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# National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on

## Aerodynamic Design and Research

# Lecture 2The Governing Equations

Department of Fluid Mechanics, School of Aeronautics, Northwestern
Polytechnical University, Xian, China
Presented by Zhonghua Han
E-mail: hanzh@nwpu.edu.cn
29.03.2012
CFD Course for International Mixed Class
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Chapter 2 Governing Equations
2.1 Introduction
All of CFD is based on the fundamental governing equations of fluid
dynamics the continuity, momentum and energy equations. These are
corresponding to the fundamental physical principles as follows:
- Mass is conserved;
- Newtons second law, F = ma;
- Energy is conserved.
The purpose of this chapter is to derive these equation.
Why?
- You have no chance to be a CFD expert if you dont know these equations
- Different forms of governing equations.
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Partial differential
equations of
conservation form
Non-conservation
form

Fundamental physical principles
Mass is conserved
Newtons second law
Fixed finite control volume
Moving finite control volume
Fixed infinitesimally small volume
Moving infinitesimally small volume
Models of the flow
Forms of these equations particularly
suited for CFD
Boundary conditions: (a) Inviscid ; (b) Viscous
Energy is conserved
Non-conservation
form
Continuity equation
Momentum equations
Energy equation
Governing equations
Chapter 2
Integral equations of
conservation form
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2.2 Models of the Flow

To derive the basic equations of fluid motion, the following
philosophy is always followed:
1. Choose the appropriate fundamental physical principle from the
law of physics, such as
- Mass is conserved;
- Newtons second law, F = ma;
- Energy is conserved;
2. Apply the fundamental physical principle to a suitable model of the
flow;
3. Derive the mathematical equations, which embody these physical
principles
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2.2.1 Finite Control Volume

Fixed finite
control volume
Moving finite
control volume
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2.2.2 Infinitesimally Fluid Element

Fixed infinitesimally
small element
Moving infinitesimally
small element
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Different models of flow lead to different forms of
governing equations
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- In general aerodynamic theory, whether we deal with
conservation or non-conservation forms of equations is irrelevant;
- One form can be obtained from the other, only through simple
mathematical manipulations;
- For CFD, it is important to choose the form of the equations. The
nomenclature distinguishing these two forms of equations is firstly
introduced by CFD researchers.
-
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2.3 The Substantial Derivative (Time Rate of Change
Following a Moving Fluid Element)
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) (higer-order terms)
x x y y z z
x y z
t t
t

| | c c c
| | | |
= + + +
| | |
c c c
\ . \ .
\ .
c
| |
+
|
c
\ .
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 1
1
2 1
1
) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (
t z y x w w
t z y x v v
t z y x u u
k w j v i u V
=
=
=
+ + =

( , , , )
( , , , )
( , , , )
x y z t
x y z t
x y z t

=
=
=
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2
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2014/7/6 9
1 1 2
1 2
1
1 2
1 2
1
1 2
1 2
1 1 2
1 2

) (
) (

) (
) (
) (
) (
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+

|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+

|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=

t t t
z z
z
t t
y y
y t t
x x
x t t

Dt
D
t t
t t

1 2
1 2
lim
1 2
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
t z
w
y
v
x
u
Dt
D

...
DT T T T T
u v w
Dt x y z t
| | c c c c
| | | | | |
= + + +
| | | |
c c c c
\ . \ . \ .
\ .

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z
w
y
v
x
u
t Dt
D
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

## Definition of Substantial Derivative

z
k
y
j
x
i
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
V

) ( V - +
c
c
V
t Dt
D

Local derivative
( V ) Convective derivative
t
c
c
-V
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Substantial Derivative & Total Derivative
( ( ), ( ), ( ), ) x t y t z t t =
d x y z
dt x t y t z t t
c c c c c c c
= + + +
c c c c c c c
u v w
x y z t
c c c c
= + + +
c c c c
V
t

c
= + V
c
u v w
D
Dt

=
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( )
DT
D
V
V
V
o
o
1
= V

Physical meaning: the time rate of change of volume of a
moving fluid element, per unit volume
2.4 The Divergence of the Velocity: Its Physical Meaning
u v w
V
x y z
c c c
V = + +
c c c
V ui vj wk = + +
i j k
x y z
c c c
V = + +
c c c
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Net mass flow out of
control volume through
surface S
2.5 Continuity Equation
Physical principle: Mass is conserved
2.5.1 Model of the Finite Control
volume Fixed in Space
time rate of decrease of
mass inside the control
volume
=
B = C
dS
V
dV
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S
B V dS =
}} }}}
c
c
=
V
dV
t
C
V S
dV V dS
t

