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Thin-walled Pressure Vessels

For lessons under hoop


tension and other crap
A tank or pipe carrying a fluid or gas
under a pressure is subjected to
tensile forces, which resist bursting,
developed across longitudinal and
transverse sections.
TANGENTIAL STRESS, t
(Circumferential Stress)
Consider the tank
shown being
subjected to an
internal pressure,
p. The length of
the tank is L and
the wall thickness
is t. Isolating the
right half of the
tank:
Tangential Stress Formula
LONGITUDINAL STRESS,
L

Consider the free body diagram in the
transverse section of the tank:

The total force acting
at the rear of the
tank F must equal
to the total
longitudinal stress
on the wall P
T
=

L
A
wall
. Since t is so
small compared to
D, the area of the
wall is close to Dt.

Longitudinal Stress Formula
SPHERICAL SHELL
Problem 1
A cylindrical steel pressure vessel 400 mm
in diameter with a wall thickness of 20 mm,
is subjected to an internal pressure of 4.5
MN/m2. (a) Calculate the tangential and
longitudinal stresses in the steel. (b) To
what value may the internal pressure be
increased if the stress in the steel is limited
to 120 MN/m2? (c) If the internal pressure
were increased until the vessel burst, sketch
the type of fracture that would occur.
Solution: Part (a)
Solution- continuation
Solution: Part (b)
Fracture Sketch
Problem 2
The wall thickness of
a 4-ft-diameter
spherical tank is
5/6 inch. Calculate
the allowable
internal pressure if
the stress is limited
to 8000 psi.

Answer
Hoop Tension
A vertical cylinder tank is
2m in diameter and 3m
high. Its sides are held
by means of two steel
hoops, one at the top
and the other at the
bottom. If the tank is
filled with water to a
depth of 2.1m,
determine the tensile
stress in each hoop.
Mtop=0
2T
2
(3)=F(2.3)
T
2
= 0.3833F

F=ghcgA
F=9.81(2.1/2)(2*2.1)=43.26kN

T
2
= 0.3833(43.26 kN)
= 16.58 kN

Fh=0
2T
2
+2T
1
=F
2T
1
=2T
2
- F
T
1
=5.05 kN
Quiz!
A cylindrical container 8m in height and
3m in diameter is reinforced with 2
hoops 1 meter from each end. When it
is filled with water, what is the tension
in each hoop due to water? (No
erasures, no writing at the back, black
pen only and provide an accurate
FBD) 100 points

Answer
F=ghcgA
F= 9.81(8/2)(8*3)
F=941.76 kN

Mtophoop=0
2T2(6)=F(13/3)
T2=13F/36=13(941.76)/36=340.08kN

Mbottomhoop=0
2T1(6)=F(5/3)
T1= 5F/36= 5(941.76)/36=130.8kN