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MORAL STUDIES:

AN OVERVIEW
Mr Warren
Welcome to Moral Studies!
This is a journey of self-discovery, where
you slowly discover things that you may not
know about yourself.
This journey of self-discovery will take you
to different aspects of life; it will cover
laughter and happiness, as well as sadness
and misery.
It will include love and relationships,
marriages, mum and dad, grandparents,
and of course babies.
How can we leave out babies
!e will discuss how babies are born, and
how babies are not allowed to be born.
"n our journey of self discovery, we will
also #visit$ the realm of human feelings.
%ertainly, we will enter into the mysterious
world of same-se& relationships of the
homose&uals.
!e will also visit jailbirds in prisons and be
with them on the night before they are
e&ecuted.
How do people get e&ecuted, anyway !e
will travel back in time and see how people
were e&ecuted in the most cruel and painful
ways.
!e will also be with people dying in
hospitals. !e will be by the bedside of a
young man and 'wait( as he dies.
!e will watch as a middle aged woman
commits suicide before our very eyes.
There will also be a discussion on
)ornography, where samples will be shown
in class.
Are you ready to start?
MORAL ISSUES
ABORTION
What is an abortion?
ABORTION
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy before or
without going through natural childbirth. There are
two types of abortion: natural abortion or sometimes
called Spontaneous Abortion, and Wilful Abortion
Spontaneous Abortion
The mother wants to keep the baby, but her body
is too weak to go through the full period of
pregnancy. The fetus is 'dropped(. This is known
as a *iscarriage, or 'still-born baby.(
In some cases, the fetus accidentally kills itself by
suffocation.
Wilful Abortion
The mother does not want to keep the baby and
wilfully removes the fetus before the baby is born.
In *alaysia, wilful abortion is a crime. In many
other countries, wilful abortion is allowed.
Different Ways of Abortion
There are many ways of removing an
unwanted fetus from the woman(s body:
+uction
,ilation and %urettage -,.%/
,ilation and 0vacuation -,.0/
,ilation and 1 -,.1/
Hysterotomy -or '2bortion from 2bove(/
+alt )oisoning
The 1
st
Trimester Fetus (12 ee!s"
2t 3-4 weeks the eyelids have
begun forming and short hair
appears. 5y the 67th week
the preborn child sucks her
thumb and turns somersaults.
+he can s8uint to close out
light, frown, swallow, and
move her little tongue.
Abortion b# Su$tion (1
st
Trimester"
This is the most common method
of abortion during the first trimester
of pregnancy. The cervi& is dilated.
2 suction tube with a knife-edged
tip is inserted into the womb. This
instrument is connected to a
vacuum machine, 94 times more
powerful than a household vacuum
cleaner. It tears the fetus and
placenta into small pieces which
are sucked through the tube into a
bottle and discarded.
Su$tion
2bort6.htm
The 2n% Trimester Fetus (2& ee!s"
5y the end of the third month all arteries
are present, and blood is circulating
through these vessels to all body parts.
:ocal chords are complete. The brain is
formed and the child can feel pain. The
eyelids now cover the eyes, and will
remain shut until the seventh month to
protect the delicate optical nerve fibers.
The mother will soon start feeling the first
kicks of the baby moving inside. The
child can hear and recogni;e the
mother(s voice. +e& organs are formed.
'i(ation an% )uretta*e ('+)"
The cervi& is dilated and a
hook-shaped knife -curette/ is
inserted to cut the baby into
pieces. The pieces are
scraped out through the cervi&
and discarded -much like how
a person removes ear-wa&/
'i(ation an% E,a$uation ('+E"
This method is used when the fetus
is too big to be scraped in ,.%
methods. Instead of the loop-
shaped curette, a pair of forceps is
inserted into the womb to grasp
part of the fetus. The teeth of the
forceps twist and tear the bones of
the unborn child. This process is
repeated until the fetus is totally
dismembered and removed.
<sually the spine must be snapped
and the skull crushed in order to
removed.
'i(ation an% E-tra$tion ('+."
=
The /ro$e%ure is usua((# /er0orme%
toar%s the en% o0 the 2
n%
trimester1 The
oman2s $er,i- is %i(ate%3 an% the 0etus is
/artia((# remo,e% 0rom the omb3 0eet 0irst1
A shar/ ob4e$t is then inserte% to /un$ture
the 0etus2 hea%1 Then a tube is inserte% to
su$! out the brain1 The hea% o0 the 0etus
0o(%s u/ at this /oint an% the 0etus is
remo,e%1
5#sterotom# (or 6Abortion 0rom Abo,e7"
=
Use% main(# in the (ast three months o0
/re*nan$#3 the omb is entere% b#
sur*er# throu*h the a(( o0 the ab%omen1
The te$hni8ue is simi(ar to a )aesarean
%e(i,er#3 e-$e/t that the umbi(i$a( $or% is
usua((# $ut hi(e the bab# is sti(( in the
omb3 thus $uttin* o00 his o-#*en su//(#
an% $ausin* him to su00o$ate1 Sometimes
the bab# is remo,e% a(i,e3 ra//e% in o(%
nes/a/ers an% thrashe%1
Sa(t 9oisonin*
=
Use% a0ter 0our months hen enou*h 0(ui%
has a$$umu(ate%3 a (on* nee%(e in4e$ts a
stron* sa(t so(ution throu*h the mother2s
ab%omen into the bab#2s sa$1 The bab#
sa((os this 0(ui% an% is /oisone% b# it1 It
a(so a$ts as a $orrosi,e3 burnin* o00 the
outer (a#er o0 s!in o0 the bab#1 It norma((#
ta!es an hour 0or the bab# to %ie1 Then
(abor sets in an% the mother i(( *i,e birth
to a %ea% or %#in* bab#1
Want to :ie some 9i$tures?
(Warnin*; Not 0or the 0aint<hearte%"
=
htt/=>>1i$!e%she/her%s1$om>abortion/hotos1htm(
I>%0+T
+e&ual relationship between two
persons who, by the law of the
land, are not allowed to get married
I>%0+T
?ather used daughter as se& slave for
a year
http@AAthestar.com.myAnewsAstory.asp
fileBA976CA9A6AnationA69DECC97.secBnation
," F"< +<))"GT "G "))"+0
25"GTI">
+upport B #pro-choice$
"ppose B #pro-life$
DO YOU SUPPORT OR OPPOSE ABORTIONS?
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?our /osition on the issue is /ossib(#
in0(uen$e% b# the $entra( 8uestion= %o #ou
$onsi%er the 0etus a human bein* or not a
human bein*?
Arguments for Suorting Abortions
Y
E
S
t
o

a
b
o
r
t
io
n
s
=
?etus is not a fully developed human being
=
?etus is 677H physically dependent on the mother, so it
is just a part and an e&tension of the mother(s body
=
2 woman has the right to choose -'!oman(s %hoice(/
Arguments for Suorting Abortions
Y
E
S
t
o

a
b
o
r
t
io
n
s
= Gape@ the girl is not ready to be a mother and does not want that baby
= 2bortion can prevent more young children from suffering -Iackson/
= 5etter to abort a deformed or mentally retarded fetus -,enise/
= )regnancies from incest relationships should be terminated
Arguments for Oosing Abortions
N
O
to

a
b
o
rtio
n
s
=
?etus is a human being and has its own life
=
?etus is not just an e&tension of the mother(s body
=
it has its own heartbeat, own se&, own brains
Arguments for Oosing Abortions
N
O
to

a
b
o
rtio
n
s

=
0ach abortion is itself an abuse of a child
=
,eformity is not a reason to kill the fetus -,enise/
=
Gape@ punish the culprit, not the child -+teven(s son/
=
The response to '2 !oman(s %hoice( -panadol/
Want to see an e(e/hant *i,in* birth?
!tt:""###$f#%%er$&om"'ayer"(i%eo")*++,)"-

