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TRANSPORT

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
IN
BODY DEFENCE
MECHANISM
BODY DEFENCE MECHANISM
To protect body against pathogens (disease-
causing MO) that may enter.
Transmission of pathogens:
Air
Contaminated food
Animal vectors
Contact


patho: disease
gens: agents
LINES OF NATURAL DEFENCE

First Line

Second Line

Third Line
FIRST LINE OF DEFENCE
Prevention of pathogens entering the body by
mean of physical and chemical barriers.
Skin
Sweat
Sebum
Tears and saliva
Mucous membranes
Skin
A physical barrier
It has dead keratinised
layer that is hard to
penetrate
Continual shedding of
dead skin cells prohibit
growth of pathogens
If there is a cut, the
blood clots quickly to
seal the wound
To prevent blood loss
and entry of pathogens
Sweat and Sebum
Produced by skin as
chemical barrier
Protective film over skin
Acidic sebum secreted
by sebaceous glands
contain lysozymes,
which destroy cell walls
of certain bacteria


Tears and Saliva
Tears and saliva
contain lysozymes,
which destroy bacteria
(protect eyes and
mouth)
Mucous Membranes
Lines trachea, respiratory passageways, digestive
and urogenital tracts.
Mucous Membranes:
Methods of Defense
Mucus secreted in the nasal cavity and
trachea
traps dust particles and microbial spores
contains lysozyme to destroy bacteria
The cilia in the respiratory tract sweep the
trapped particles to the pharynx.
The hydrochloric acid in gastric juice can kill
many microorganisms

SECOND LINE OF DEFENCE
The non-specific killing action by
phagocytic WBC (e.g. neutrophil-blood, macrophages-IF;
some dissolved e.g. venom and toxin).
They are attracted by chemicals produced at
the sites of infection, engulf and ingest MO or
other particles (like debris) by phagocytosis.
Some phagocytes may also be destroyed by
toxins of pathogens.
THIRD LINE OF DEFENCE
Immune System
System triggered in response to the presence
of foreign substance (antigen = proteins /
polysaccharides usually found on cell membrane
of MO or foreign tissues) in our body.
Specific / targeted response
Immunity
The state which the body is resistant to
infections by pathogens
Lymphocyte
Lymphocytes
B Lymphocytes
produce antibody
T Lymphocytes
attack infected cells
or secrete certain
chemicals to
coordinate immune
response
Antibody
Protein produced by lymphocytes in response
to the entry of an antigen into the body.
Each type of antibody is specific to a
particular antigen.
They help to destroy pathogens in different
ways.
Types of Antibody
Action
Neutralisation neutralizes toxins
Agglutination binds to surface of antigens and
cause clumping of bacteria cells
Opsonisation binds to surface of antigens to
stimulate phagocytosis by macrophages
Lysis binds to surface of antigens to form pores
on cell membrane, which leads to cell rupture
Memory Lymphocyte
After recovery, some lymphocytes remain for
a period of time.
Memory lymphocytes
Defend against future infection.
Infection by the same type of antigen
Therefore, we are immune against particular
diseases.
Immunity ability of organism to resist infection
by pathogens or their toxin effects.
Naturally Acquired
Active
Passive
Artificially acquired
Active
Passive

TYPES OF IMMUNITY
Types of immunity
Immunity
Active
Own
antibodies
Natural
Exposure to
infectious
agent
Artificial
Immunization
Active natural immunity
Active natural
acquired
immunity: acquired
after a person
recovers from an
infection.
Eg; measles or
chickenpox.


Active artificial immunity
Active artificial
acquired immunity:
Eg; vaccine (contains
killed or weakened
antigens).
Active because the
a/bodies produced by
the body itself
Artificial because it is
obtained through
vaccination.
the process is known
as immunisation.

