  c c c
   
= + + +
  
c c c
\ . \ .
\ .
c
 
+

c
\ .
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
1 1
1
2 1
1
) , , , (
) , , , (
) , , , (
t z y x w w
t z y x v v
t z y x u u
k w j v i u V
=
=
=
+ + =
( , , , )
( , , , )
( , , , )
x y z t
x y z t
x y z t
=
=
=
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2
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2014/7/6 9
1 1 2
1 2
1
1 2
1 2
1
1 2
1 2
1 1 2
1 2
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (

.

\

c
c
+

.

\

c
c
+


.

\

c
c
+

.

\

c
c
=
t t t
z z
z
t t
y y
y t t
x x
x t t
Dt
D
t t
t t
1 2
1 2
lim
1 2

.

\

c
c
+

.

\

c
c
+


.

\

c
c
+

.

\

c
c
=
t z
w
y
v
x
u
Dt
D
...
DT T T T T
u v w
Dt x y z t
  c c c c
     
= + + +
   
c c c c
\ . \ . \ .
\ .
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z
w
y
v
x
u
t Dt
D
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
c
= + V
c
u v w
D
Dt
=
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( )
DT
D
V
V
V
o
o
1
= V
Physical meaning: the time rate of change of volume of a
moving fluid element, per unit volume
2.4 The Divergence of the Velocity: Its Physical Meaning
u v w
V
x y z
c c c
V = + +
c c c
V ui vj wk = + +
i j k
x y z
c c c
V = + +
c c c
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Net mass flow out of
control volume through
surface S
2.5 Continuity Equation
Physical principle: Mass is conserved
2.5.1 Model of the Finite Control
volume Fixed in Space
time rate of decrease of
mass inside the control
volume
=
B = C
dS
V
dV
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S
B V dS =
}} }}}
c
c
=
V
dV
t
C
V S
dV V dS
t
c
+ =
c
}}} }}
0
An integral form of the continuity equation
A conservation form, derived from the flow model fixed in pace
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2.5.2 Model of the Finite Control Volume Moving with the
Fluid
0 =
}}}
V
dV
Dt
D
dS n q dV
t
dV
Dt
D
b
S V V
+
c
c
=
}} }}} }}}
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2.5.5 All Equations Are One (Assignment)
Four equations : 2 integral and 2 partial differential equations
or 2 conservation and 2 nonconservation forms
Four forms of the same equation.
2.5.6 Integral versus Differential Forms of Equations
There is a subtle difference between the integral and differential
forms of the governing equations:
 The integral form of the governing equations allows for the
presence of discontinuities inside the fixed control volume.
 The differential form of the governing equations assumes the flow
properties are differentiable.
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Apply Newtons second law to the infinitesimally small element
moving with the fluid (this model is particularly convenient ), in x
direction:
x x
ma F =
2.6 Momentum Equations
Physical principle: Newtons second law, F= ma
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gravitational force
Body force
magnetic force
pressure
F
, , )
Surface force
viscous
, , , )
xx yy zz
xy xz yz
t t t
t t t
norm al stress
shear stress
x x
( body force ) f ( dxdydz ) =
2.45)
Forces on a Moving Fluid Element
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Shear and Normal Stresses in Viscous Flows
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x
(Net surface force) = [ ( ) ]
[( ]
[( ) ]
[(
xx
xx xx
yx
yx yx
z
zx
p
p p dx dydz
x
dx ) dydz
x
dy dxdz
y
t
t t
t
t t
t
t
c
+
c
c
+ +
c
c
+ +
c
c
+ + ) ]
x
zx
dz dxdy
z
t
c
2.46)
[ ]
yx
xx zx
x x
p
F dxdydz f dxdydz
x x y z
t
t t
c
c c c
= + + + +
c c c c
2.47)
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x
zx
yx
xx
f
z y x x
p
Dt
Du
t
t
t
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
x
Du
ma dxdydz
Dt
=
2.50a)
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z
zz
yz