W5AT IS BIOME'I)INE?
BIO.MEDI/INE
Biomedicine is the medicine, medication,
or medical treatment that is required to
enable the human body to perform its
natural biological functions
Some Expressions of Biomedicine:
artificial insemination (AI),
surrogate motherhood,
baby sex selection,
organ transplant
Artifi!ial insemination3 or AI3 is the /ro$ess
b# hi$h s/erm 0rom a ma(e is /(a$e% or
in4e$te% into the re/ro%u$ti,e tra$t o0 a 0ema(e
0or the /ur/ose o0 $ausin* /re*nan$# b#
usin* means other than natura( se-ua(
inter$ourse1
Arti0i$ia( Insemination (AI"=
@ AI b# husban% (AI5"
@ AI b# %onor (AI'"
Arti0i$ia( Insemination b# 5usban% (AI5"
S/erm 0rom the oman7s husban% is in4e$te% into the
oman1 This is usua((# %one be$ause it is not /ossib(e
0or the $ou/(e to ha,e natura( se-ua( inter$ourse

Arti0i$ia( Insemination b# 'onor (AI'"
The s/erm in4e$te% into the oman is not 0rom her
husban%3 but 0rom a s/erm %onor1 This is usua((#
%one be$ause the oman7s husban% /ro%u$es no
s/erm or the oman has no ma(e /artner (e* sin*(e
omen3 (esbians"1

Arti0i$ia( Insemination b# 'onor
The %onor is se(e$te% 0rom a set o0 /arameters su$h as
ei*ht3 hei*ht3 ra$e3 re(i*ion3 ethni$ ba$!*roun%3 hair $o(or3
et$1
'o$tor se(e$ts a set o0 $an%i%ates as %onors but the
i%enti0i$ation o0 ea$h %onor is !e/t $on0i%entia(1 Wh#?
<
Why is Artificial Insemination necessary
AI !whether by donor or by husband" is necessary when natural
insemination fails to produce conception for pregnancy.
#easons why natural insemination fails:
$%,
low sperms count !AI% nec",
poor sperm motility,
deformed sperms !morphology" !AI% nec",
retrograde e&eculation
REASONS W01 A 2ERSON SU33ERS 3ROM ED:
e4&essi(e smo5ing 6&auses ni&otine bui'%.u
e4&essi(e %rin5ing 6&auses 'i(er fai'ure7
a&&i%ents
tig!t 8eans
'atos 'a&e% on 'as 69o(er!eating:7
o'% age
9LEASE SUBMIT NAMES OF
AROU9 MEMBERS TO'A?

Let:s no# %is&uss anot!er e4ression of Biome%i&ine:
surrogate mot!er!oo%
SURROAATE MOT5ER5OO'
=
A surro*ate mother is a 6re/(a$ement7
mother 0or another oman3 sometimes
$a((e% the inten%e% mother3 ho either
$annot /ro%u$e 0erti(e e**s or $annot
$arr# a /re*nan$# throu*h to its 0u(( term
The Bab# M )ase
=
In 1BC& an Ameri$an $ou/(e si*ne% a
$ontra$t to /a# Mar# Beth D1E3EEE to be
the surro*ate mother o0 their bab#1 U/on
*i,in* birth3 Mar# Beth %e$i%e% to !ee/
the $hi(%3 re0use% to re$ei,e the D1E3EEE
/a#ment3 an% 0(e% to F(ori%a1 In Fu(# 1BCG3
the /o(i$e arreste% Mar# Beth an%
returne% the $hi(% to the inten%e% /arents1
Let:s no# %is&uss anot!er e4ression of Biome%i&ine:
baby se4 se'e&tion
=
Be0ore e ha% Bab# Se- Se(e$tion3
e ha% Bab# Se- Hno(e%*e1
Bab# Se- Hno(e%*e
=
Sonar a,es are transmitte% into the
/re*nant mother7s stoma$h1 The
re$ei,e% a,es 0orm an ima*e that is
,iee% on a t, s$reen1
=
'o #ou thin! ou(% be /arents shou(%
!no the se- o0 their unborn $hi(%?
=
(Mr + Mrs Won*3 9eta(in* Fa#a"
Bab# Se- Se(e$tion
=
Bab# Se- Se(e$tion is
se(e$tin* the se- o0 the
bab# be0ore /re*nan$#
ta!es /(a$e1
=
Wh# ou(% /arents ant to %o this?
=
What %o #ou thin! ou(% be
6ne-t7 a0ter bab# se-
se(e$tion is /er0e$te%?
One more e4ression of Biome%i&ine:
Organ Trans'ant
W!at %o you t!in5 &ou'% be t!e ULTIMATE
!uman.art trans'ant;
=
A re$ent bio<me%i$ine re(ate% tren% amon*
Austra(ian omen
T0OSE W0O SU22ORT BIOMEDI/INE: T0E
0UMANISTS
T!ere is no &reator <o%
0umans e(o'(e from anima's
T!e em!asis is on t!e =ua'ity of 'ife
0umans are resonsib'e for t!e sur(i(a' of
t!e !uman ra&e
T!e en% 8ustifies t!e means 60it'er > !o'o&aust7
In biome%i&a' issues? !umans 'ay ro'e of <o%

T0OSE W0O O22OSE BIOMEDI/INE: T0E
RELI<IOUS VIEW
T!ere is a /reator <o%
0umans are se&ifi&a''y &reate%
T!e em!asis is on t!e are&iation of 'ife
0umans 'oo5 to <o% for t!e sur(i(a' of
t!e !uman ra&e
T!e en% %oes not 8ustify t!e means
In biome%i&a' issues? !umans #ors!i <o%

/A2ITAL 2UNIS0MENT
/A2ITAL 2UNIS0MENT is the
im/(ementation o0 the %eath /ena(t#
0or $a/ita( o00en$es
/aita' Offen&es in Ma'aysia:
%rug traffi&5ing
ossession of a firearm
5i%naing
mur%er
treason
An&ient %ay met!o%s of E4e&ution
6Iron La%#7 (/ier$e% to %eath insi%e a stee( $hamber"
6BraIen Bu((7 (boi(e% to %eath"
8uarterin*3 %ran an% san
/u((e% a/art b# & or G horses
stom/e% on b# e(e/hant
s!inne% an% (e0t to %r#
$ru$i0ie%
burnt at the sta!e
Whee( o0 'eath
S$a/hism
MaIIate((o
B(oo% Ea*(e
U/ri*ht Fer!er
)o(umbian Ne$!tie
S/anish Ti$!(er

#%olumbian >ecktie$
5lood 0agle
The +panish Tickler
Juartering or +awn <pside ,own
http@AAlistverse.comA9774A74A9CA67-more-gruesome-methods-of-e&ecutionA
http@AAlistverse.comA977KA74A69Atop-67-gruesome-methods-of-e&ecutionA
LG<0+"*0 *0TH",+ "? 010%<TI">
Mo%ern %ay met!o%s of E4e&ution
*as $hamber
(etha( in4e$tion
han*in* (short3 me%ium3 (on* %ro/
e(e$tri$ $hair (O(7 S/ar!#"
0irin* s8ua%
sain* o00 hea% (Ira8i"

http@AAbarenakedislam.wordpress.comA9774
A73A6CA69-year-old-taliban-boys-first-
beheading-warning-e&tremely-graphic-
imagesA
69 year old boy(s first head sawing
Shoul" #e ha$e %apital Punishment?
The un"erl&in 'uestion is #hether &ou
thin( a penalt& shoul" be puniti$e or
!orre!ti$e
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Aruments for Supportin %apital
Punishment *+puniti$e,-
It is nee"e" as a "eterrent
We nee" that for $er& serious !rimes
It is e.pensi$e (eepin !riminals in /ails
%riminals #ill not !hane Bota( %hin) 0ali
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Aruments for Opposin %apital
Punishment *+!orre!ti$e,-
4ife imprisonment is oo" enouh as a
"eterrent
E$er&one !an be !hane" for the better #ith
the !orre!t te!hnolo& an" !ounselin
On!e implemente") !apital punishment !annot
be re$erse"
It is unfair to those #ho !annot affor" a oo"
la#&er

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5otak %hin

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!ong +wee %hin
M 5otak %hin
9o/u(ar Lor Meen restaurant in U(u ?am Lama
U(u ?am Lor Meen

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DI5OR%E an" RE1ARRIA6E
7uestion8 shoul" a !ouple in a trouble"
marriae "i$or!e?
NATURE O9 A 1ARRIA6E
Marriae is a union bet#een a male an" a
female
1arriae i$es the riht to a se.ual union
1arriae is not /ust limite" to se.

