This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# Production, Inputs, Cost, Output , Price and Profit.

Marginal analysis

1

Harcourt, Inc.

**Production, Inputs, Cost, Output , Price and Profit: Marginal Analysis
**

Slides based on Chapter 7 and 8 Economics Principles and Policy by Baumol and Blinder Chapter 13 Principles of Economics by N. Gregory Mankiw Quantitative Methods for Business by Waters, Donald

2

Harcourt, Inc.

Contents

Short-run versus Long-run Costs: What Makes an Input Variable? Production and Input Choice, with One Variable Input Multiple Input Decisions: The Choice of Optimal Input Combinations Cost and Its Dependence on Output

3

Harcourt, Inc.

Contents (continued)

Economies of Scale Appendix: Production Indifference Curves

4

Harcourt, Inc.

**Short-run versus Long-run Costs
**

The Economic Short Run vs the Long Run

Short run • a period of time during which some of the firm’s cost commitments will not have ended. • In the short run, output can change but production processes are fixed.

5

Harcourt, Inc.

**Short-run versus Long-run Costs
**

The

Economic Short Run vs the Long Run Long run

a

period of time long enough for all of the firm’s commitments to come to an end. In the long run, all inputs can be varied and production processes can be changed.

6

Harcourt, Inc.

**Short-run versus Long-run Costs
**

Fixed Costs (FC) and Variable Costs (VC)

In the production of commodities and services the firms have Fixed Cost and Varible Costs. Fixed costs are for instance the buildings and the machinery. Variable costs are for instance labour force and raw material involved in the production. Fixed costs = costs that cannot be changed Variable costs = costs that can be changed In the short run, some costs are fixed. In the long run, all costs are variable.

7

Harcourt, Inc.

**Production and Input choice, with 1 Variable Input
**

Total

physical product (TPP) is the amount of output that can be produced as one input changes, with all other inputs held constant

8

Harcourt, Inc.

Total Physical Product for Al’s Building Company

9

Harcourt, Inc.

**Total physical product with Different Quantities of Carpenters
**

40 35 32 30 F E G TPP

Garages per Year Total Output in

25 20 15 10 5 0 B A 1 2 C

D

3

4

5

6

7

10

**Quantity of Carpenters per Year
**

Harcourt, Inc.

**Production and Input Choice, with 1 Variable Input
**

Average Physical Product (APP) = measures the output produced per unit of input. Is the total physical product (TPP) divided by the quantity of input. (APP=TPP/X where X is que quantity of input) Marginal physical product (MPP) = ∆ output per ∆ input (is the increase in total output that results from an additional unit increase in the input, holding the amounts of all other inputs constant)

11

Harcourt, Inc.

**Al’s Product Schedule
**

The MPP of the fourth carpenter is the total output (garages) when Al The MPP of the fourth carpenter is the total output (garages) when Al (the owner) employes 4 carpenters minus the total output when he (the owner) employes 4 carpenters minus the total output when he employes 3 carpenters (32-24=8) employes 3 carpenters (32-24=8)

12

Harcourt, Inc. Copyright © 2003 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Al’s Marginal Physical Product (MPP) Curve 14 12 10 8 Increasing marginal returns Diminishing marginal returns Negative marginal returns

MPP in Garages per Year

6 4 2 0 –2 –4 –6 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of Carpenters MPP 6 7

Harcourt, Inc. This graph13ofMarginal Physical Product shows how much additional output This graphof Marginal Physical Product shows how much additional output (garages per year) Al gets from each additional carpenter he employes. Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2003 South-Western/Thomson (garages per year) Al gets from each additional carpenter he employes.

**MPP and the “Law” of Diminishing Marginal Returns
**

The law of dimishing marginal returns states than an increase in an input (holding the amounts of all other constants) ultimately leads to lower marginal returns to the expanding input (↑ one input ⇒ ↓ additional output created by each additional unit of the input) The law of dimishing marginal returns explains the shape of the marginal physical product (MPP) curve. The so-called law is simply based on some observed facts; it is not a theorem deduced analytically.

14

Harcourt, Inc.

**Marginal Physical Product (MPP) and the “Law” of Diminishing Marginal Returns
**

MRP (Marginal revenue product) = marginal physical product (MPP)× output price It means that the MRP of an input is the additional revenue that the producer earns from the increased sales when it uses an additional unit of the input. The amount of an input is optimal when marginal revenue product (MRP) = (P) price of the input. It means when the marginal revenue product of an input exceeds its price it pays the firm to use more of that input. When the marginal revenue product of the input is 15 less than its price it pays the firm to use less.

Harcourt, Inc.