c
+ =
c
}}} }}
0
An integral form of the continuity equation
A conservation form, derived from the flow model fixed in pace
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2.5.2 Model of the Finite Control Volume Moving with the
Fluid
0 =
}}}
V
dV
Dt
D

dS n q dV
t
dV
Dt
D
b
S V V

+
c
c
=
}} }}} }}}

## A frequently used formula :

b
q denotes the velocity the boundary
An integral form of the continuity equation
A nonconservation form
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2.5.3 Model of an infinitesimally Small Element Fixed in
Space (Assignment)
( ) 0 = V +
c
c
V
t

## 2.5.4 Model of an infinitesimally Small Element Moving

with the Fluid (Assignment)
0 = V + V
Dt
D

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2.5.5 All Equations Are One (Assignment)
Four equations : 2 integral and 2 partial differential equations
or 2 conservation and 2 nonconservation forms
Four forms of the same equation.
2.5.6 Integral versus Differential Forms of Equations
There is a subtle difference between the integral and differential
forms of the governing equations:
- The integral form of the governing equations allows for the
presence of discontinuities inside the fixed control volume.
- The differential form of the governing equations assumes the flow
properties are differentiable.
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2014/7/6 18
Apply Newtons second law to the infinitesimally small element
moving with the fluid (this model is particularly convenient ), in x
direction:

x x
ma F =
2.6 Momentum Equations
Physical principle: Newtons second law, F= ma
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gravitational force
Body force
magnetic force
pressure
F
, , )
Surface force
viscous
, , , )
xx yy zz
xy xz yz
t t t
t t t

norm al stress
shear stress

x x
( body force ) f ( dxdydz ) =
2.45)
Forces on a Moving Fluid Element
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Shear and Normal Stresses in Viscous Flows
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x
(Net surface force) = [ ( ) ]
[( ]
[( ) ]
[(
xx
xx xx
yx
yx yx
z
zx
p
p p dx dydz
x
dx ) dydz
x
dy dxdz
y
t
t t
t
t t
t
t
c
+
c
c
+ +
c
c
+ +
c
c
+ + ) ]
x
zx
dz dxdy
z
t
c
2.46)
[ ]
yx
xx zx
x x
p
F dxdydz f dxdydz
x x y z
t
t t

c
c c c
= + + + +
c c c c
2.47)
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x
zx
yx
xx
f
z y x x
p
Dt
Du

t
t
t
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
x
Du
ma dxdydz
Dt
=
2.50a)
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z
zz
yz
xz
y
zy yy xy
x
zx
yx
xx
f
z y x z
p
Dt
Dw
f
z y x y
p
Dt
Dv
f
z y x x
p
Dt
Du

t
t
t

t t t

t
t
t

+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
For the infinitesimally small moving element, apply Newtons second
in x, y, z directions, respectively, one can obtain nonconservation
differential equations
2.50c)
2.50b)
2.50a)
Called Navier-Stokes equations in honor of two men: the French
man M. Navier and the English man G. Stokes.

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Through mathematical manipulation, one can obtain the
conservation differential momentum equations as follows
z
zz
yz
xz
y
zy yy xy
x
zx
yx
xx
f
z y x z
p
V w
t
w
f
z y x y
p
V v
t
v
f
z y x x
p
V u
t
u

t
t
t

t t t

t
t
t

+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V +
c
c
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (

2.56)
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( ) (2.57a)
( ) (2.57b)
( ) (2.57c)
(2.57e)
xx
yy
zz
xy yx
x
u
V
x
v
V
y
w
V
z
v u
x y
t
t
t
t t
t
c
= V +
c
c
= V +
c
c
= V +
c
( c c
= = +
(
c c

2
2
2
(2.57f)
(2.57g)
z zx
yz zy
u w
z x
v u
x y
t
t t
c c
(
= = +
(
c c

( c c
= = +
(
c c

In the late of 17
th
century, Newton stated that shear stress in a fluid is
proportional to the time rate of strain, i.e. velocity gradients. Such fluids
are called Newtonian fluid. For such fluid, Stokes in 1845 obtained
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3
2
=
is the molecular viscosity coefficient and the second viscosity
coefficient. Stokes made the hypothesis as

