Grid Works?
1. 2. 3. 4.

Resource Sharing Resource Utilization Secure Access The Death of Distance

1.  

Resource Sharing CPU Consideration Data Consideration

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CPU – Makes Execution Parallel
Rearranging Computations to execute in Parallel on Grid

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CPU – Programming Code Control Graph

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How Grid Works?
2. Resource Utilization

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How Grid Works? 3. Secure Access
     

Authentication Authorization Data integrity Data confidentiality Key management encryption

CA - Certification Authority
The role of the CA is manage the certificate life cycle: create, store, renew.
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CA - Certification Authority

It depends on person whether to participate in Grid

Virtual Com unity C m

Person A (Principal Investigator)

Person B (Administrator) Compute Server C1'

File server F1 (disk A) Person D (Researcher)

Person E (Researcher)

Person B (Staff) Compute Server C2 Compute Server C1 Person A (Faculty) Person C (Student)

Person D File server F1 (Staff) (disks A and B)

Person E (Faculty) Person F (Faculty)

Organization A

Compute Server C3

Organization B

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CA - Certification Authority
1. Positively identify entities requesting certificates 2. Issuing, removing, and archiving certificates 3. Protecting the Certificate Authority server 4. Maintaining a namespace of unique names for certificate owners 5.Serve signed certificates to those needing to authenticate entities

Digital Signature

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How Grid Works?
Site A

Grid Security
Site B

Grid Infrastructure
R R

R

Grid Site Security
Site C

Security
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How Grid Works? 4. The Death of Distance
development of networking technology
Internet economy  optical fibers in telecommunications systems  performance of wide area networks has been doubling every nine months

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Grid Protocols
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fabric Connectivity Resource Collective Application

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Grid Protocol v/s Internet Protocol

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Grid Protocol - Fabric

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Grid Protocol - Connectivity

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Grid Protocol - Resource

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Grid Protocol - Collective

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Grid Protocol – Application Layer

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Six Strategies for Grid Application Enablement
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Batch Anywhere Independent Concurrent Batch Parallel Batch Service Parallel Services Tightly Coupled parallel Program

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Six Strategies for Grid Application Enablement
1. Batch Anywhere Only Grid decides which node to use for the job. The machine submitting the job might not be a node in the grid. 2. Independent Concurrent Batch Multiple independent instances of the same application run concurrently and independently without interface. Databases and other resources don’t have deadlocks. 3. Parallel Batch Take each user’s batch work, subdivides it, disperse it out to multiple nodes, collect it, and then aggregate the result. 4. Service Focuses on the transition from a batch to service oriented architecture. It is not assumed that each client subdivides it’s work and spreads it over multiple service instances. 5. Parallel Services Service with subdivided work model of parallel batch. Provides multiple service instance Permits these instances to be invoked in parallel on the client’s behalf. 6. Tightly Coupled Parallel Programs Provides intense communications and synchronization between client, server and services.

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Area of Application

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Area of Implementation

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Grid Computing – Industry Applications
Unique by Industry with Common Characteristics

Primary Focus

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Grid Project in China (river Vah)

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Data Intensive Applications

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Data Intensive Application
Overlapping Data Transfer with Capture and Computing

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Many Grid development efforts — all over the world
•NASA Information Power Grid •DOE Science Grid •NSF National Virtual Observatory •NSF GriPhyN •DOE Particle Physics Data Grid •NSF TeraGrid •DOE ASCI Grid •DOE Earth Systems Grid •DataGrid (CERN, ...) •DARPA CoABS Grid •EuroGrid (Unicore) •NEESGrid •DataTag (CERN,…) •DOH BIRN •Astrophysical Virtual •NSF iVDGL Observatory •UK – OGSA-DAI, RealityGrid, GeoDise, Comb-e-Chem, DiscoveryNet, DAME, AstroGrid, GridPP, MyGrid, GOLD, eDiamond, Integrative Biology, … •Netherlands – VLAM, PolderGrid •Germany – UNICORE, Grid proposal •France – Grid funding approved •Italy – INFN Grid •Eire – Grid proposals •Switzerland - Network/Grid proposal •Hungary – DemoGrid, Grid proposal •Norway, Sweden - NorduGrid

•GRIP (Globus/Unicore) •GRIA (Industrial applications) •GridLab (Cactus Toolkit) •CrossGrid (Infrastructure Components) •EGSO (Solar Physics)

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Can Your Application Benefit from “Grid Computing”

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CONCLUSION
The grid will bring about a revolution in the way we use our resources. Twenty years and so, the grid will no longer be a domain of only researchers but a tangible entity that shall be instinct to the way we live. Uncouthly, grid will be the next generation Internet.

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References
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“The Anatomy of Grid” by Foster and Kesselman http://www.globus.org http://www.ibm.com/redbooks/ http://www.gridtoday.com http://www.redbooks.ibm.com http://www.google.com

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Thank You

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