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Basic Calculus

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f(x) = ax

2

+bx +c where a, b and c are real numbers and a 0.

Domain: the set of real numbers

Graph: parabola

Examples: parabolas parabolas

opening upward opening downward

The graph of any quadratic function is called a parabola.

Parabolas are shaped like cups, as shown in the graph

below.

If the coefficient of x

2

is positive, the parabola opens

upward; otherwise, the parabola opens downward.

The vertex (or turning point) is the minimum or maximum

point.

Graphs of Quadratic Functions

Given f(x) = ax

2

+ bx +c

1. Determine whether the parabola opens upward or

downward. If a > 0, it opens upward. If a < 0, it opens

downward.

2. Determine the vertex of the parabola. The vertex is

3. The axis of symmetry is

The axis of symmetry divides the parabola into two equal

parts such that one part is a mirror image of the other.

a

b ac

a

b

4

4

,

2

2

a

b

x

2

Given f(x) = ax

2

+ bx +c

4. Find any x-intercepts by replacing f (x) with 0. Solve the

resulting quadratic equation for x.

5. Find the y-intercept by replacing x with zero.

6. Plot the intercepts and vertex. Connect these points with

a smooth curve that is shaped like a cup.

1. Determine the values of a, b, c.

a = 1, b = -1, c = -2

2. Determine whether the parabola opens

upward or downward.

Since a > 0, then parabola opens upward.

3. Find the vertex of the parabola.

a

b

x

2

2

1

) 1 ( 2

) 1 (

x

4

9

2

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

f

4. Find the intercepts, if any.

x intercepts:

If y = 0, then x = 2, 1.

y intercept:

If x = 0, then y = 2.

5. Plot the intercepts and vertex. Connect these

points with a smooth curve that is shaped like a

cup.

3

2

1

-1

-2

-3

-6 -4 -2 2 4 6

(0.5,-2.25)

(2,0) (-1,0)

(0,-2)

1. Determine the values of a, b, c.

a = -1, b = -2, c = 15

2. Determine whether the parabola opens

upward or downward.

Since a < 0, then parabola opens downward.

3. Find the vertex of the parabola.

vertex (-1, 16)

4. Find the intercepts, if any.

x intercepts:

If y = 0, then x = 3, 5.

y intercept:

If x = 0, then y = 15.

5. Plot the intercepts and vertex. Connect these

points with a smooth curve that is shaped like a

cup.

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

-15 -10 -5 5 10 15 (3,0) (-5,0)

(-1,16)

The function f(x) = 1 - 4x - x

2

has its vertex

at _____.

A. (2,11)

B. (2,-11)

C.( -2,-3)

D.(-2,5)

Identify the graph of the given function: y = 3x

2

- 3.

Identify the graph of the given function: 4y = x

2

.

Identify the graph of the given function: y = (x - 2)(x 2).

Parabola

a > 0 opens upward

a < 0 opens downward

Vertex (-b/2a, f(-b/2a)

b

2

-4ac > 0 2 x intercepts

b

2

-4ac = 0 1 x intercept

b

2

-4ac < 0 No x intercept

X intercepts (x, 0)

Y intercept c

A quadratic function of the form

f(x) = ax

2

+bx +c where a, b and c are real

numbers and a 0, is in standard form if it is

written as

f(x) = a(x h)

2

+ k , a 0.

The vertex is at (h, k).

Express f(x) = x

2

- x - 2 in standard form.

Solution:

f(x) = (x

2

- x) 2

By completing the square,

f(x) = (x

2

- x + (-1/2)

2

) 2 - (-1/2)

2

f(x) = (x - 1/2)

2

2 - (-1/2)

2

f(x) = (x

0.5)

2

2.25

Where (h, k) = (0.5, -2.25)

3

2

1

-1

-2

-3

-6 -4 -2 2 4 6

(0.5,-2.25)

(2,0) (-1,0)

(0,-2)

Express f(x) = 15 2x x

2

in standard form.

Solution:

f(x) = (x

2

+ 2x) + 15

By completing the square,

f(x) = (x

2

+2x + (1)

2

) + (15 +1)

f(x) = (x + 1)

2

+ 16

Where (h, k) = (-1, 16)

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

-15 -10 -5 5 10 15 (3,0) (-5,0)

(-1,16)

Graph each of the given equation. Find its vertex, axis of

symmetry, x and y intercepts, and domain and range.

2. f(x) = x

2

+ x 2

3. f(x) = x

2

+ 10x 25

4. f(x) = 4x

2

- 20x 24

5. f(x) = 6x

2

7x 5

Relations and Functions

Parabola Opens Upward/Downward

o f(x) = a(x h)

2

+ k , a 0

o (y k) = a(x h)

2

, a 0

Parabola Opens to the right/ left

x = a(y k)

2

+ h , a 0

(x h) = a(y k)

2

, a 0

1. x

2

= 16y

2. y

2

= 12x

3. 2x

2

+ 5y = 0

4. (x 3 )

2

= 10 (y + 2)

5. y

2

12x +48 = 0

Graph the following:

1. (x + 3 )

2

8 (y + 6) = 0

2. y

2

= 32x

3. x

2

2x y 1 = 0

4. y

2

4x 8y + 24 = 0

5. y

2

4x 8y + 7 = 0

6. x

2

4x 12y 32 = 0

7. x

2

+ 4x 16y +4 = 0

Activity Sheet 1.4 pages 365 366 # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

http://rechneronline.de/function-graphs/

http://www.coolmath.com/graphit/

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