Substituting Eqs.2.57) into (2.56), we obtain the complete
Navier-Stokes equations in conservation form (to be continued):
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x
f
x
w
z
u
z
y
u
x
v
y x
u
V
x
x
p
z
uw
y
uv
x
u
t
u

+
(

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
(

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
+ V
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
) (
) ( ) 2 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2

(2.58a)
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y
f
z
v
y
w
z
y
v
V
y y
u
x
v
x
y
p
x
vw
y
v
x
uv
t
v

+
(

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
+ V
c
c
+
(

c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
) (
) 2 ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2

(2.58b)
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2

2
z
( w) ( uw) ( vw) ( w ) p
t x y z z
u w w v
( ) ( )
x z x y y z
w
( V ) f
z z

c c c c c
+ + + =
c c c c c
( c c c c c c
(
+ + + +
(
(
c c c c c c

c c
+ V + +
c c
(2.58c)
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Physical principle: Energy is conserved
When applied to flow model of a fluid element moving with the
flow, the first law states that
2.7 Energy Equations
Rate of change of
energy inside fluid
element
Net flux of
heat into
element
Rate of work
done on element
due to body and
surface forces
= +
A = B + C
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( up ) ( up )
up ( up dx ) dydz dxdydz
x x
c c
| |
+ =
|
c c
\ .
yx yx
yx yx
( u ) ( u )
( u dy ) u ) dxdz dxdydz
y y
t t
t t
c c
| |
+ =
|
c c
\ .
zx zx
zx zx
( u ) ( u )
( u dz ) u ) dxdy dxdydz
z z
t t
t t
c c
| |
+ =
|
c c
\ .
xx xx
xx xx
( u ) ( u )
( u dx ) u ) dydz dxdydz
x z
t t
t t
c c
| |
+ =
|
c c
\ .
- The net rate of work done by pressure in x directionadhe and bcgf)
- The net rate of work done by normal stresses in x direction (adhe and bcgf)
- The net rate of work done by shear stresses in x direction hefg and dabc)
-The net rate of work done by shear stresses in x direction dcgh and abfe)
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dxdydz V f
dxdydz
z
w
y
w
x
w
z
v
y
v
x
v
z
u
y
u
x
u
z
wp
y
vp
x
up
C
zz
yz
xz
zy yy xy
zx
yx
xx

+
(

(
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=

t
t
t
t t t
t
t
t

) (
) (
) (

) ( ) ( ) (

) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
In total, the net rate of work done on the moving fluid element is the
sum of the surface force contributions in x, y, z directions, as well as
the body force contribution
( ) pV V
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x
q dydz
Define as volumetric heat addition per unit mass. Note that the
mass of the moving element is , we obtain
dxdydz
q
Volumentic heating of element = qdxdydz
The heat transferred by thermal conduction into the moving fluid
is the heat transferred in the x direction per unit area by thermal
conduction
x
q
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x x
x x
q q
q q dx dydz dxdydz
x x
c ( c
| |
+
| (
c c
\ .

The heat transferred by thermal conduction into the moving fluid
element across face bcgf is
x
x
q
q dx dydz
x
c
| |
+
|
c
\ .
Thus the net heat transferred in the x direction into the fluid
element by thermal conduction is
2014/7/6 36
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B
y
x z
q
q q
q dxdydz
x y z

c (
| | c c
=
( |
c c c
\ .

Taking into account heat transfer in the y and z directions across
the other faces,

y
x z
q
q q
dxdydz
x y z
c
| | c c
|
c c c
\ .
=
Heating of fluid
element by thermal
conduction
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dxdydz
V
e
Dt
D
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
2

## The time rate change of total energy

(internal and kinetic energy)
e The internal energy due to the random molecular motion
V
2
2
The kinetic energy due to the transitional motion of fluid element
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( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

yx
xx zx
xy yy zy
D V T T T
e q k k k
Dt x x y y z z
u
u u up vp wp
x y z x y z
v v v
x y z

t
t t
t t t
| | c c c c c c
+ = + + +
|
c c c c c c
\ .
c
c c c c c
+ + +
c c c c c c
c c c
+ + +
c c c
2
2
( )
( ) ( )

yz
xz zz
w
w w
f V
x y z
t
t t

c
c c
+ + + +
c c c
The final form of energy equation (nonconservation)
2.66
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( / )
(2.67)

