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# Physical Chemistry Laboratory

Experiment # 2

Members:
Amoy, Rose Anne
Bacal, Nathaniel
3-ChE-Aw
Objectives:

## -To determine the indices of refraction of the different

proportions of liquids in a binary mixture

## -To determine the specific and molecular refractivities of each

proportion of liquids in a binary mixture.

## -To compare the observed molecular refractions with

calculated values
Treatment of Data
2
Refractive Index (Ri) y = -0.2955x + 0.1328x + 1.4996
2
1.54 R = 0.9753
1.52
1.5 Series1
1.48 Poly. (Series1)
1.46
1.44
1.42
1.4 Group#2
1.38
1.36
1.34
1.32
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
mole fraction of methanol

## Figure 1 Refractive index versus mole fraction of methanol

2
Specific Refraction (Rs) y = -0.167x + 0.0938x + 0.3423
2
R = 0.9524
0.4
0.35
Series1
0.3
Poly. (Series1)
0.25
0.2
0.15 Gr. 2
0.1
0.05
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
mole fraction methanol

## Figure 2 Specific Refraction vs. mole fraction of methanol

Molecular Refraction (Rm) y = -23.825x + 32.792
2
R = 0.9936
35
30 Series1
Linear (Series1)
25

20

15
10

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
mole fraction methanol

## Figure 3 Molecular Refraction vs. mole fraction of methanol

Sample Calculations
Calculating Density (ρ) :
ρ = (mass of pycnometer with mixture – mass of pycnometer) / 25 ml
ρ = (47.700-28.000)/25.000= 0.788 g/ml
Calculating Mole Fraction of Methanol (xmethanol) of
90% methanol + 10 % toluene binary mixture
nt= (25.000 ml mixture)(0.900)(0.772 g/ml) + (25.000 ml mixture)(0.100)(0.856 g/ml)
32.000 g/mole 92.000 g/mole
ntotal = 0.5428 + 0.0233 = 0.5661
xmethanol = 0.5428 / 0.5661 = 0.9589
xtoluene = 0.0233 / 0.5661 = 0.0412
Getting the Specific Refraction (Rs) of binary mixtures

(η 2 − 1)  1  (1.3555 2 − 1)  1 
Rs = 2   Rs =  
(η + 2  ρ  (1.3555 + 2  0.778 
2

Rs = 0.2790
Getting the Molecular Refraction (Rs) of binary mixtures

(η 2 − 1)  M  M = (x1)(Mwt.1) +(x2)(Mwt.2)
Rm = 2  
(η + 2  ρ  M = 32.0400 x 0.9589 + 0.0411 x 92.1300
M = 34.5097

(1.35552 − 1)  34.509699 
Rm =   Rm = 9.6282
(1.35552 + 2  0.778 
% difference or error
|1.328-1.3447| x 100
Rimethanol %error = 1.26 %
1.328
|1.4969-1.50485|
Ritoluene %error = x 100 0.53 %
1.4969
ρmethanol %error = |0.772-0.7918| x 100
0.7918 2.50 %
|0.856-0.8669| x 100
ρtoluene %error = 1.26 %
0.8669

## True value at 20◦C :

Rimethanol = 1.328 Ritoluene= 1.4969
ρmethanol = 0.7918 g/ml ρ toluene = 0.8669 g/ml
Group # 2 Data and Results
Mixture Ri Rs Rm ρ C

Xi of
methanol toluene methanol

## 100% 0% 1.34470 0.2749 8.8078 0.772 23.5 1.0000

90% 10% 1.35550 0.2790 9.6282 0.788 23.5 0.9589
80% 20% 1.37124 0.2836 10.5845 0.800 23.5 0.9121
70% 30% 1.38834 0.2937 11.9127 0.804 23.5 0.8582
60% 40% 1.407435 0.3034 13.4492 0.812 23.5 0.7955
50% 50% 1.43758 0.3279 15.9894 0.800 24.0 0.7217
40% 60% 1.48795 0.3479 18.8085 0.828 24.0 0.6335
30% 70% 1.494815 0.3487 21.0980 0.836 24.0 0.5263
20% 80% 1.500835 0.3490 23.9053 0.844 24.0 0.3933
10% 90% 1.502845 0.3468 27.2890 0.852 24.0 0.2237
0% 100% 1.50485 0.3464 31.9138 0.856 24.0 0.0000
Tally of Results (3-ChE-Aw)
Gr. Refractive Index Specific Refraction Molecular Refraction