NATURE O9 A 1ARRIA6E
What else does a marriage mean to
you?

NATURE O9 A 1ARRIA6E
Marriae is a /oinin of t#o families
There is an e.!hane of $o#s
The marriae $o# is for life but not for
eternit&
Marriae is monoamous (Ms )hon*3 an%
Mr HL Won*"

DIVOR/E
W!en a %i(or&e !aens? it means at
'east one souse is unab'e to 5ee
!is"!er marita' (o#s1
DIVOR/E
It is not the i%ea( so(ution to a ba% marria*e3
but in some $ases3 it is the most /ra$ti$a(
so(ution es/e$ia((# hen the marrie% $ou/(e
has starte% to be /h#si$a((# ,io(ent1
It is not somethin* that a $ou/(e /(annin* to
*et marrie%3 /(an 0or1
DIVOR/E

Di(or&e &reates its o#n rob'ems:
. emotiona' #e'' being of t!e
%i(or&ees?
. &usto%y of &!i'%ren?
. %i(ision of roerties
RE1ARRIA6E
Shoul" a "i$or!e" person marr&
aain?

Y
e
s
?

N
o
?

W
h
&
?
REMARRIA<E
Remarria*e is *i,in* the %i,or$e% /erson a se$on%
$han$e at marria*e1
Sin$e (i0e is o0ten about *ettin* se$on% $han$es3 it
is a(ri*ht 0or a %i,or$e% /erson to remarr#3
/ro,i%e% he un%erstan%s his $ontribution to the
0ai(ure o0 the /re,ious marria*e an% %oes not
re/eat the 0ai(ure1
5e shou(% ta(! to a $(ose 0rien% to he(/ him 0in% out
hat his $ontribution to the 0ai(ure o0 the /re,ious
marria*e as1
REMARRIA<E

It is (i!e a /erson ha,in* a 0ai(e% /re<marita(
re(ationshi/ ith a bo#>*ir( 0rien%1 Shou(% su$h a
/erson see! another re(ationshi/ an% *i,e himse(0
a se$on% to a bo#>*ir( 0rien%? O0 $ourse he
shou(%3 but /ro,i%e% he un%erstan%s h# the
re(ationshi/ 0ai(e% an% ho not to re/eat another
0ai(ure
REMARRIA<E

I0 a /erson7s se$on% marria*e a(so 0ai(s3 it is not
re$ommen%e% that he marries a thir% time
EUT0ANASIA
eu @ goo%
tanatos @ %eat!
Eut!anasia @ a 9goo%: #ay of
%ying

T!ere are t#o tyes of eut!anasia:
A&ti(e Eut!anasia
2assi(e Eut!anasia
A/TIVE EUT0ANASIA
A to $ause %eath b# in4e$tion or intro%u$tion o0 a
%ru* or $hemi$a( into the bo%#
2ASSIVE EUT0ANASIA
A to $ause %eath b# %e/ri,in* the /erson o0
hat he nee%s to (i,e
9ASSI:E EUT5ANASIA
E-am/(e 1= stu%ent 0a((s3 an% brea!s his hea%111
E-am/(e 2= o(% (a%# has a heart atta$! an% is ta!en to hos/ita(111
AR<UMENTS 3OR SU22ORTIN<
EUT0ANASIA
Euthanasia *uarantees %#in* ith %i*nit#
Euthanasia is an a$t o0 mer$# to the su00erer
(Mr Noe(7s 0ather"
Euthanasia is an a$t o0 mer$# to the su00erer7s 0ami(#
(emotiona( an% 0inan$ia( su00erin*"
It he(/s to remo,e a bur%en 0rom so$iet#
AR<UMENTS 3OR O22OSIN< EUT0ANASIA
We ha,e no ri*ht to ta!e aa# the (i0e o0 a /erson ho has
%one no ron*
There is mu$h to be (earnt 0rom su00erin*
(/re,ention o0 e/i%emi$s"
Sometimes3 su00erin* %ras /eo/(e $(oser to*ether
(Ah Lai"
A human bein* shou(% ha,e no /ri$e ta*
Li(ing Wi''
A Living Will is a will made by a person when he is
still in control of his mind, about what he wants or
does not want to be done to him when he is no longer
in control of his mind. The aim is to prevent
arguments among his children if or when he is no
longer in control of his mind.
)ases on Assiste% Sui$i%e
1 British oman (oses $ase on assiste% sui$i%e
htt/=>>nes1bb$1$o1u!>2>hi>hea(th>JKBJ2EE1stm
2 'i*nitas )(ini$3 SitIer(an%
htt/=>>en1i!i/e%ia1or*>i!i>'i*nitasL(euthanasiaL*rou/"
M Ara$e )ho7s b(o* on her %#in* e-/erien$e
htt/=>>%#in*is1b(o*s/ot1$om>
=
Let7s at$h a ,i%eo on a oman
$ommittin* 6assiste% sui$i%e7 b# %rin!in*
/oison at 'i*nitas
=
htt/=>>1#outube1$om>at$h?
,N,(FConAB2e!
0OMOSEBUALIT1
Having a homoseual or heteroseual relationship
is a choice, but having a homoseual preference is
not.!
0omose4ua' C of t!e same se4 6ma'e or fema'e7
Lesbian C t#o !omose4ua' fema'es
0eterose4ua' C of t!e oosite se4
Bise4ua' C bot! !omo. an% !etero. at same time
:O1OSE;UA4ITY
Transse-ua(
A /erson ho has $han*e% his>her se-
Metrose-ua(
A man ho is ,er# 0ashion $ons$ious
5omo/hobi$
Into(erant o0 homose-ua(s or transse-ua(s
/'oistere% C !i%%en? un%e&'are%
Se4ua' 2referen&e C #!at t!e erson #ants as
oose% to #!at !e is seen %oing
<ay Unions an% <ay Marriages
Definition of a 0omose4ua' 2erson:
A !omose4ua' erson is a erson #!o !as a
se4ua' referen&e or orientation for anot!er
erson of t!e same se4
Some /i$tures?
Aa# union
Aa# marria*e
5o to te(( hether a bar is a *a# bar or
not?
(or3 hat %o #ou see outsi%e a *a#
bar?"
F(a* outsi%e a *a# bar
Rainbo or LABT 0(a*3 s#mbo(iIin* the /ri%e o0 (esbians3
*a#s3 bise-ua(s an% trans*en%ers
Aa# bars 0or men
Rea%# to ,isit a *a# bar in
Shan*hai?
Is this hat *oes on insi%e a Aa# Bar?
Aa# bars 0or (esbians
"ossible #auses of Homoseuality$
'enetic causes !not pro(en or dispro(en"
%isturbed or interrupted gender de(elopment
)ac* of or little gender training
)ac* of one or both parents during childhood
+ailure of a past heterose,ual relationship
Se,ual abuse during childhood
%esperate need for parents- attention
Situational .auses
/ prisons
/ boarding schools
/ army camps
Arguments for %upporting
Homoseuality$
$(en the minority has a right to pri(acy
0omose,uality is inborn1 it-s in the genes !eg: left
handed, curly hair"
It-s a free choice between two mutually consenting
adults
A homose,ual relationship can be as strong as if not
e(en stronger than a heterose,ual one

Arguments for &pposing
Homoseuality$
2obody is born a homose,ual1 it-s cultured, li*e
smo*ing
$(eryone is born out of a heterose,ual relationship, so
homose,uality is against the natural order
0omose,uality is a bad influence to society !3what am I
going to tell my children about my homose,ual neighbors4"
35utually consenting4 does not necessarily ma*e it
right
'od created Adam and $(e 6