**The optimal quantity of input and dimishing returns
**

When the marginal physical product (MPP)of input begins to decline, the money value of that product falls, as well; that is the marginal revenue product (MRP)also declines. The producer always profits by expanding input use until dimishing returns set in and reduce the MRP to the price of the input. The firm has employed the proper amount of input only when dimishing returns reduce the marginal revenue product of the input to the level of its price, because then the firm will be wasting no opportunity to add to its total profit. Thus, the optimal quantity of an input is that at which MRP equals its price. IN SYMBOLS: MRP= P of input (marginal revenue product equals Price of input) 16

Harcourt, Inc.

**COST CURVE AND INPUT QUANTITIES
**

How much to produce? The quantity of output that is most desiderable for firm depends on the way in which costs change when output varies. Such information is typically displayed in the form of cost curves. We need three cost curves: TOTAL COST CURVE, AVERAGE COSTS CURVE, AND THE MARGINAL COST CURVE

17

Harcourt, Inc.

**TOTAL COST, AVERAGE COST AND MARGINAL COST
**

For any given output TOTAL COST is defined as a total input quantities per prices of the input needed . For any given output AVERAGE COST is defined as a total cost divided by quantity produced. MARGINAL COST is defined as the increase in total cost that results from the production of an additional unit of output.

18

Harcourt, Inc.

**TOTAL COST, MARGINAL COST AND AVERAGE COST (AN EXAMPLE)
**

Suppose, for example, we know the total cost of making a number of units of a product. We can divide this TOTAL COST by the number of units to get the AVERAGE COST. But it is often more useful to look at the MARGINAL COST which is defined as the cost of making one extra unit. Suppose we have already made 100 units at a TOTAL COST of 50.000 euro. The AVERAGE COST is 50.000/100 =500. But the MARGINAL COST is the cost of making the 101st unit. Because all investment in equipment may already have been recovered, and we have a lot of experience in making the product, this MARGINAL COST might be considerably lower than the 19 AVERAGE COST.

Harcourt, Inc.

**A BIT OF CALCULUS…Marginal Cost and Total Cost
**

The marginal cost MC of a product is defined as the additional cost of making one extra unit. In making this extra unit the total cost will increase by MC, so the marginal cost is the rate at which the total cost is changing If we know the equation for the total cost curve we can differenciate it to get the marginal cost

20

Harcourt, Inc.

A bit of calculus…

Then

TOTAL

COST (TC)=y (it means, it is a function that usually can be obtained from analysis of empirical data) MARGINAL COST (MC)=dy/dx (derivative of y divided by derivative of x)

21

Harcourt, Inc.

WORKED EXAMPLE

The total cost of making a quantity X of product is calculated as TC= 2x2 + 4x + 500. What are the expressions for TOTAL, FIXED, VARIABLE MARGINAL AND AVERAGE COSTS? What are these costs if 500 units of the product are made?

22

Harcourt, Inc.

WORKED EXAMPLE: solution

23

Harcourt, Inc.

**WORKED EXAMPLE: solution
**

Fixed Cost: remain unchanged (500) VC=2×500²+ 4×500=502.000 MC =4×500+4=2004 AC= 2×500+4+500:500=1005

24

Harcourt, Inc.

**Multiple Input Decisions
**

Substitutability: The Choice of Input Proportions Firms usually have a variety of techological options and can substitute one input for another. Given a target level of production, a firm that cuts down on the use of one input (say labour) will normally have to increase its use of another input (say machinery) The combination of inputs that represents the least costly way to product the desired level of output depends on the relative prices of the various inputs. 25

Harcourt, Inc.

**Multiple Input Decisions
**

The Marginal Rule for Optimal Input Proportion A firm can reduce the cost of producing a given output by using less of some input A and making up for it by using more of another input B, whenever the ratio of Marginal Physical Product of A to the price of A is less than the ratio of the Marginal Physical Product of B to the price of B, that is, whenever MPPa/Pa is less than MPPb/PB

(MPP it means Marginal Physical Product and P means price)

26

Harcourt, Inc.

**Multiple Input Decisions
**

Rule for optimal input proportions = the ratio of marginal physical product to price should be the same for all inputs

MPPa/Pa = MPPb/Pb Where a and b means input a and input b If the ratio is higher for one input (for instance the price of raw material, the price of machinery…) more of that input should be used, and less of the others, 27 until the ratios are equal.

Harcourt, Inc.

**Multiple Input Decisions
**

**Changes in Input Prices and Optimal Input Proportions
**

↑ input

price ⇒ ↓ ratio of marginal physical product to price To maximize profits, the firm should switch away from that input until its marginal physical product rises enough to equalize the ratios again.

28

Harcourt, Inc.