## 1 y = -0.0267x2 - 0.0982x + 1.5015 y = -0.0146x2 - 0.0464x + 0.3455 y = -22.62x + 31.385

R2 = 0.7447 R2= 0.732 R2 = 0.9912

## 2 y = -0.2955x2 + 0.1328x + 1.4996 y = -0.167x2 + 0.0938x + 0.3423 y = -23.825x + 32.792

R2 = 0.9753 R2 = 0.9524 R2 = 0.9936

## 3 y = -0.2443x2 + 0.0795x + 1.5017 y = -0.1225x2 + 0.0509x + 0.3303 y = -22.75x + 31.17

R2 = 0.9842 R2 = 0.9792 R2 = 0.9973

## 4 y = -0.1998x + 1.5558 y = -0.0983x + 0.376 y = -25.084x + 33.457

R2 = 0.9474 R2 = 0.9345 R2= 0.9984
y = -0.1402x2 - 0.052x + 1.5318 y = -0.0755x2 - 0.0187x + 0.3632 y = -25.056x + 33.402
R2 = 0.9858 R2 = 0.9799 R2 = 0.9989

## 5 y = -0.1696x + 1.5325 y = -0.0917x2 + 0.0171x + 0.3293 y = -22.566x + 30.675

R2 = 0.9149 R2 = 0.9896 R2 = 0.9996
y = -0.1746x2 + 0.0144x + 1.5027
R2 = 0.9946

## 6 y = -0.2676x2 + 0.1091x + 1.5002 y = -0.1342x2 + 0.0618x + 0.3438 y = -23.667x + 32.519

R2 = 0.9856 R2 = 0.9717 R2 = 0.9977
1. What do refraction graphs Rs. vs. mol. Fraction of
methanol and Rm vs. mol fraction of methanol indicate? What
are the practical uses of these graphs?

## As the mole fraction of methanol decreases specific refraction

and molecular refraction increases because the refractive
index of toluene has a higher value than methanol. Graphs of
Rm and Rs vs. mol fraction of methanol can be use in testing
products because at different proportions there is a change on
its value or a change on the effects of the medium where light
is bent.
2. What are the practical uses of refractive index in
chemical engineering?

## (a)It is used to identify a particular substance, confirm

its purity, or measure its concentration.

## (c)It is used to calculate the focusing power of lenses,

and the dispersive power of prisms.

## (e)Identify or confirm the identity of a sample by

comparing its refractive index to known values
3. Why it is necessary to note the temperature at which
the reading from the refractometer is obtained?

## Refractive index decreases with increasing temperature.

The temperature at which the index of refraction is determined
is usually included in the symbol as the superscript, e.g., nD20

## 4. In what practical applications is (a) specific

refractivity (b) molecular refractivity more useful?
It would be more useful in determining the variation of a
solution, to know its contents by comparing it to the true value
and to indicate its composition.
Conclusion:
Refractive index increases as mole fraction of methanol decreases
because toluene has a greater refractive index than methanol,
adding up more toluene on the mixture would increase the
refractive index of the whole mixture.
The refractive index increases as density of the mixture increases.
As the mole fraction of methanol decreases specific refraction
and molecular refraction increases.
The true value of refractive index of methanol at 20 ◦C is 1.328
while on the experiment its 1.3447 at 23.5 ◦C
The true value of refractive index of toluene at 20 ◦C is 1.4969
while on the experiment its 1.50485 at 24 ◦C.
Thank you… ü