0OMOSEBUALIT1
Tai#an C DMy <ir'frien%E
0ong5ong C !ousing benefits for
!eterose4ua' marrie% &ou'es

0OMOSEBUALIT1
T#o rati&ing gays by t!e
Mississii

9ORNOARA95?
W0AT IS
2ORNO<RA201;
W!at is t!e %ifferen&e
bet#een 2ornogra!y
an% E%u&ation or Art;

Is this boo! 6/orn7 or e%u$ation?
OWhere 'i% I )ome From?P
=
htt/=>>1*oo*(e1$om1m#>sear$h?
h(Nen+8Nboo!Q2EhereQ2E%i%Q2Ei
Q2E$ome
Q2E0rom+ba,Non123or1rL*$1rL/1rL8013$01o
sb+biN1E2&+bihNG&1+ra/i%Nt(i01MMEB2
2MJC&JE1E+umN1+ieNUTF<
C+tbmNis$h+sour$eNo*+saNN+tabNi+ei
NoUNUTL0$AGA5rAeA1859'R
2ORNO<RA201
2ornogra!y is t!e i&toria' or (erba'
reresentation of !uman se4ua' be!a(ior t!at is
%esigne% to %emean or %egra%e t!e se4ua'
fun&tion of t!e !uman bo%y as a se4 ob8e&t to be
tra%e% 'i5e a &ommo%ity
PORNO6RAP:Y
Nu%it# a(one is not /orno*ra/h#
Fie(%s Museum3 )hi$a*o
9orno*ra/h# %oes not nee% to ha,e a 0ema(e bo%#
Euro/a 5ote(3 )o/enha*en
9orno*ra/h# $an be non<,isua(
Te(e/hone bo-3 Soho3 Lon%on
W0AT ISA
SO3T 2ORN;
0ARD 2ORN;
ALTERNATIVE SEB;
SO3T 2ORN is /orno*ra/h# that
re,ea(s 4ust enou*h to stimu(ate
0ARD 2ORN is /orno*ra/h# that
re,ea(s e,er#thin* an% (ea,es
nothin* to the ima*ination
ALTERNATIVE SEB is se- other
than $on,entiona( ma(e<0ema(e
se-ua( beha,ior
NE<ATIVE E33E/TS O3 2ORNO<RA201
It &an trans'ate &uriosity into ra&ti&e
On&e ra&ti&e%? it is usua''y a%%i&ti(e
It insu'ts t!e !uman bo%y
It &an insire se4.re'ate% &rimes
It &an 'ea% to a brea5.u of re'ations!is 6&ase: #ife
&at&!es !usban% #it! orno taes in !is #ar%robe7
SIANS OF 9ORNOARA95?
A''I)TION
=
'e/en%en$# on /orno*ra/h#
=
)om/u(si,e rea%in* o0 /orno*ra/h#
=
Obsessi,e ,iein* or thin!in* about
/orno*ra/h# an% other se-ua( materia(s
TESTIMONIES FROM WI:ES
OF 9ORNOARA95? A''I)TS
=
htt/=>>1,i$timso0/orno*ra/h#1or*>:i$timsQ2EStories>Wi,esQ2Eo0Q2E9ornQ2EA%%i$tsQ2E<Q2E:i$timsQ2EStories1htm
2OSITIVE USES O3 2ORNO<RA201
It &an be use% by marrie% &ou'es to imro(e t!eir
se4ua' re'ations!i
It is use% in se&ia'ist &'ini&s 6eg serm %onation7
It is use% in risons to minimiFe !omose4ua'
ra&ti&es
It is !e'fu' to eo'e #!o? by &!oi&e or
&ir&umstan&es? 'i(e a'one
0OW TO 0EL2 SOMEONE W0O IS A
2ORNO<RA201 ADDI/T
. t!ras! a'' ornogra!y materia's
. sub8e&t t!e bo%y to a form of !ysi&a' a&ti(ity 6eg
gym? games? sorts7
. se'f %is&i'ine not to in%u'ge anymore in orn
)ourseor! )om/onents
=
Assi*nment %ue= Thurs%a# 2C Mar$h (turnitin"
=
)(ass I'= KE2&EJB3
/assor%= mora(s
Thurs%a# 2C Mar$h (har%
$o/#"
=
:i%eo (NOT (ess than G mins"= Thurs%a# 2C Mar$h
(u/(oa% to #outube an% sen% the (in! to=
arren(auSemai(1$om
=
Mi% Term Test (2E M)Rs"= Thurs%a# 2C Mar$h
(ea$h 8uestion i(( be shon on s$reen3 startin* at M<ME
shar/"
Each component is worth 20 marks
Total coursework: 60 marks
The :i%eo
=
AIM o0 ,i%eo= to substantiate or i((ustrate
the /oints in the *rou/ essa#
=
MINIMUM (en*th= G mins
=
Must be abso(ute(# ori*ina(
=
Not a(( members o0 the *rou/ nee% to be
0eature%
SEBUAL 0ARASSMENT
SEBUAL 0ARASSMENT is an#
une($ome ,erba(3 non<,erba(3 ,isua(3
/s#$ho(o*i$a( or /h#si$a( $on%u$t o0 a se-ua(
nature
SEBUAL 0ARASSMENT
Un0ortunate(#3 e-$e/t 0or the /h#si$a( 0orm o0
se-ua( harassment3 this $ountr# $urrent(# %oes not
ha,e a (a a*ainst se-ua( harassment1 Be$ause
o0 this3 se-ua( harassment is 8uite ram/ant an%
un$he$!e%1
SEBUAL 0ARASSMENT Se-ua(
harassment 6in the o00i$e7 is the situation here it is
im/(ie% that rear%s i(( be *i,en in return 0or
se-ua( 0a,orsT otherise the ,i$tim stan%s to (ose
her 4ob or bene0its re(ate% to her 4ob1
SEBUAL 0ARASSMENT Oin the o00i$eP
in$(u%es harassment hi$h ha//ens outsi%e the
o00i$e3 su$h as so$ia( *atherin* or 0un$tions3
$on0eren$es3 or!sho/3 trainin* sessions3 roa%
shos or an# or! re(ate% assi*nments outsi%e
the o00i$e
SEBUAL ANNO1AN/E
Se-ua( anno#an$e is se-ua( harassment that has no %ire$t
$onne$tion to an# 4ob bene0its1 5oe,er3 the anno#in*
beha,ior $reates an o00ensi,e or!in* en,ironment hi$h
a00e$ts the ,i$tim2s abi(it# to $ontinue or!in*1 Se-ua(
anno#an$e in$(u%es se-ua( harassment b# one em/(o#ee
to another em/(o#ee1
5arassment Situations
=
The harasser $an be an#one3 su$h as a $(ient
=
5arassment $an o$$ur ith or ithout other itnesses
=
The harasser ma# be $om/(ete(# unaare that his or her
beha,ior is o00ensi,e or $onstitutes se-ua( harassment
(%umb"
=
The ,i$tim an% harasser $an be an# *en%er
=
The harasser %oes not ha,e to be o0 the o//osite se-
3ORMS O3 SEBUAL 0ARASSMENT
VERBAL -dirty jokes, sounds, foul
language/
NON.VERBAL -suggestive signs,
pictures/
VISUAL -staring, signs made with eyes/
MENTAL"2S1/0OLO<I/AL -repeated
invitations to go out, phone calls,
repeated visits/
201SI/AL -touching, brushing
against the body, fondling/
W0AT TO DO I3 1OU ARE
SEBUALL1 0ARASSED IN T0E
WORG 2LA/E;
Ma!e a 0orma( $om/(aint1 I0 #our $om/an# has /ro$e%ures
0or reso(,in* se-ua( harassment $om/(aints3 *o throu*h the
/ro/er $hanne(1 I0 it %oesn2t3 s/ea! to #our boss1 I0 #our
boss is the /rob(em3 s/ea! to his su/erior1 I0 there2s no
one #ou 0ee( sa0e ta(!in* to3 or i0 #our $om/(aint is i*nore%3
#ou $an ma!e a /o(i$e re/ort1
In the orst $ase3 (ea,e the $om/an#1
DIS/RIMINATION
Dis&rimination is t!e %is=ua'ifi&ation
or re8e&tion of a erson base% on any
reason ot!er t!an on merit
Different forms of Dis&rimination
g
e
n
d
e
r
m
i
n