**Cost and Its Dependence on Output …I repeat again…
**

**Input Quantities and Total, Average, and Marginal Cost Curves
**

Total

cost = the total cost (including opportunity cost) of producing any level of output when inputs are optimally employed Average cost = total cost per unit of output Marginal cost = increase in total cost from producing an additional unit of output LETS SEE WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DRAW THE CURVEs of Total Cost, Average Cost and 29 Marginal Cost curves (Al’s firm)

Harcourt, Inc.

Al’s (Variable) Cost Schedules

30

Harcourt, Inc.

**(a) Al’s Total Cost Curve
**

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2 4 6 8

Total Cost per Year (thousands $)

TC

10

Quantity of Garages (a)

31

Harcourt, Inc.

**(b) Al’s Average Cost Curve
**

30

Average Cost per Garage (thousands $)

C

25 20 15 10 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 D AC

Quantity of Garages (b)

32

Harcourt, Inc.

**(c) Al’s Marginal Cost Curve
**

Marginal Cost per Added Garage (thousands $)

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2 4 6 8 MC

10

Quantity of Garages (c)

33

Harcourt, Inc.

**Input Quantities and Total, Average Cost, and Marginal Cost Curves
**

Total cost = total fixed cost + total variable cost Total fixed cost: are constant over all levels of output.

34

Harcourt, Inc.

**Fixed Costs: Total
**

14

Total Fixed Cost per Year (thousands of $)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Output (a) 7 8 9

TFC

10

35

Harcourt, Inc.

**Input Quantities and Total, Average Cost, and Marginal Cost Curves
**

Average

fixed cost = total fixed cost per unit of output fixed cost falls as output

Average

rises

36

Harcourt, Inc.

Al’s Fixed Costs

37

Harcourt, Inc.

**Fixed Costs: Average
**

Average Fixed Cost per Garage (thousands $)

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Output (b) 7 8 9 AFC 10

38

Harcourt, Inc.

**The Average Cost Curve in the Short and Long Run
**

A typical average cost curve declines at first because average fixed costs decline. It then reaches a minimum and begins to rise because the law of decreasing marginal returns.

39

Harcourt, Inc.

**The Average Cost Curve in the Short and Long Run
**

Costs differ in the short and long runs, because in the long run, more adjustments can be made. The long-run average cost curve shows the lowest possible short-run average cost corresponding to each output level.

40

Harcourt, Inc.

Economies of Scale

The law of diminishing returns holds in the case of the expansion of a single input, holding other inputs constant. Returns to scale are relevant when all inputs increase at the same rate. Economies of scale affect operations in many modern industries. Where the exists they give larger firms cost advantages over smaller ones and thereby foster large firm sizes. Automobile production and telecommunications are two good examples of industries with important economies of scale.

41

Harcourt, Inc.

**Short-run and Long-Run Average Cost Curves
**

Average Cost per Pound of Chicken

The producer has a choice of 2 sizes of chicken coop, a small one with the Average Curve SL and a big one with the Average Curve BG. These are the short-run curves that apply as long as the farm is stuck with its chosen coop. In the long run, however, it can pick any point on the orange lower boundary of these curves. This lower boundary STG is the long-run Average Cost Curve

S $0.40 0.35 U B T V W 100 L G

0

40

**Output in Pounds of Chicken
**

42

Harcourt, Inc.

Economies of Scale

Production is said to involve ECONOMIES OF SCALE, also referred to as to as INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE, if, when all input quantities are doubled, the quantity of output is more than doubled Then a) Economies of scale = output rises faster than the common rate of growth of all the inputs. b) Economies of scale = increasing returns to scale C) Economies of scale ⇒ long-run declining average cost curves

43

Harcourt, Inc.

Production functions with economies of scale lead to long-run average cost curves (AC) that decline as output expands (graph a) Next graph represents the shapes that the long-run average cost curve can take. Remember that AC(average cost)=TC(total cost)/Q (output). Sometimes the firm have constant returns of scale that leads to a long run Average Cost curve flat (graph b) . Also is possible that the firm has decreasing returns of scale when long-run average cost rise as output expands (graph c) 44

Harcourt, Inc.

Economies of Scale: the shapes of the long-rung average cost curve

**3 Possible Shapes for the Long-Run AC Curve
**

Long-Run Average Cost Long-Run Average Cost Long-Run Average Cost

Increasing returns to scale Constant returns to scale Decreasing returns to scale AC

AC

AC

Quantity of Output (a)

Quantity of Output (b)

Quantity of Output (c)

45

Harcourt, Inc.