( / )
(2.68)

yx
xx zx
x
xy yy zy
y
D u p
u u u u uf
Dt x x y z
D v p
v v v v vf
Dt y x y z
t
t t

t t t

c
c c c
= + + + +
c c c c
c c c
c
= + + + +
c c c c
2
2
2
2

( / )
(2.69)

yz
xz zz
z
D w p
w w w w wf
Dt z x y z
t
t t

c
c c c
= + + + +
c c c c
2
2

To convert into one involving De/Dt , Multiply Eqs.
2.56a)(2.56b)(2.56c) by uv, w, respectively.
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Through some manipulations, the energy equation
can be simplified to
( ) ( ) ( )
( )

xx yx zx
xy yy zy
xz yz zz
De T T T
q k k k
Dt x x y y z z
u v w u u u
p
x y z x y z
v v v
x y z
w w w
x y z

t t t
t t t
t t t
c c c c c c
= + + +
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
+ + + + +
c c c c c c
c c c
+ + +
c c c
c c c
+ + +
c c c
2.71
The kinetic energy and the body force terms have dropped out

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) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
y
w
z
v
x
w
z
u
x
v
y
u
z
w
y
v
x
u
z
w
y
v
x
u
p
z
T
k
z y
T
k
y x
T
k
x
q
Dt
De
zy zx yx
zz yy xx
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+ =
t t t
t t t

2.72
Since , , , one can obtain

yx xy zx xz yz zy
t t t t t t = = =
Other forms in terms of enthalpy h and total enthalpy h
0
can be
obtained by similar manipulations

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( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

De T T T
q k k k
Dt x x y y z z
u v w u v w
p
x y z x y z
u v w
y y z
u v u w v w
y x z x z y

c c c c c c
= + + +
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
+ + + + +
c c c c c c
c c c
+ + +

c c c

( c c c c c c
+ + + + + +
(
c c c c c c

2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2.73
Apply Eqs. (2.57a) to (2.72) in order to express the viscous stresses
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( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

e T T T
eV q k k k
t x x y y z z
u v w u v w
p
x y z x y z
u v w
y y z

c c c c c c c
+V = + + +
c c c c c c c
c c c c c c
+ + + + +
c c c c c c
c c c
+ + +

c c c

2
2 2 2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( )

u v u w v w
y x z x z y
( c c c c c c
+ + + + + +
(
c c c c c c

2 2 2
The energy equation can be written in conservation
form
2.79
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The conservation form of energy equation in term of
total energy
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

V V T T T
e e V q k k k
t x x y y z z
up vp wp
x y z

( ( c c c c c c c
+ +V + = + + +
( (
c c c c c c c

c c c

c c c
2 2
2 2
( )
( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

yx
xx zx
xy yy zy
xz
u
u u
x y z
v v v
x y z
w
t
t t
t t t
t
c
c c
+ + +
c c c
c c c
+ + +
c c c
c
+
( )
( )
yz
zz
w
w
f V
x y z
t
t

c
c
+ + +
c c c
2.81
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2.8 Summary of the Governing Equations for Fluid
2.8.1 Navier-Stokes euqations
2.8.2 Euler Equations
2.8.3 Comments on the Governing Equations
1The y are coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations,
and hence are very difficult to solve analytically. To date, there is no
close-form solution to these equations.
2For the momentum and energy equations, the differences between the
nonconservation and conservation forms of the equations is just the
left-hand side.
3Note that the conservation forms of equations contain terms on the
left-hand side which include the divergence of some quantity. For this
reason, the conservation form of governing equations is sometimes
called divergence form.
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4The normal and shear stress terms in these equations are functions of
5Examine the equations, we have 5 equations in terms if 7 unknown
flow-field variables, . In aerodynamic, it is
generally reasonable to assume that the gas is a perfect gas (which
assume that intermolecular forces are negligible). For a perfect gas,
the equations of state.

where R is the specific gas constant. A seventh equation to close the
entire system must be a thermodynamic relation between state
variables. For example

For a calorically perfect gas (constant specific heats)
T e w v u p , , , , , ,
RT p =
T c e
p T e e
v
=
= ) , (
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6 Navier-Stokes equations are referred to as the whole system of
equations in modern CFD, not only to the momentum equations for a
viscous flow.
7 Similarly, Euler equations are referred to as the whole system of
equations in modern CFD, not only to the momentum equations for a
inviscid flow.