o
r

m
a
x

a
g
e
h
e
i
g
h
t
r
a
c
i
a
l
s
i
n
g
l
e

d
i
n
e
r
religious
UN'ERSTAN'INA
MORALS
Un%erstan%in* Mora(s
ET5I)S= 0rom the Aree! or% 6ethos7 ($ustoms"
MORALS= 0rom Latin 6mores7 (ethos"
Un%erstan%in* Mora(s
:ALUE= /ri$e a//raisa(3 ran!3 8ua(it#3 *ra%e3
stan%ar%
MORAL :ALUE3 ET5I)AL :ALUE= terms use% to
$on,e# the sense o0 6*oo%7 or 6$orre$t7
MORALIT?= a so$ia( instrument that *ui%es
in%i,i%ua(s an% *rou/s in their %ai(# (i,es
9hi(oso/h# an% Ethi$s
95ILOSO95? AN' ET5I)S
=
The or% U/hi(oso/h#U $omes 0rom to Aree!
or%s (phileo = love an% !"#$ (wis%om
= wis%om& hi$h to*ether mean U(o,e 0or
is%omP
=
69hi(a%e(/hia7 $omes 0rom to Aree! or%s
(phileo an% $'"( (a%elphos = )rother
hi$h to*ether mean O(o,e 0or brotherP1
95ILOSO95? AN' ET5I)S
=
The or% Oeu(o*#P $omes 0rom (eu = *oo%
an% +,"( (lo*os = wor%
=
6Voo(o*#7 $omes 0rom - ". ( /0on = animal an%
+,"( (lo*os = wor%
95ILOSO95? AN' ET5I)S
=
Philosoph& is the stu%# o0 0un%amenta( issues
an% /rob(ems re(atin* to (i0e throu*h a $riti$a(
an% s#stemati$ a//roa$h3 re(#in* on rationa(
ar*ument
The G main areas o0 9hi(oso/h#
The main areas o0 /hi(oso/h# in$(u%e
=
E/istemo(o*# (stu%# o0 !no(e%*e"3
=
Lo*i$ (stu%# o0 reasonin*"3
=
Meta/h#si$s (stu%# o0 the $osmi$s"3
=
ethi$s (stu%# o0 the ri*ht a# to (i,e"
=
Aestheti$s (stu%# o0 beaut# an% art"
T5E BASIS FOR RIA5T AN'
WRONA3 AOO' AN' BA'
The usua( stan%ar% o0 4u%*ment is usua((# hether an
a$tion is ri*ht or ron* a$$or%in* to mora( re*u(ations


Mora( re*u(ations are not the on(#
stan%ar% o0 4u%*ment o0 ri*ht or ron*
=
Some /hi(oso/hers3 hoe,er3 0ee( that
6ri*ht7 or 6ron*7 is not $on0ine% to 4ust
obe#in* or $om/(#in* ith mora(
re*u(ations1
=
The# o00er to a(ternati,e stan%ar%s o0
4u%*ment
=
($ase stu%#= (itt(e *ir( 0a((s into a (a!e"
TELEOLOA?
($onse8uentia(ism"
An a$tion is $onsi%ere% ri*ht or ron*3
*oo% or ba%3 base% /ure(# on the 0ina(
resu(ts o0 the a$tion1
I0 the 0ina( resu(t o0 the a$tion is ba%3 the a$tion is $onsi%ere%
ba% no matter ho *oo% the intention as
(En*(ish 9remiere Lea*ue 0ootba(( $oa$hes"


Te(eo(o*#
(te(os N *oa("
=
This is an e-am/(e o0 a mora( ,a(ue o0 an
a$tion bein* %e/en%ent on the non<mora(
resu(ts /ro%u$e%1
=
This is a non<mora( as/e$t o0 %eterminin*
hat is *oo% or ba%3 ri*ht or ron*3 ie1
'eterminin* non<mora((#1
5E'ONISTS
A *rou/ o0 te(eo(o*ists ho thin!
about hat is *oo% non<mora((# is the
he%onists


5E'ONISTS
Aoo% is i%enti0ie% ith /(easure Ba%
is i%enti0ie% ith /ain
Thus an a$tion is ri*ht is an a$tion that /ro%u$es
*reater /(easure than /ain


TELEOLOA?
($onse8uentia(ism"
?et another *rou/ o0 te(eo(o*ists i%enti0#
hat is *oo% ith /oer3 !no(e%*e3 se(0
aareness3 et$1
Thus3 ta!in* a $ourse to *ain !no(e%*e is *oo%3 (aIin* an%
%e(iberate(# a,oi%in* or! is ba%


TELEOLOA?
($onse8uentia(ism"
Then there is #et another *rou/ o0
te(eo(o*ists ho /(a$e the em/hasis
on the re$i/ient o0 the resu(ts
Are the resu(ts %ire$te% to themse(,es3 or to
other /eo/(e?


UTILITARIANISM
(6re$i/ient7 ,ersion o0 te(eo(o*ists"
An a$tion is $onsi%ere% ri*ht or *oo% i0 it
bene0its the ma4orit# o0 the /eo/(e1
(The 6orbita(7"


UTILITARIANISM
(6re$i/ient7 ,ersion o0 te(eo(o*ists"
Not e,er#bo%# i(( bene0it 0rom a sin*(e a$tion or
%e$ision1 I03 hoe,er3 the ma4orit# o0 the /eo/(e
bene0its 0rom the a$tion3 then it is a *oo% a$tion
Uti(itarianism $omes 0rom the ori*ina( or% 6uti(it#7
hi$h means 6a thin* that is use0u( or bene0i$ia(7


UTILITARIANISM
(6re$i/ient7 ,ersion o0 te(eo(o*ists"
An a$tion is $onsi%ere% mora((# $orre$t i0
it /ro%u$es ma-imum /(easure 0or man#
/eo/(e1 It is $onsi%ere% immora( i0 it
brin*s /ain an% su00erin*1


EAOISTI) TELEOALOA?
(We sa that uti(itarianism is the 6re$i/ient7
,ersion o0 te(eo(o*ists here the re$i/ient o0
the *oo% or ba% is the /eo/(e
E*oisti$ te(eo(o*# (e*oism" is here the
re$i/ient o0 the a$tion is not the /eo/(e3
but the in%i,i%ua( himse(01


EAOISM
E*oism is %ri,en b# M 0a$tors=
Se(0 (o,e
Se(0 /rote$tion
Se(0 a%miration (nar$issism"


'EONTOLOAI)AL T5EOR?
(6%eon7 N %ut#"
An a$tion is $onsi%ere% ri*ht or ron*3
*oo% or ba%3 base% /ure(# on the
intention o0 the a$tion1
I0 the intention is *oo%3 then the a$tion is $onsi%ere%
*oo% e,en thou*h the 0ina( resu(t as ba%


'EONTOLOA?
(non<$onse8uentia(ists"
'eonto(o*ists re4e$t the ,ies o0 the te(eo(o*ists in
that 6resu(ts7 %etermine hat is ri*ht or ron*1
An in%i,i%ua( ma# /er0orm an a$tion in 0u(0i((in* hat
has been /romise%3 or be$ause it is $omman%e% b#
Ao%
I0 the intention is *oo%3 then the a$tion is $onsi%ere%
*oo% e,en thou*h it ma# not /ro%u$e 0ina( resu(ts
$onsi%ere% *oo%


