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Tejas Networks India Ltd.

, 2007, Proprietary Information


SDH Basics
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Objective

What is SDH?

SDH System

Standards

Frame Structure

Multiplexing

Advantages






Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information
SDH is a timing hierarchy
Allows higher and more flexible bit-rates than PDH
Uses a different frame structure and synchronization

Hierarchical synchronization
One master clock to synchronize whole operator network


What is SDH?????
Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information
SDH System

TERMINAL EQUIPMENT

REGENERATOR

ADD / DROP MULTIPLEXER
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The hierarchy is as follows:
Optical Signal Bit Rate Abbreviated as
STM-0 51.84 Mbps 51 Mbps
STM-1 155.52 Mbps 155 Mbps
STM- 4 622.080 Mbps 622 Mbps
STM-16 2488.320 Mbps 2.4 Gbps
STM-64 9953.280 Mbps 10 Gbps
STM-256 39813.12 Mbps 40 Gbps
Standards
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TX END
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RX END
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STM-1 Frame Format
9 Rows

Administrative Unit
Capacity of the
Virtual Container
+
Pointers
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Regenerator
Section
Overhead
Multiplex
Section
Overhead
H3 H1 H2 Pointers
STM-1 = 270 Columns (2430 bytes)
H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3
Frame =125s

Frame = 125s
Frame =125s

Overhead width = 9 columns
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STM-N Frame Format
Frame = 125s
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Frame Format
STM - Section overhead and
Administrative unit

Section overhead Regenerator
section overhead and Multiplex section
overhead

Administrative unit Virtual container
and pointers

Virtual container - Payload and Path
overhead information

1 Byte=8bits * 8000 frames/sec=64 Kbps


Payload
STM-N


Administrative
unit
Pointer
Virtual
Container
Path
overhead
Section
Overhead
Regenerator
Overhead
Multiplex
overhead
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The Container (C)
Basic packaging unit for tributary signals (PDH)
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The Virtual Container (VC)
Formation of the Container by adding of a POH (Path
Overhead)

The Tributary Unit (TU)
Is formed via adding a pointer to the VC

The Tributary Unit Group (TUG)
Combines several TUs for a new VC


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The Administrative Unit (AU)
Is shaped if a pointer is allocated to the VC formed at
last

The Syncronous Transport Module (STM-N)
Formed by adding a Section Overhead (SOH) to AUs

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SDH Multiplexing
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SDH Multiplexing
9 X 261
7 4 3 6 5 2 1 7 4 3 6 5 2 1 7 4 3 6 5 2 1
3 2 1
4 3 2 1
9 rows
4 columns
TUG-2
9 X 12
TU 12
9X4
TUG-3
9 X 84
P
O
H
P
O
H
P
O
H
Stuffing and
POH
TUG - 3 TUG - 3 TUG - 3
Section Over
Head
(9 X 9)
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Advantages
High speed standards
Efficient Multiplexing / Demultiplexing
Enhanced Operation, administration, Provisioning, Maintenance
capabilities (OAM&P)
A reduction in the amount of equipment .
The provision of overhead and payload bytes
Synchronous multiplexing format for carrying lower-level digital signals is
justified.
The availability of a set of generic standards, which enable multi-vendor
interoperability.



Tejas Networks India Ltd., 2007, Proprietary Information