A
r
t
i
f
i
c
i
a
l

a
c
t
i
v
e

i
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

Passive immunity
1. Passive natural immunity: when a/bodies
from the mother transported across the
placenta to the foetus. Lasts for a few
months.
2. Passive artificial immunity: injecting
antiserum containing a specific a/bodies
prepared from human/animals blood.
Passive artificial immunity
Usually used to treat
patient with serious ill.
Eg: rabies, tetanus or
snake bites
Give temporary
immunity.

Artificially acquired
passive immunity
QUIZZES
Which of the following describes the first line of defence?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah menerangkan tentang barisan pertahanan
pertama?

A. It involves lymphocytes in the blood
Ia melibatkan limfosit dalam darah
B. It involves phagocytic white blood cells
Ia melibatkan sel darah putih yang bersifat fagositik
C. It involves skin and mucous membranes
Ia melibatkan kulit dan membrane mucus
D. It produces antibodies that destroy bacteria and viruses.
Ia menghasilkan antibody yang memusnahkan bakteria dan virus
Which of the following substances is injected into the body to stimulate antibody
production?
Antara bahan berikut, yang manakah disuntik ke dalam badan se orang untuk
merangsangkan penghasilan antibody?

A. Serum
B. Vaccine
C. Antibody
D. Antiserum
. Which of the following belong to the first line of defence?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah terlibat dalam barisan pertahanan yang
pertama?

A. Hydrochoric acid
Asid hidroklorik
B. Phagocytes
Fagosit
C. Antibodies
Antibodi
D. Macrophages
Makrofaj
What is the antibody mechanism shown in Diagram 4?
Apakah mekanisma antibody yang ditunjukkan di Rajah 4?1
1
Diagram 4/ Rajah 4

A. Lysis C. Opsonisation
Lisis Opsonisasi
B. Agglutination D. Neutralization
Aglutinasi Peneutralan


Based on the diagram, what is the mechanism used by antibodies to destroy
the antigen?
Berdasarkan Rajah apakah mekanisme yang digunakan oleh antibody untuk
memusnahkan antigen?


A. Lysis C. Opsonisation
Lisis Opsonisasi
B. Neutralization D. Agglutination
Peneutralan Aglutinasi

Diagram 1 shows two microorganisms which enter the human body by chance.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan dua mikroorgansma yang memasukki badan manusia
secara kebetulan.



Diagram 1 / Rajah 1

Which parts of the these microorganisms are responsible in stimulating the immune
response and produce antibodies against them?
Bahagian mikroorganisma manakah yang bertanggungjawab untuk merangsang
tindak balas keimunan dan menghasilkan antibody untuk menentang sesame
sendiri?

A. P and R
B. P and S
C. Q and R
D. Q and S
Diagram 2 is a graph which shows the amount of antibodies in the blood after two
injections of compound X.
Rajah 2 merupakan satu graf yang menunjukkan jumlah antibodi dalam darah
selepas dua suntikan sebatian X.


Diagram 2/Rajah 2


Which of the following describes the compound X and the type of immunity in
Diagram 2?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah menerangkan sebatian X dan jenis keimunan
dalam Rajah 2?

Diagram 2 is a graph which shows the amount of antibodies in the blood after two
injections of compound X.
Rajah 2 merupakan satu graf yang menunjukkan jumlah antibodi dalam darah
selepas dua suntikan sebatian X.


Diagram 2/Rajah 2


Which of the following describes the compound X and the type of immunity in
Diagram 2?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah menerangkan sebatian X dan jenis keimunan
dalam Rajah 2?

Which of the following graphs shows the immunity developed after vaccination?
Antara graf berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan keimunan berlaku selepas
pemvaksinan?




Which of the following graphs shows the immunity developed after vaccination?
Antara graf berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan keimunan berlaku selepas
pemvaksinan?






5 . Passive immunity against tetanus is acquired by injection with an
anti-serum.

Keimunan pasif terhadap tetanus didapati melalui suntikan dengan
anti-serum.