E.ISTENTIALISM
No a$tion $an be ri*ht or *oo% i0 the
a$tion as in0(uen$e% b# an# e(ement
o0 0or$e or $om/u(sion1
'onatin* to $harit# is *oo% /ro,i%e% su$h a %onation
as not in0(uen$e% b# an# e(ement o0 $om/u(sion1
(9aintin* o0 O(% Fo(!s 5ome b# Nationa( Ser,i$e
/arti$i/ants"


SOL:INA MORAL )ONFLI)TS
)ONFLI)T RESOLUTION
Nature o0 a )on0(i$t
Strate*ies in )on0(i$t Reso(ution


NATURE OF A )ONFLI)T
A $on0(i$t e-ists hen there is a threat
to either a nee% or an interest
When someone s/rea%s *ossi/s about #ou at or!
When someone tries to sabota*e #our re(ationshi/


'IFFEREN)E BETWEEN
6NEE'7 AN' 6:ALUE7
W NEE' is somethin* that e $annot %o
ithout3 e* 0oo%3 se$urit#3 0rien%s
W SENSE OF :ALUE %etermines our $hoi$e o0
nee%s e* ho our 0rien%s are3 hat e eat3
hat $(othes e ear


5arro%s o0 Lon%on
The toilet story N
The Toi(et insi%e 5arro%7s
6NEE'7 AN' 6:ALUE7
Sometimes3 an unne$essar# $on0(i$t arises
be$ause one /art# ,ies the /rob(em as 6nee%7
hi(e the other ,ies it as 6,a(ue7
5usban% an% i0e3 an% *o(0111
Mother an% %au*hter3 an% han%/hone111


6NEE'7 AN' 6:ALUE7
Sometimes3 an unne$essar# $on0(i$t
arises be$ause one /art# ,ies the
/rob(em as 6nee%7 hi(e the other
,ies it as 6,a(ue7


RESOL:INA A )ONFLI)T
Sometimes3 there is a me%iator (6M
r%
/art#7" ho
tries to he(/ the to $on0(i$tin* /arties1 The
me%iator on(# FA)ILITATES3 he $annot
a$tua((# SOL:E the $on0(i$t1 The $on0(i$t $an
on(# be so(,e% b# the $on0(i$tin* /arties
themse(,es


FUSTI)E AN' RE:ENAE
For the to $on0(i$tin* /arties3 it he(/s to
un%erstan% the %i00eren$e beteen FUSTI)E
an% RE:ENAE1
($ar a$$i%entT hea%(i*ht smashe%"


FUSTI)E AN' RE:ENAE
OAn e#e 0or an e#e3 a tooth 0or a tooth;P
What is the ori*in o0 this a%a*e?


STRATEAIES IN )ONFLI)T
RESOLUTION
W Strate*# o0 5ierar$h# Bui(%in*
W Strate*# o0 )om/romise
W Strate*# o0 'isso(ution


STRATEA? OF 5IERAR)5? BUIL'INA
?ou bui(% a hierar$h# (or 6/riorit#7" o0 the ,a(ues
in,o(,e%3 an% then reso(,e the $on0(i$t base% on the
hierar$h# that #ou ha,e bui(t1
'i00erent /eo/(e ma# bui(% a %i00erent set o0 hierar$h#
0or the same /rob(em situation3 but the %e$ision is sti((
base% on the hierar$h# that the /erson has bui(t
A mother an% her 2 !i%s


STRATEA? OF 'ISSOLUTION
?ou reso(,e the $on0(i$t b# remo,in* the e(ement o0
$on0(i$t
This strate*# is use% hen it is not #et /ossib(e to
bui(% a hierar$h# o0 the ,a(ues


STRATEA? OF )OM9ROMISE
?ou reso(,e the $on0(i$t b# *i,in* ea$h $on0(i$tin*
/art# hat he>she ants3 but not to the e-tent o0 hat
he>she ants
This strate*# is use% hen #ou nee% to 6bu# time7


A 95ILOSO95? ON 'EALINA WIT5
)ONFLI)TS IN OUR LI:ES
To men 0e(( into a 0ast 0(oin* ri,er1 One
%rone%3 the other sur,i,e%1 When as!e%
ho he sur,i,e%3 he ansere% 111


A 95ILOSO95? ON 'EALINA WIT5 )ONFLI)TS IN
OUR LI:ES
I sur,i,e% be$ause I %i% not tr# to 0i*ht
a*ainst the ri,er1 Instea%3 I (earne% to $o<
e-ist ith the ri,er111


A 95ILOSO95? ON 'EALINA WIT5 )ONFLI)TS IN
OUR LI:ES
Lesson= There i(( a(a#s be $on0(i$ts
in our (i,es1 'o not 0i*ht a*ainst themT
rather3 (earn to $oe-ist ith them


A 95ILOSO95? ON 'EALINA WIT5 )ONFLI)TS IN
OUR LI:ES
There i(( a(a#s be ba% nei*hbours1
'o not 8uarre( ith themT rather3
(earn to $oe-ist ith them


NORMATI:E + 'ES)RI9TI:E
STATEMENTS


Normati,e + 'es$ri/ti,e Statements
=
An#thin* is either a (i,in* thin* or not a (i,in* thin*
=
A (i,in* thin* is either a $at or not a $at
=
A $at is either name% 6Meo7 or not name% 6Meo7
=
An# statement is either a Normati,e Statement or not a
Normati,e Statement
=
A non<Normati,e Statement is $a((e% a 'es$ri/ti,e
Statement
=
An# statement is either a Normati,e Statement or a
'es$ri/ti,e Statement
NORMATI:E + 'ES)RI9TI:E
STATEMENTS
A normati,e statement is one that $ontains an
e(ement o0 mora( tea$hin* or mora( 4u%*ement
A %es$ri/ti,e statement is one that $ontains no
e(ement o0 mora( tea$hin* or mora( 4u%*ement


What statements are these?
=
Mi%ni*ht shos are not *oo% 0or (itt(e $hi(%ren
=
Briber# is ron*
=
Mi%ni*ht shos are s$reene% e,er# Satur%a#
=
9orno*ra/h# is banne% in the $am/us
=
A *oo% /erson %oes not $heat or stea(
=
Tomorro is the %ea%(ine 0or the submission o0
assi*nments
=
?anin* is a natura( /ro$ess hereb# e-$ess $arbon
%io-i%e insi%e the bo%# is re/(a$e% b# o-#*en
RELATIONS5I9S
Re(ationshi/ Bui(%ers
Re(ationshi/ 'estro#ers
5ea(in* 9oers o0 Re(ationshi/s


Re(ationshi/ Bui(%ers
Broa% ran*e o0 to/i$s o0 $ommon interest
Aoo% sense o0 $ommuni$ation
Sense o0 humour
Mutua( res/e$t 0or ea$h other7s /ri,a$#
Mutua( a$$e/tan$e o0 ea$h other7s /ersona(ities
Sma(( %is/(a# o0 a00e$tion
Team or!
A tou$h o0 un/re%i$tabi(it#
Trans/aren$#

Re(ationshi/ 'estro#ers
9oor sense o0 $ommuni$ation
Fre8uent 8uarre(s %o not e,en ha,e #our 0irst 8uarre(
S$o(%in*
9ossessi,eness
In$onsisten$# in moo%s
No or (itt(e res/e$t 0or ea$h other7s /ri,a$# 9remarita(
se-
A thir% /art#
A %omineerin* attitu%e
Fea(ous# a (itt(e %ose o0 4ea(ous# is *oo%

5o %oes 9remarita( Se- 'estro# a
Re(ationshi/?
Fee(in* o0 *ui(t in one or both /arties3 es/7(# i0 the# $ome 0rom
*oo% 0ami(ies
Fee(in* o0 irres/onsibi(it# on the /art o0 the bo#3 0or a((oin*
se- to *et into the re(ationshi/
Air( (oses her se(0 res/e$t
)reates sus/i$ious 0ee(in*s an% %oubts on the sin$erit# o0 the
re(ationshi/ (O%oes he ant me on(# 0or se-?P"
)reates %i00erent (e,e(s o0 e-/e$tation on bo# an% *ir( ea$h
time the# 0in% themse(,es a(one
Shi0ts the $ore o0 the re(ationshi/ 0rom mutua((# a00e$tionate
0ee(in*s to se- 3 or 0rom (o,e to (ust (a BBR 0ire"

