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Mind Is All That Matters:

Reasons to Focus on Cognitive


Technologies

Eliezer Yudkowsky
Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence
singinst.org
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
(Image from Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Felleman, D.J. and Van
Essen, D.C. (1991)
Distributed hierarchical
processing in primate
visual cortex. Cerebral
Cortex, 1: 1-47.

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
"Book smarts" vs. cognition:
"Book smarts" evokes Other stuff that happens
images of: in the brain:

• Calculus • Persuasiveness
• Chess • Enthusiasm
• Memorizing facts • Empathy
• Strict rules in well- • Strategic thinking
understood situations • Musical talent
• Rationality

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


The scale of intelligent minds:
a parochial view.
Village idiot Einstein

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


The scale of intelligent minds:
a parochial view.
Village idiot Einstein

A more cosmopolitan view:


Mouse Village idiot

Chimp Einstein
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
"Supermen are superthinkers;
anything else is a side issue."
-- SF author Robert Heinlein

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


©Marlo Steed
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
One of these technologies
is not like the others...

Artificial Intelligence Interplanetary travel

Cancer cure Nanomanufacturing

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


"The influence of animal or vegetable life on matter is
infinitely beyond the range of any scientific inquiry
hitherto entered on. Its power of directing the motions of
moving particles, in the demonstrated daily miracle of
our human free-will, and in the growth of generation
after generation of plants from a single seed, are
infinitely different from any possible result of the
fortuitous concurrence of atoms... Modern biologists
were coming once more to the acceptance of something
and that was a vital principle."
-- Lord Kelvin

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


AI
Mouse Village idiot

Chimp Einstein

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


In Every Known Human Culture:

• tool making • mediation of conflicts


• weapons • dance, singing
• grammar • personal names
• tickling • promises
• meal times • mourning

(Donald E. Brown, 1991. Human universals. New York: McGraw-Hill.)


Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
A complex adaptation must be
universal within a species.

(John Tooby and Leda Cosmides, 1992. The Psychological Foundations of Culture.
In The Adapted Mind, eds. Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby.)
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
A complex adaptation must be
universal within a species.

If: 6 necessary genes


Each at 10% frequency in population
Then: 1 in 1,000,000 have complete
adaptation

(John Tooby and Leda Cosmides, 1992. The Psychological Foundations of Culture.
In The Adapted Mind, eds. Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby.)
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Incremental evolution of complexity:

1. [A] A is advantageous by itself.


2. [A←B] B depends on A.
3. [A'↔B] A' replaces A, depends on B.
4. [A'B←C] C depends on A' and B
...

(John Tooby and Leda Cosmides, 1992. The Psychological Foundations of Culture.
In The Adapted Mind, eds. Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby.)
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
The Psychic Unity of
Humankind
Complex adaptations
must be universal in a species –
including cognitive machinery
in Homo sapiens!

(John Tooby and Leda Cosmides, 1992. The Psychological Foundations of Culture.
In The Adapted Mind, eds. Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby.)
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Must…
not…
emote…
The Great Failure
of Imagination:
Anthropomorphism

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Mind Projection Fallacy:
If I am ignorant about a phenomenon,
this is a fact about my state of mind,
not a fact about the phenomenon.

(Jaynes, E.T. 2003. Probability Theory: The Logic of


Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Minds-in-general

Human minds

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Minds-in-general

Transhuman mindspace

Human minds

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Minds-in-general
Posthuman mindspace

Transhuman mindspace

Human minds

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Bipping AIs

Minds-in-general
Posthuman mindspace

Freepy AIs

Gloopy AIs

Transhuman mindspace

Human minds

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Bipping AIs

Minds-in-general
Posthuman mindspace

Freepy AIs

Gloopy AIs

Transhuman mindspace
YOU
ARE
Human minds HERE
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Fallacy of the Giant Cheesecake
• Major premise: A superintelligence could
create a mile-high cheesecake.
• Minor premise: Someone will create a
recursively self-improving AI.
• Conclusion: The future will be full of giant
cheesecakes.

Power does not imply motive.

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Fallacy of the Giant Cheesecake
• Major premise: A superintelligence could
create a mile-high cheesecake.
• Minor premise: Someone will create a
recursively self-improving AI.
• Conclusion: The future will be full of giant
cheesecakes.

Power does not imply motive.

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Minds-in-general

Human minds

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Minds-in-general

YOU
ARE
HERE
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Minds-in-general

YOU
ARE
HERE
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Intelligence

Technology

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Cognitive Technology
Closes the Loop:

Intelligence
Technology

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


I. J. Good's
"Intelligence Explosion":

AI

(Good, I. J. 1965. Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine.)

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


AI
Mouse Village idiot

Chimp Einstein

Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI


Friendly AI
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Friendly AI
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Summary:
• Intelligence supports • >H equals >H mind
all human abilities • Cognitive technology
• Technology comes opens vast new regions
from intelligence of mind design space
• Whatever impacts • Technology improving
intelligence lifts the intelligence closes the
tree by its roots loop - positive feedback!

To grasp the future,


focus on technologies
that impact upon the mind.
Eliezer Yudkowsky Singularity Institute for AI
Mind Is All That Matters

Eliezer Yudkowsky
Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence
singinst.org