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Atoms, Molecules and Ions

Daltons Atomic Theory (1808)


1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles
called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the
same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of
one element are different from the atoms of all other
elements.
3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one
element. In any compound, the ratio of the numbers of
atoms of any two of the elements present is either an
integer or a simple fraction.
4. A chemical reaction involves only the separation,
combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not
result in their creation or destruction.
8 X
2
Y
16 X 8 Y +
In forming carbon monoxide,
1.33 g of oxygen combines with
1.0 g of carbon.

In the formation of hydrogen
peroxide 2.66 g of oxygen
combines with 1.0 g of
hydrogen.
Law of Definite Proportions: combinations
of elements are in ratios of small whole
numbers.
2
Daltons Atomic Theory
Cathode ray tube
Properties of cathode rays
e
-
charge = -1.60 x 10
-19
C
Thomsons charge/mass of e
-
= -1.76 x 10
8
C/g
e
-
mass = 9.10 x 10
-28
g
Measured mass of e
-

(1923 Nobel Prize in Physics)
Radioactivity
Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of
radiation from a substance.

X-rays and g-rays are high-energy light.
a-particles are a stream of helium nuclei, He
2+
.
b-particles are a stream of high speed electrons
that originate in the nucleus.

(Uranium compound)
1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus
2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron (-)
3. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e
-
(1.67 x 10
-24
g)
a particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 10
7
m/s
(~5% speed of light)
(1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)
atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10
-10
m
nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10
-3
pm = 5 x 10
-15
m
Rutherfords Model of
the Atom
Chadwicks Experiment (1932)
(1935 Noble Prize in Physics)
H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p
mass He/mass H should = 2
measured mass He/mass H = 4
a +
9
Be
1
n +
12
C + energy
neutron (n) is neutral (charge = 0)
n mass ~ p mass = 1.67 x 10
-24
g
mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e
-

Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus
Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
= atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons
Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different
numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
X
A
Z
H
1
1
H (D)
2
1
H (T)
3
1
U
235
92
U
238
92
Mass Number
Atomic Number
Element Symbol
Atomic number, Mass number and Isotopes
The Isotopes of Hydrogen
6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
Do You Understand Isotopes?
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in C
14
6
?
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in C
11
6
?
Chemistry In Action
Natural abundance of elements in Earths crust
Natural abundance of elements in human body
Relating the Masses and Natural Abundances of Isotopes to
the Atomic Mass of an Element. Bromine has two naturally
occurring isotopes. One of them, bromine-79 was a mass of
78.9183 u and an abundance of 50.69%. What must be the mass
and percent natural abundance of the other, bromine-81?
What do we know:
The sum of the percent natural abundances must be 100%.
EXAMPLE 1
The average mass of bromine (read from the periodic table) is
the weighted contribution of the percent abundance times the
mass of each contributing isotope.
Strategy
Identify the unknown abundance of bromine-81 by
calculation. Use this value in the equation for the average
mass of an element to solve for the mass of the unknown
isotope.
Solution
Write the general equations
Atomic mass = c
1
m
1
+ c
2
m
2
+ c
3
m
3
. . .
100% = c
1
+

c
2
+

c
3
. . .

Atomic mass = c
Br-79
m
Br-79
+ c
Br-81
m
Br-81
Identify the knowns and unknowns in the specific
equations
Solve
m
Br-81
=
Atomic mass - (c
Br-79
m
Br-79
)
c
Br-81

100% = c
79
+

c
81


c
81
= 100% - c
79

m
Br-81
=
79.904 u - (0.5069 78.9183 u)
0.4931
= 80.92 u
Calculate:
2.Copper has two naturally occurring isotopes.Cu-63
has an atomic mass of 62.9296 amu and an
abundance of 69.17%. What is the atomic mass of
the second isotopes?
Average atomic mass of Cu = 63.546 amu
EXAMPLE 2
Let x = atomic mass of the 2nd isotope
SOLUTION:
63.546 = 62.9296(0.6917) + x (0.3083)
X = 64.929 amu
EXAMPLE
Example
1.If 75.77% of naturally occurring chlorine
atoms have a mass of 34.968 852 amu and
24.23% have a mass of 36.965 903 amu,
calculate the atomic mass of chlorine.
2. The two naturally occurring isotopes of
gallium,
69
Ga and
71
Ga, have masses of
68.9256 and 70.9247 amu, respectively.The
atomic mass of gallium is 69.72 amu.
Calculate the percent of each isotope in a
sample of gallium.
A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a
definite arrangement held together by chemical forces
H
2
H
2
O NH
3
CH
4

A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms
H
2
, N
2
, O
2
, Br
2
, HCl, CO
A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms
O
3
, H
2
O, NH
3
, CH
4

An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net
positive or negative charge.
cation ion with a positive charge
If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons
it becomes a cation.
anion ion with a negative charge
If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons
it becomes an anion.
Na
11 protons
11 electrons
Na
+

11 protons
10 electrons
Cl
17 protons
17 electrons
Cl
-

17 protons
18 electrons
A monatomic ion contains only one atom
A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom
Na
+
, Cl
-
, Ca
2+
, O
2-
, Al
3+
, N
3-

OH
-
, CN
-
, NH
4
+
, NO
3
-

13 protons, 10 (13 3) electrons
34 protons, 36 (34 + 2) electrons
Do You Understand Ions?
How many protons and electrons are in ? Al
27
13
3+
How many protons and electrons are in ? Se
78
34
2-