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Experiment # 2

Members:

Amoy, Rose Anne

Bacal, Nathaniel

Caddarao, Patrick

3-ChE-Aw

Objectives:

proportions of liquids in a binary mixture

proportion of liquids in a binary mixture.

calculated values

Treatment of Data

2

Refractive Index (Ri) y = -0.2955x + 0.1328x + 1.4996

2

1.54 R = 0.9753

1.52

1.5 Series1

1.48 Poly. (Series1)

1.46

1.44

1.42

1.4 Group#2

1.38

1.36

1.34

1.32

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

mole fraction of methanol

2

Specific Refraction (Rs) y = -0.167x + 0.0938x + 0.3423

2

R = 0.9524

0.4

0.35

Series1

0.3

Poly. (Series1)

0.25

0.2

0.15 Gr. 2

0.1

0.05

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

mole fraction methanol

Molecular Refraction (Rm) y = -23.825x + 32.792

2

R = 0.9936

35

30 Series1

Linear (Series1)

25

20

15

10

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

mole fraction methanol

Sample Calculations

Calculating Density (ρ) :

ρ = (mass of pycnometer with mixture – mass of pycnometer) / 25 ml

ρ = (47.700-28.000)/25.000= 0.788 g/ml

Calculating Mole Fraction of Methanol (xmethanol) of

90% methanol + 10 % toluene binary mixture

nt= (25.000 ml mixture)(0.900)(0.772 g/ml) + (25.000 ml mixture)(0.100)(0.856 g/ml)

32.000 g/mole 92.000 g/mole

ntotal = 0.5428 + 0.0233 = 0.5661

xmethanol = 0.5428 / 0.5661 = 0.9589

xtoluene = 0.0233 / 0.5661 = 0.0412

Getting the Specific Refraction (Rs) of binary mixtures

(η 2 − 1) 1 (1.3555 2 − 1) 1

Rs = 2 Rs =

(η + 2 ρ (1.3555 + 2 0.778

2

Rs = 0.2790

Getting the Molecular Refraction (Rs) of binary mixtures

(η 2 − 1) M M = (x1)(Mwt.1) +(x2)(Mwt.2)

Rm = 2

(η + 2 ρ M = 32.0400 x 0.9589 + 0.0411 x 92.1300

M = 34.5097

(1.35552 − 1) 34.509699

Rm = Rm = 9.6282

(1.35552 + 2 0.778

% difference or error

|1.328-1.3447| x 100

Rimethanol %error = 1.26 %

1.328

|1.4969-1.50485|

Ritoluene %error = x 100 0.53 %

1.4969

ρmethanol %error = |0.772-0.7918| x 100

0.7918 2.50 %

|0.856-0.8669| x 100

ρtoluene %error = 1.26 %

0.8669

Rimethanol = 1.328 Ritoluene= 1.4969

ρmethanol = 0.7918 g/ml ρ toluene = 0.8669 g/ml

Group # 2 Data and Results

Mixture Ri Rs Rm ρ C

◦

Xi of

methanol toluene methanol

90% 10% 1.35550 0.2790 9.6282 0.788 23.5 0.9589

80% 20% 1.37124 0.2836 10.5845 0.800 23.5 0.9121

70% 30% 1.38834 0.2937 11.9127 0.804 23.5 0.8582

60% 40% 1.407435 0.3034 13.4492 0.812 23.5 0.7955

50% 50% 1.43758 0.3279 15.9894 0.800 24.0 0.7217

40% 60% 1.48795 0.3479 18.8085 0.828 24.0 0.6335

30% 70% 1.494815 0.3487 21.0980 0.836 24.0 0.5263

20% 80% 1.500835 0.3490 23.9053 0.844 24.0 0.3933

10% 90% 1.502845 0.3468 27.2890 0.852 24.0 0.2237

0% 100% 1.50485 0.3464 31.9138 0.856 24.0 0.0000

Tally of Results (3-ChE-Aw)

Gr. Refractive Index Specific Refraction Molecular Refraction

R2 = 0.7447 R2= 0.732 R2 = 0.9912

R2 = 0.9753 R2 = 0.9524 R2 = 0.9936

R2 = 0.9842 R2 = 0.9792 R2 = 0.9973

R2 = 0.9474 R2 = 0.9345 R2= 0.9984

y = -0.1402x2 - 0.052x + 1.5318 y = -0.0755x2 - 0.0187x + 0.3632 y = -25.056x + 33.402

R2 = 0.9858 R2 = 0.9799 R2 = 0.9989

R2 = 0.9149 R2 = 0.9896 R2 = 0.9996

y = -0.1746x2 + 0.0144x + 1.5027

R2 = 0.9946

R2 = 0.9856 R2 = 0.9717 R2 = 0.9977

Answer to Questions:

1. What do refraction graphs Rs. vs. mol. Fraction of

methanol and Rm vs. mol fraction of methanol indicate? What

are the practical uses of these graphs?

and molecular refraction increases because the refractive

index of toluene has a higher value than methanol. Graphs of

Rm and Rs vs. mol fraction of methanol can be use in testing

products because at different proportions there is a change on

its value or a change on the effects of the medium where light

is bent.

2. What are the practical uses of refractive index in

chemical engineering?

its purity, or measure its concentration.

and the dispersive power of prisms.

comparing its refractive index to known values

3. Why it is necessary to note the temperature at which

the reading from the refractometer is obtained?

The temperature at which the index of refraction is determined

is usually included in the symbol as the superscript, e.g., nD20

refractivity (b) molecular refractivity more useful?

It would be more useful in determining the variation of a

solution, to know its contents by comparing it to the true value

and to indicate its composition.

Conclusion:

Refractive index increases as mole fraction of methanol decreases

because toluene has a greater refractive index than methanol,

adding up more toluene on the mixture would increase the

refractive index of the whole mixture.

The refractive index increases as density of the mixture increases.

As the mole fraction of methanol decreases specific refraction

and molecular refraction increases.

The true value of refractive index of methanol at 20 ◦C is 1.328

while on the experiment its 1.3447 at 23.5 ◦C

The true value of refractive index of toluene at 20 ◦C is 1.4969

while on the experiment its 1.50485 at 24 ◦C.

Thank you… ü

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