**Historical Costs versus Analytical Costs Curves
**

All points on the analytical cost curve (used in economic analysis) refer to the same period of time. An historical cost curve, showing the actual relationship between cost and output at different periods of time, is probably not a good indicator of the analytical cost curve.

46

Harcourt, Inc.

**Declining HCC (historical cost curve) ACC (analytical cost curve)
**

Cost per Unit

$100 75 50 25 0 Quantity of Output

47

Harcourt, Inc.

A

1942 analytical cost curve 2002 analytical cost curve B

Historical cost curve

**Declining HCC (historical cost curve) with /U-shaped Analytical ACC
**

$100 1942 analytical cost curve Historical cost curve 2002 analytical cost curve A Quantity of Output

48

Harcourt, Inc.

Cost per Unit

75 50 25 0

B

**Cost Minimization in Theory and Practice
**

Real business situations are more complex than those outlined in this lecture, and the quality of the available information is less precise. Yet when managers are doing their jobs well and the market is functioning smoothly, these models are a good approximation to the real world.

49

Harcourt, Inc.

Some conclusions

A firms total cost curve shows its lowest possible cost of producing any given level of output. This curve is derived from the input combination that the firm uses to produce any given output and the prices of the input. The marginal physical product of an input is the increase in total output resulting from a 1-unit increase in that input, holding the quantities of all other inputs constant.

50

Harcourt, Inc.

**Cost Minimization in Theory and Practice
**

The law of dimishig maginal returns states that if a firm increases the amount of one input (holding all other input quantities constant) the marginal physical product of the expanding input will eventually begin to decline. To maximize profits, a firm must purchase an input up to the point at which dimishing returns reduce the input’s marginal revenue product to equal its price.

51

Harcourt, Inc.

Some conclusions

The long rung is a period sufficiently long for the firm’s plant to require replacement and for all of its current contractual commitments to expire. The short run is any period briefer than that. TC (Total Cost) =TFC (Total Fixed Cost) +TVC (Total Variable Cost) AC (Average Cost) =AFC (Average Fixed Cost) +AVC (Average Variable Cost) It is possible to produce the same quantity of output in a variety of ways by substituting more of one input for less of another. Firms normally seek the least costly way to produce any given output.

52

Harcourt, Inc.

Some conclusions

A firm that wants to minimize costs will select input quantities at which the ratios of the marginal physical product of each input to its price are equal for all inputs. If a doubling of all the firm’s inputs just doubles its output, the firm is said to have constant returns to scale. If a doubling of all inputs leads to more than twice as much output, it has increasing returns to scale (or economies of scale). If a doubling of inputs produces less than a doubling of output the firm has decreasing returns of scale.

53

Harcourt, Inc.

….and a bit of calculus more…i know I am a bad guy

54

Harcourt, Inc.

This figure shows a graph of the equation y= ax² +bx+c. This is a continuous function with a clear minimum. If you look at the gradient at point A it is clearly negative, showing that y is falling in value as x increase.

At point B the gradient is positive, showing that y is increasing in value as x increases. The most interesting point comes between these at point C where the gradient is zero, in other words the tangent to the curve is parallel with the x axis. This only happens at one specific point and this is the minimum valuee of the graph.

55

Harcourt, Inc.

WORKED EXAMPLE:

What can you say about the minimum of y=2x²-4x+10? We can diferénciate y=2x²-4x+10 to find the gradient at any point. Then: dy/dx= 2×2×x-4=4x-4 For a minimum value of y this gradient is equal to zero. In other words: 4x-4=0 or x=1 Substituting x=1 into the equation for y gives the minimum value: y=2x²-4x+10=2×1²-4×1+10=8 So the minimum value of the graph is y=8 which 56 occurs when x=1

Harcourt, Inc.

57

Harcourt, Inc.

58

Harcourt, Inc.

59

Harcourt, Inc.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1

If y=4x²+3x – 2, what are a) the derivative, b) the second derivative? Solution: If y=4x² +3x-2 then differenciating in the usually way gives the first derivative dy/dx= 8x+3 If dy/dx= 8x+3 then differenciating in the usual way gives the second derivative d²y/dx²=8

60

Harcourt, Inc.

WORKED EXAMPLE 2

The total cost of a manufacturing process is found to be 3x²-12x +30 where x is the number of units produced in hundreds each week. What production level minimizes the total cost? We know that y= 3x²-12x+`30. This has a gradient given by dy/dx=6x-12. There is a turning point when this gradient has a value 0: that is 6x-12=0 or x=2. At this point the function has the value Y=3x²-12x+30=3×2²-12×2+30=18. The second derivative d²y/dx²=6. This is positive, so the turning point has to bea minimum. Then the total cost of production is a minimum of 18 when production is 200 units a week. Harcourt, Inc. 61