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# A quadratic function is a function of the form

f(x) = ax
2
+bx +c where a, b and c are real numbers and a 0.
Domain: the set of real numbers
Graph: parabola
Examples: parabolas parabolas
opening upward opening downward
The graph of any quadratic function is called a parabola.
Parabolas are shaped like cups, as shown in the graph
below.
If the coefficient of x
2
is positive, the parabola opens
upward; otherwise, the parabola opens downward.
The vertex (or turning point) is the minimum or maximum
point.
Given f(x) = ax
2
+ bx +c
1. Determine whether the parabola opens upward or
downward. If a > 0, it opens upward. If a < 0, it opens
downward.
2. Determine the vertex of the parabola. The vertex is

3. The axis of symmetry is

The axis of symmetry divides the parabola into two equal
parts such that one part is a mirror image of the other.

a
b ac
a
b
4
4
,
2
2
a
b
x
2

Given f(x) = ax
2
+ bx +c
4. Find any x-intercepts by replacing f (x) with 0. Solve the
5. Find the y-intercept by replacing x with zero.
6. Plot the intercepts and vertex. Connect these points with
a smooth curve that is shaped like a cup.
1. Determine the values of a, b, c.
a = 1, b = -1, c = -2
2. Determine whether the parabola opens
upward or downward.
Since a > 0, then parabola opens upward.
3. Find the vertex of the parabola.

a
b
x
2

2
1
) 1 ( 2
) 1 (

x
4
9
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

f
4. Find the intercepts, if any.
x intercepts:
If y = 0, then x = 2, 1.
y intercept:
If x = 0, then y = 2.
5. Plot the intercepts and vertex. Connect these
points with a smooth curve that is shaped like a
cup.
3
2
1
-1
-2
-3
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
(0.5,-2.25)
(2,0) (-1,0)
(0,-2)
1. Determine the values of a, b, c.
a = -1, b = -2, c = 15
2. Determine whether the parabola opens
upward or downward.
Since a < 0, then parabola opens downward.
3. Find the vertex of the parabola.
vertex (-1, 16)

4. Find the intercepts, if any.
x intercepts:
If y = 0, then x = 3, 5.
y intercept:
If x = 0, then y = 15.
5. Plot the intercepts and vertex. Connect these
points with a smooth curve that is shaped like a
cup.
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
-15 -10 -5 5 10 15 (3,0) (-5,0)
(-1,16)
The function f(x) = 1 - 4x - x
2
has its vertex
at _____.

A. (2,11)
B. (2,-11)
C.( -2,-3)
D.(-2,5)

Identify the graph of the given function: y = 3x
2
- 3.
Identify the graph of the given function: 4y = x
2
.
Identify the graph of the given function: y = (x - 2)(x 2).
Parabola
a > 0 opens upward
a < 0 opens downward
Vertex (-b/2a, f(-b/2a)
b
2
-4ac > 0 2 x intercepts
b
2
-4ac = 0 1 x intercept
b
2
-4ac < 0 No x intercept
X intercepts (x, 0)
Y intercept c
A quadratic function of the form
f(x) = ax
2
+bx +c where a, b and c are real
numbers and a 0, is in standard form if it is
written as
f(x) = a(x h)
2
+ k , a 0.

The vertex is at (h, k).
Express f(x) = x
2
- x - 2 in standard form.
Solution:
f(x) = (x
2
- x) 2
By completing the square,
f(x) = (x
2
- x + (-1/2)
2
) 2 - (-1/2)
2
f(x) = (x - 1/2)
2
2 - (-1/2)
2
f(x) = (x

0.5)
2
2.25

Where (h, k) = (0.5, -2.25)
3
2
1
-1
-2
-3
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
(0.5,-2.25)
(2,0) (-1,0)
(0,-2)
Express f(x) = 15 2x x
2
in standard form.
Solution:
f(x) = (x
2
+ 2x) + 15
By completing the square,
f(x) = (x
2
+2x + (1)
2
) + (15 +1)

f(x) = (x + 1)
2
+ 16

Where (h, k) = (-1, 16)
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
-15 -10 -5 5 10 15 (3,0) (-5,0)
(-1,16)
Graph each of the given equation. Find its vertex, axis of
symmetry, x and y intercepts, and domain and range.
2. f(x) = x
2
+ x 2
3. f(x) = x
2
+ 10x 25
4. f(x) = 4x
2
- 20x 24
5. f(x) = 6x
2
7x 5

Relations and Functions
Parabola Opens Upward/Downward
o f(x) = a(x h)
2
+ k , a 0
o (y k) = a(x h)
2
, a 0

Parabola Opens to the right/ left
x = a(y k)
2
+ h , a 0
(x h) = a(y k)
2
, a 0

1. x
2
= 16y
2. y
2
= 12x
3. 2x
2
+ 5y = 0
4. (x 3 )
2
= 10 (y + 2)
5. y
2
12x +48 = 0

Graph the following:
1. (x + 3 )
2
8 (y + 6) = 0
2. y
2
= 32x
3. x
2
2x y 1 = 0
4. y
2
4x 8y + 24 = 0
5. y
2
4x 8y + 7 = 0
6. x
2
4x 12y 32 = 0
7. x
2
+ 4x 16y +4 = 0
Activity Sheet 1.4 pages 365 366 # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

http://rechneronline.de/function-graphs/
http://www.coolmath.com/graphit/