The 5ea(in* 9oer o0 Lo,e
W The 9hantom o0 the O/era
W Lon* 'a#7s Fourne# into Ni*ht

Lon* 'a#7s Fourne# into Ni*ht
b# Eu*ene O7Nei((
Lon* 'a#7s Fourne# Into Ni*ht
b# Eu*ene O7Nei((
W Fames T#rone X tra,e((in* a$tor3 insiste% his i0e to
a$$om/an# him3 a($oho( a%%i$t
W Mar# T#rone X as *i,en an o,er%ose o0 mor/hine hi(e
*i,in* birth to 2n% son3 mor/hine a%%i$t
W Famie T#rone X as brou*ht u/ ithout /arenta( attention3
$#ni$a(3 a($oho(i$ a%%i$t
W E%mun% T#rone X as $onstant(# remin%e% he as born to
re/(a$e an e(%er brother ho %ie%3 (o se(0 esteem3 su00erin*
0rom tuber$u(osis1 5arboure% an ambition to be a riter

9hantom o0 the O/era
b# Sir An%re L(o#% Webber
The 9hantom o0 the O/era
W Set in the me%ie,a( /erio% hen o/era trou/es be(ie,e% that
a /hantom (i,e% in the basement o0 their o/era houses
W The 9hantom as born so u*(# that his 0ather ante% to %ro/
him insi%e a e((
W 5is mother3 hoe,er3 ma%e him a mas! to hi%e his u*(# 0a$e1
From then3 the 9hantom is shunne% b# so$iet# an% hi%es in the
$e((ar o0 the 9aris O/era 5ouse
W )hristine be$omes a re(u$tant (ea% sin*er
W She meets the 9hantom (ONo NO;P" ho $oa$he% her in her
sin*in*
W The 9hantom 0a((s in (o,e ith )hristine
W But )hristine has a bo#0rien%3 Raou(

The 9hantom o0 the O/era
W )hristine /u((s aa# his mas! an% hears his s$ream
W 5er horror is re/(a$e% b# (o,e 0or a human bein* in %es/air
W She a$$e/ts the 9hantom in $om/assion an% in turn
be$omes a *reater /erson herse(0
W For the 0irst time in his (i0e3 the 9hantom 0oun% a$$e/tan$e
0rom another human bein*
W For the 0irst time3 he as (o,e% 0or hat he is
W That (o,e $(eanses his sou( an% $om/ensates 0or a(( the
su00erin* he has en%ure%T he is ri% o0 hatre% an% /ain

The 9hantom o0 the O/era
W The 9hantom re(eases )hristine to Raou( an% /(a$es her
interest abo,e his
W In so %oin*3 he si*ns his on %eath arrant 0or ithout
)hristine b# his si%e3 the 9hantom $annot *o on (i,in*
Ruestion=
ho is the rea( monster X the 9hantom or so$iet#?

=
Listen to Sarah Bri*htman sin* O9hantom
o0 the O/eraP=
htt/=>>1#outube1$om>at$h?
,NSCCr!/9uCL*+0eatureNre(ate%
T5REATS TO T5E EN:IRONMENT
9o((ution to the atmos/here
'e0orestation
'estru$tion o0 (an% resour$es 0or a*ri$u(ture
Mismana*ement o0 resour$es o0 the sea shar!s
Mismana*ement o0 0resh ater resour$es
Irres/onsib(e use o0 /oisonous $hemi$a(s
9oor %is/osa( /ro$e%ures o0 %an*erous materia(s
9oor %is/osa( o0 so(i% matter

9RESER:ATION OF
EN:IRONMENT
9rote$t atmos/here 0rom /o((ution
Fu%i$ious use o0 0orest resour$es
Res/onsib(e use o0 (an% 0or a*ri$u(ture
Maintain e$os#stem o0 sea resour$es
9rote$t an% mana*e 0resh ater resour$es
Use /oisonous $hemi$a(s sa0e(#
Im/(ement /ro/er %is/osa( 0or %an*erous materia(s
Im/(ement res/onsib(e so(i% matter %is/osa(

BASI) )ON)E9TS OF
:ALUE


MORAL :ALUES
:ALUE e-ists in ,arious as/e$ts=
(a"It $an be $ounte%3 e* mone#
(b"It $an be 0e(t 6interna((#7 e* in our
thou*hts
MATERIALISTI) ,s MORAL
:ALUES
A D1E $urren$# note is an e-am/(e o0
6materia(isti$7 ,a(ue
But beteen a D1E note an% a D1EE
note3 there is no %i00eren$e in 6mora(7
,a(ue be$ause stea(in* D1E is 4ust as
mora((# ba% as stea(in* D1EE
MORAL :ALUES
I0 a /erson has (ots o0 mone#3 he is $onsi%ere% ri$h
an% i0 he %oes not ha,e mu$h mone#3 he is
$onsi%ere% /oor1
But there is a(so su$h a thin* as his 8ua(it# o0 (i0e
an% his mora( $hara$ter1 These $annot be
measure%1
hi$h is h# some /oor /eo/(e are more ha//#
than their ri$her 0rien%s
MORAL :ALUES
Some /eo/(e /(a$e more im/ortan$e on materia(
,a(ues than on mora( ,a(ues1 The# stri,e to on
materia(isti$ /ro/erties but ne*(e$t mora( or
re(i*ious ,a(ues1
MORAL :ALUES
Then there are /eo/(e ho /(a$e so mu$h
im/ortan$e on $ertain mora( ,a(ues than that
the# miss out on o//ortunities to obtain
materia(isti$ /ro/erties
MORAL :ALUES
B(esse% are those ho /(a$e im/ortan$e on both
t#/es o0 ,a(ues an% are ab(e to (ea% (i,es that
are /h#si$a((# an% s/iritua((# ba(an$e%
T?9ES OF MORAL :ALUES
INSTRUMENTAL OR E.TRINSI) :ALUE=
:a(ue that is use% as an instrument to a$hie,e
$ertain ob4e$ti,es
Bombin* o0 5iroshima to en% the Fa/anese
in,asion
Beatin* u/ o0 a 0(eein* snat$h thie0
T?9ES OF MORAL :ALUES
INTRINSI) :ALUE=
:a(ue that is a$$e/te% so(e(# on its on merit
ithout $onsi%erin* its e00e$t1 It %oes not %e/en%
on other ,a(ues to a$hie,e its ob4e$ti,es
A 4u%*e /asses a %eath senten$e on a $a/ita(
o00en%er base% /ure(# on the (a an% not
be$ause he himse(0 ishes to stam/ out $a/ita(
$rimes
T?9ES OF MORAL :ALUES
SUBFE)TI:E :ALUE=
:a(ue that is a$$e/te% or re4e$te% base% on an
in%i,i%ua(7s o/inion
A nation ants to atta$! Iran to /re,ent Iran 0rom
/ro%u$in* atomi$ ea/ons3 hi(e another nation
sai% Iran shou(% not be atta$!e% be$ause it
ou(% $ause the %eath o0 man# inno$ent /eo/(e
T?9ES OF MORAL :ALUES
OBFE)TI:E :ALUE=
:a(ue that is a$$e/te% or re4e$te% base% not on
an# in%i,i%ua(7s o/inion but on a set o0 $riteria
a*ree% u/on b# $onsensus
)hi(% (abour is a $rue( /ra$ti$e
5uman tra00i$!in* is %ehumaniIin*
War is a tra*e%# 0or the or%inar# /eo/(e
MORAL )ONTENT
To $om/onents 0orm a mora( s#stem=
Ru(es o0 So$iet# an% 5uman
)hara$teristi$s1
To*ether3 these to items are !non
as
6Mora( )ontent7
Mora( )ontent
RULES OF SO)IET? %o not e-ist b#
themse(,es but arise 0rom estab(ishe%
$ustoms or e-/erien$es in human (i0e
What Ru(es o0 So$iet# 'o
Im/ro,e stan%ar% o0 (i,in* o0 /eo/(e
9rote$t human (i0e
9re,ent %e*ra%ation in beha,iour an% mora(s o0 so$iet#
9reser,e so$ia( or%er
Maintain /ea$e an% so$ia( or%er
'e,e(o/ the inte((e$tua( $a/a$it# o0 /eo/(e in so$iet#
1ow %o we respon% to rules2
)ustomar# + Re0(e$ti,e Mora(it#
A /erson 0irst e-/erien$es $ustomar# mora(it#3 ie
ru(es an% a#s ,a(i%ate% b# so$iet#1 These are
/asse% %on 0rom our an$estors an% are
/res$ribe% norms1
OThis is tra%itiona(P
OThis is the a# e a$tP
OThis is ho e ha,e been tau*htP
)ustomar# + Re0(e$ti,e Mora(it#
Re0(e$ti,e mora(it# $a((s 0or reasonin* an%
$onsi%eration on the /art o0 the in%i,i%ua(3 as the
in%i,i%ua( en$ounters ea$h ru(e o0 so$iet#1

