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English

English
long vowels,
long vowels,
diphthongs,
diphthongs,
triphthongs
triphthongs
Lecture 3
Lecture 3

Long and short vowels
Long and short vowels
a
a
:

Long vowels
Long vowels

diphthongs
diphthongs
While the position of the tongue is
While the position of the tongue is
more or less stable for a pure
more or less stable for a pure
vowel
vowel


a diphthong is characterised by a
a diphthong is characterised by a
graceful movement from one point to
graceful movement from one point to
another, for this reason they are also
another, for this reason they are also
sometimes known as glides.
sometimes known as glides.

This is also visible on a
This is also visible on a
spectrogram: this is the pure
spectrogram: this is the pure
vowel /a/
vowel /a/

and this is the diphthong / a


and this is the diphthong / a

/. Notice
/. Notice
how the formants the dar! bands"
how the formants the dar! bands"
sep
sep
a
a
rate towards the end.
rate towards the end.

diphthongs
diphthongs

!ovement"glide from one vowel to another


!ovement"glide from one vowel to another

#rom constant"pure vowel to another vowel


#rom constant"pure vowel to another vowel

$st part longer and stronger


$st part longer and stronger

%nd part shorter and &uieter


%nd part shorter and &uieter

' diphthongs( % groups: centring and


' diphthongs( % groups: centring and
closing
closing

ending in " ending in ") )" ending in " " ending in " * * " " / /

+nglish diphthongs may cause


+nglish diphthongs may cause
di,iculty
di,iculty
-owhere is the +nglish spelling
system more bi.arre than in its
representation of diphthongs

#irst we will loo! at the
#irst we will loo! at the
closing
closing
group
group
the $pa%&, $ made&,
the $pa%&, $ made&,
$maid&, $reign&, $obe%&, sound
$maid&, $reign&, $obe%&, sound
/hen we have the 0*1, 0my1, 0tie1, 0sigh1,
/hen we have the 0*1, 0my1, 0tie1, 0sigh1,
0either1, 0eye1, 0/hai1, sound
0either1, 0eye1, 0/hai1, sound
/hen there is 0boy1, 0choice1
/hen there is 0boy1, 0choice1
/hen 0down1, 0loud1
/hen 0down1, 0loud1
/o end the closing group, the most
/o end the closing group, the most
common diphthong in +nglish, that
common diphthong in +nglish, that
of 0no1, 0know1,0bone1, 0foam1, 0sew1,
of 0no1, 0know1,0bone1, 0foam1, 0sew1,
0though1, 0don1t1, 0foe1, 0crow1
0though1, 0don1t1, 0foe1, 0crow1



To start with the
To start with the
centring group
centring group
, we
, we
have the most common, that of $clear&,
have the most common, that of $clear&,
$deer&, $here&, $wier&:
$deer&, $here&, $wier&:

/hen 0air1, 0where1, wear1, 0care1,


/hen 0air1, 0where1, wear1, 0care1,
0heir1:
0heir1:

#inally, there is a diphthong which is


#inally, there is a diphthong which is
&uite rare and is often realised as "
&uite rare and is often realised as "

:"
:"
2 0tour1, 0poor1:
2 0tour1, 0poor1:




triphthongs
triphthongs

/he most comple3 +nglish vowel2type


/he most comple3 +nglish vowel2type
sounds
sounds

4 glide from one vowel to another and


4 glide from one vowel to another and
then to a third one
then to a third one

5roduced rapidly and without interruption


5roduced rapidly and without interruption

6omposed of:
6omposed of:
closing diphthongs 7 ")"
closing diphthongs 7 ")"
"e
"e
8
8
" "a
" "a
8
8
" "
" "

8
8
" "
" "
)
)

/ /a
/ /a

/ +
/ +
")"
")"


layer liar
layer liar
royal
royal
lower hour
lower hour