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2.9 Physical Boundary Conditions
Wall boundary
For viscous flow: non-slip condition, or zero relative velocity between the
wall surface and the gas immediately at the wall
u=v=w=0
Boundary condition on the gas temperature
(1)
(2)
Inviscid flow: flow velocity adjacent to the wall must be tangent to the way
2014/7/6 49
( )
w
w w
w
q T T
q k or
n n k
c c
| |
= =
|
c c
\ .
0 ) ( =
c
c
w
n
T
0 = n V

T T
w
=
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Other boundary conditions
- Outer flow: far-field boundary condition
- Internal flow: inflow and outflow
Numerical Boundary conditions
If the problem involves an aerodynamic body immersed in a known
free stream, then the boundary conditions applied to a distance
infinitely far upstream, above, blow and downstream of the body is
simply the given free condition.
Numerically, due to the limitation of computational resource, the
outer boundary of the computational domain has to be limited to a
finite distance away from the wall boundary. In this case, the one-
dimensional Riemann boundary condition is often applied.
2014/7/6 50
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Other numerical boundary conditions:
- Symmetric
- periodic conditions
2014/7/6 51
( ) 0
w
p
n
c
=
c
Question: is this a boundary condition for solving of Navier-
Stokes equations?

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2.10 Forms of the Governing Equations Particullay
Suited for CFD: Comments on Conservation Form,
Shock Fitting and Shock Capturing
The governing equations in conservation form can be written as

(2.93) J
z
H
y
G
x
F
t
U
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

+
=
)
2
(
2
V
e
w
v
u
U

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c
c
+ +

+
=
xz xy xx
xz
xy
xx
w v u
x
T
k pu u
V
e
wu
vu
p u
u
F
t t t
t
t
t

)
2
(
2
2

c
c
+ +

=
yz yy yx
yz
yy
xy
w v u
y
T
k pv u
V
e
wv
p v
uv
v
G
t t t
t
t
t

)
2
(
2
2
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c
c
+ +
+

=
zz zy zx
zz
zy
zx
w v u
z
T
k pw w
V
e
p w
vw
uw
w
H
t t t
t
t
t

)
2
(
2
2

+ + +
=
q wf vf uf
f
f
f
J
z y x
z
y
x

) (
0
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c
c
+ +
+

=
zz zy zx
zz
zy
zx
w v u
z
T
k pw w
V
e
p w
vw
uw
w
H
t t t
t
t
t

)
2
(
2
2

+ + +
=
q wf vf uf
f
f
f
J
z y x
z
y
x

) (
0
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(2.99)
z
H
y
G
x
F
J
t
U
c
c

c
c

c
c
=
c
c
Time-marching method
Flux variables & primitive variables
2
) 2 / (
2 2 2 2
w v u V e
e
w
w
v
v
u
u
+ +

+
=
=
=
=
=

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Spatial marching methods, such as
(2.110)
z
H
y
G
J
x
F
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
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Benefit of using conservation form
- Numerically and computationally convenient;
- Generally more suited for CFD
Conservation Form of Governing Equations:
- Strong conservation form
- weak conservation form
Question : Conservation and non-conservation
forms, which one is more suitable for flow with
shock wave?

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Shock capturing and shock fitting methods
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Hand on Practice
Use any existing code or software to simulate the
flow past an RAE 2822 airfoil at following flow
condition:
Ma = 0.729, al = 2.79, Re = 6.5E6
Assuming that this is an academic research project,
try to show me your capability as a scientist.
Make a presentation with sides no more than 10
and the results should be prepared according to the
standard required by top-level journal publication.
2014/7/6 61
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x
zx
yx
xx
f
z y x x
p
Dt
Du

t
t
t
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
0 ) ( =
(

V +
c
c
u V
t

) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
V u
t
u
u V u
t
u V
t
u
u V
t Dt
Du

V +
c
c
=
V +
c
c
+ V +
c
c
=
(

V +
c
c
+
2014/7/6 62