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Washing of Precipitate

Pencucian Endapan
Why it should be
washed?
• Most precipitate produced in the
presence of one or more soluble
substance
• The soluble substances are not
volatile at the temperature
which the precipitate heated
• The soluble substances are
removed by washing
Ideal Washing Solution
1. No solvent action upon the precipitate but
dissolve foreign substance easily
2. No dispersive action on precipitate
3. Form no volatile or insoluble substance
with the precipitate
4. Easily volatile at the temperature of drying
of the precipitate
5. Contain no substance which is interfere the
subsequent operation to the filtrate
Caution!
• Use minimum volume of washing solution
since no precipitate is insoluble
• Do qualitative test of removal the
impurities
• Wash with a number of small portion of
washing solution with well drained
between each washing than large portion
of washing solution or adding a new
portion while the solution still remain
Choosing the washing
solution
• Pure water should not be used unless it
certain will not dissolve appreciable
amount or peptise the precipitate
• Colloidal/gelatinous precipitate is
washed with electrolyte solution
• Crystalline precipitate is washed with a
solution contain common ion
Washing by decantation

• If the precipitate settle


rapidly (high density) or
gelatinous (colloidal)
• Clear solution upon the
precipitate (supernatant) as
much as possible is transferred
to the filter medium, avoid to
disturb the precipitate.
Washing by decantation
• 20 t0 50 mL of the washing solution
is added to the residue in the beaker,
the solid stirred and allowed to
settle
• When the supernatant is clear, as
much as possible of the liquid
decanted to the filter medium.
• This process is repeated as many
times as necessary before the
precipitate is transferred to the filter
medium
Qualitative test for the
completeness of washing
• Collect a small volume (2-3 mL)
of the last washing
• Add the appropriate reagent
• Do the same action to the
unused washing solution as a
comparative test
Qualitative test
Ion Cl- SO4= C2O4= H+

Reagent HNO3 HCl H2SO4 Methyl


AgNO3
BaCl2
KMnO4 red

Positive AgCl BaSO4 Mn2+ Methyl red


Product molecule
CO2
Positive White White Purple Red or
Appearance precipit precipita color is
reddish
ate te disappear,
orange
gas
Three classes of wash
solutions :
1. Solutions which prevent the precipitate
from becoming colloidal and passing
through the Filter.
2. Solutions which reduce the solubility of
the precipitate.
3. Solutions which prevent the hydrolysis of
salts of weak acids and bases.