Which of the following reasons explain the statement?
Antara sebab berikut,yang manakah menjelaskan pernyataan di atas?

A. The anti-serum becomes effective immediately.
Anti-serum member kesan dengan serta-merta
B. The anti-serum kills many different kinds of bacteria
Anti-serum membunuh berbagai jenis bakteria
C. The effect of the immune serum is very long lasting
Kesan sistem keimunan adalah berjangka panjang
D. The immune system is stimulated to produce antibodies
Sistem keimunan terangsang untuk menghasilkan antibody
Graph 1 shows a type of immunity.
Graf 1 menunjukkan sejenis keimunan.


Which of the following statements is true about the graph?
Antara pernyataan berikut, yang manakah benar tentang graf tersebut?

A. Both injections contain serum that can raise antibody level.
Kedua-dua suntikan mengandungi serum yang boleh meningkatkan aras
antibody
B. Second injection is required to boost level of immunity
Suntikan kedua diperlukan untuk meningkatkan aras keimunan
C. Both injections contain pathogens which can control production of antibody
Kedua-dua suntikan mengandungi pathogen yang mengawal penghasilan
antibodi
D. Second injection contains higher level of antibody
Suntikan kedua mengandungi aras antibody yang lebih tinggi

AIDS (acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
HIV virus
The effects of HIV
Attacks the central nervous system & helper
T in the bodys immune system

Helper T are essential to activate other
lymphocytes in antibody production.

Immune system become weakened &
defenseless against pathogen

HIV Replication
Effects
Symptoms
Some people get fever, headache, sore muscles and joints,
stomach ache, swollen lymph glands, or a skin rash for one or two
weeks. Most people think it's the flu. Some people have no
symptoms (AIDS.ORG 2003). In the later stages of HIV symptoms
may include:
Persistent, unexplained fatigue
Soaking night sweats
Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F for several weeks
Swelling of lymph nodes for more than three months
Chronic diarrhoea
Persistent headaches
The patients does not die from AIDS itself but
from other secondary infection such as:
Pneumonia
Meningitis bacterial infection of the membranes covering the brain and
spinal cord (meninges).
Tuberculosis
Fungal infection
Cancer like Kaposis sarcoma
Transmission
Salt
Blood pressure
Hypertension
Sedentary
obesity
How can you avoid infection?

Avoid casual sexual relationship

Live a responsible and healthy lifestyle

Do not share needle and other personal
item

Educational programme

World AIDS Day 1
st
Dec
Appreciating a healthy
cardiovascular system
CV disorders (eg.)
Anemia (ah-NEE-me-yah): Diseased condition in which there is a
deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin.
Arteriosclerosis (ar-tir-ee-o-skle-ROW-sis): Diseased condition in
which the walls of arteries become thickened and hard, interfering with
the circulation of blood.
Atherosclerosis (ath-a-row-skle-ROW-sis): Diseased condition in
which fatty material accumulates on the interior walls of arteries,
making them narrower.
Hemophilia (hee-muh-FILL-ee-ah): Inherited blood disease in which
the blood lacks one or more of the clotting factors, making it difficult to
stop bleeding.
Hypertension (hi-per-TEN-shun): High blood pressure.
Leukemia (loo-KEE-mee-ah): Type of cancer that affects the blood-
forming tissues and organs, causing them to flood the bloodstream and
lymphatic system with immature and abnormal white blood cells.
Sickle cell anemia (SICK-el cell ah-NEE-me-yah): Inherited blood
disorder in which red blood cells are sickle-shaped instead of round
because of defective hemoglobin molecules.
Appreciating a healthy CV system
Stick to a nutritious, well-balanced diet.
Control your blood pressure.
Control blood cholesterol.
Prevent and manage diabetes.
Quit smoking.
Minimize stress.
An electron micrograph scan of a human aortic valve. The aorta is the main artery of the systemic circulation. (Photograph
by P. Motta. Reproduced by permission of Photo Researchers, Inc.)