Mora( )ontent
5UMAN )5ARA)TERISTI)S3 on the
other han%3 $ome 0rom ithin the
/erson1
Mora( )ontent
9eo/(e are more im/ortant than ru(es
be$ause /eo/(e are the ones ho set
the ru(es
5UMAN )5ARA)TERISTI)S
These e,o(,e 0rom the 0o((oin* traits=
Moti,ation
Fee(in*s o0 *ui(t or %isa//ro,a(
9er$ei,e% im/ortan$e
A%miration
Fusti0i$ation
A mora( /erson /ossesses the abo,e
traits
1
The M 'imensions o0 Ethi$s
Mora( Reasonin*
Mora( Fee(in*
Mora( Beha,ior or A$tion
A Mora( 9erson is one ho is ab(e to e-er$ise a(( M
ethi$a( %imensions

The M 'imensions o0 Ethi$s
Mora( Reasonin*
To be ab(e to e,a(uate an% 4u%*e rationa((# an%
0ree(# (ie1 ithout in%u$ement 0rom others"
The M 'imensions o0 Ethi$s
Mora( Fee(in*
To ha,e $ons$ien$e an% sensiti,it#3 $om/assion
an% em/ath#1 Su$h mora( 0ee(in*s ou(%
/re,ent a /erson 0rom beha,in* in an anti<so$ia(
manner
The M 'imensions o0 Ethi$s
Mora( Beha,iour
To beha,e in a res/onsib(e manner base% on
mora( reasonin* an% mora( 0ee(in*s
The M 'imensions o0 Ethi$s
3nl4 a human )ein* can )e )oth moral a*ent an%
moral recipient& )ecause he can un%erstan%
516 an action is ri*ht or wron*
:ALUES OF RELIAIONS AN'
BELIEFS
A(thou*h Mora( Stu%ies is not Re(i*ious
Stu%ies3 there is hoe,er a $ontribution o0
Re(i*ious Stu%ies to Mora( Stu%ies in that
a(( re(i*ions tea$h be(ie,ers to (i,e mora((#
u/ri*ht (i,es1
ISLAM
=
Most im/ortant sour$es o0 !no(e%*e=
O
the Horan
O
the ha%ith (a re$or% o0 sa#in*s an% a$tions o0
9ro/het Muhamma%
ISLAM
=
9i((ars o0 Is(am=
O
Worshi/ A((ah
O
9ra# G times a %a#
O
Fast %urin* the month o0 Raman%an
O
9a# tithes
O
9er0orm the ha4
)5RISTIANIT?
=
There is a triune Ao% in three 9ersons3
Ao% the Father3 Ao% the Son3 Ao% the
5o(# S/irit
=
Sa(,ation is 0oun% in the resurre$te%
)hrist3 an% Easter is the $e(ebration o0 the
Resurre$tion
SIH5ISM
=
Ori*inate% in 9un4ab aroun% 1G
th
$entur#
=
78ikh9 means 6%is$i/(e7 or 6stu%ent7
=
A Si!h is a %is$i/(e or stu%ent to a *uru1
=
A ma(e Si!h usua((# has 6Sin*h7 hi$h
means 6(ion7 as his surname
=
A 0ema(e Si!h usua((# has 6Haur7 hi$h
means 6/rin$ess7 as her surname
SIH5ISM
=
The basis o0 Si!hism is the union o0 the
sou( ith Ao%1
=
A Si!h %is$i/(ines his thou*hts an% a$tions
so that the 0i,e obsta$(esY(ust3 an*er3
*ree%3 materia(ism an% e*oYare remo,e%
an% the sou( is unite% ith Ao%
SIH5ISM
=
Ao% is 0orm(ess3 eterna(3 an% unobser,e%1
=
The s$ri/tures 0or Si!hism is the A%i
Aranth Sahib1
SIH5ISM
=
A Si!h is re$o*niIe% b# the Fi,e Hs or
arti$(es o0 0aith that he>she ears=
=
kesh (un$ut hair"3
=
kan**ha (sma(( oo%en $omb"3
=
ka : ($ir$u(ar stee( or iron bra$e(et"3
=
kirpan (sor%>%a**er"3 an%
=
kaccha (hite shorts"1
5IN'UISM
=
The *reatest *o% is Ao% Brahman an%
Ao% Brahman is assiste% b# %eities ith
res/e$ti,e %uties=
=
Brahma X *i,es birth to a(( thin*s
=
:ishnu X sa,es humans 0rom su00erin*
=
Si,a X has to sons Aanesh an% Muru*an
5IN'UISM
=
The Su/reme Bein* is Ao% Brahman an%
Ao% Brahman is assiste% b# %eities ith
res/e$ti,e %uties=
=
Brahma X $reator
=
:ishnu X /reser,er
=
Si,a X %estro#er
5IN'UISM
=
In 5in%uism3 human a$tion $an /ro%u$e
/(easure (su!ha" an% sorro (%u!ha"3 an%
the *oa( o0 human (i0e is to a$hie,e
sa(,ation (mo!sha"1
)ONFU)IANISM
=
)on0u$ianism is not rea((# a re(i*ion as re(i*ions
are norma((# un%erstoo%3 but ori*inate% 2GEE
#ears a*o as a /hi(oso/h# 0or the a# o0 (i0e
=
The s$ri/ture 0or $on0u$ianist tea$hin*s are
$om/i(e% in the Ana(e$ts b# )on0u$ius7 0o((oers
)ONFU)IANISM
=
The G $ar%ina( re(ationshi/s in $on0u$ianist
tea$hin*s o0 0i(ia( /iet# are=
=
Ru(er an% sub4e$ts
=
Father an% son
=
5usban% an% i0e
=
E(%er brother an% #oun*er brother
=
Frien% an% 0rien%
TAOISM
=
Li!e )on0u$ianism3 Taoism is a(so not rea((# a
re(i*ion but a(so a /hi(oso/h# 0or the a# o0 (i0e
=
Taoism tea$hes (i,in* in harmon# ith the 6%ao73
or /ath3 as *i,en in the tao te $hen*3 attribute%
to Lao Vi1
=
Lao Vi tea$hes that the Tao $annot be %es$ribe%
in or%s be$ause the Tao that $an be %es$ribe%
is not the abso(ute Tao1
BU''5ISM
=
The Four Nob(e Truths=
O
Li0e (ea%s to su00erin* (%u!!ha"
O
Su00erin* is $ause% b# atta$hments or
$ra,in*s
O
Su00erin* en%s hen $ra,in* en%s (bo%hi"
O
One $an rea$h bo%hi b# 0o((oin* the (i0e o0
Bu%%ha (Nob(e Ei*ht0o(% 9aths"
EN' OF MORAL STU'IES;;