xz
y
zy yy xy
x
zx
yx
xx
f
z y x z
p
Dt
Dw
f
z y x y
p
Dt
Dv
f
z y x x
p
Dt
Du
t
t
t
t t t
t
t
t
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
For the infinitesimally small moving element, apply Newtons second
in x, y, z directions, respectively, one can obtain nonconservation
differential equations
2.50c)
2.50b)
2.50a)
Called NavierStokes equations in honor of two men: the French
man M. Navier and the English man G. Stokes.
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Through mathematical manipulation, one can obtain the
conservation differential momentum equations as follows
z
zz
yz
xz
y
zy yy xy
x
zx
yx
xx
f
z y x z
p
V w
t
w
f
z y x y
p
V v
t
v
f
z y x x
p
V u
t
u
t
t
t
t t t
t
t
t
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V +
c
c
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
2.56)
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( ) (2.57a)
( ) (2.57b)
( ) (2.57c)
(2.57e)
xx
yy
zz
xy yx
x
u
V
x
v
V
y
w
V
z
v u
x y
t
t
t
t t
t
c
= V +
c
c
= V +
c
c
= V +
c
( c c
= = +
(
c c
2
2
2
(2.57f)
(2.57g)
z zx
yz zy
u w
z x
v u
x y
t
t t
c c
(
= = +
(
c c
( c c
= = +
(
c c
In the late of 17
th
century, Newton stated that shear stress in a fluid is
proportional to the time rate of strain, i.e. velocity gradients. Such fluids
are called Newtonian fluid. For such fluid, Stokes in 1845 obtained
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3
2
=
is the molecular viscosity coefficient and the second viscosity
coefficient. Stokes made the hypothesis as
Substituting Eqs.2.57) into (2.56), we obtain the complete
NavierStokes equations in conservation form (to be continued):
2014/7/6 27
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x
f
x
w
z
u
z
y
u
x
v
y x
u
V
x
x
p
z
uw
y
uv
x
u
t
u
+
(
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
(
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
+ V
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
) (
) ( ) 2 (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
(2.58a)
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y
f
z
v
y
w
z
y
v
V
y y
u
x
v
x
y
p
x
vw
y
v
x
uv
t
v
+
(
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
+ V
c
c
+
(
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
) (
) 2 ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
(2.58b)
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2
2
z
( w) ( uw) ( vw) ( w ) p
t x y z z
u w w v
( ) ( )
x z x y y z
w
( V ) f
z z
c c c c c
+ + + =
c c c c c
( c c c c c c
(
+ + + +
(
(
c c c c c c
c c
+ V + +
c c
(2.58c)
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Physical principle: Energy is conserved
When applied to flow model of a fluid element moving with the
flow, the first law states that
2.7 Energy Equations
Rate of change of
energy inside fluid
element
Net flux of
heat into
element
Rate of work
done on element
due to body and
surface forces
= +
A = B + C
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2014/7/6 32
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( up ) ( up )
up ( up dx ) dydz dxdydz
x x
c c
 
+ =

c c
\ .
yx yx
yx yx
( u ) ( u )
( u dy ) u ) dxdz dxdydz
y y
t t
t t
c c
 
+ =

c c
\ .
zx zx
zx zx
( u ) ( u )
( u dz ) u ) dxdy dxdydz
z z
t t
t t
c c
 
+ =

c c
\ .
xx xx
xx xx
( u ) ( u )
( u dx ) u ) dydz dxdydz
x z
t t
t t
c c
 
+ =

c c
\ .
 The net rate of work done by pressure in x directionadhe and bcgf)
 The net rate of work done by normal stresses in x direction (adhe and bcgf)
 The net rate of work done by shear stresses in x direction hefg and dabc)
The net rate of work done by shear stresses in x direction dcgh and abfe)
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dxdydz V f
dxdydz
z
w
y
w
x
w
z
v
y
v
x
v
z
u
y
u
x
u
z
wp
y
vp
x
up
C
zz
yz
xz
zy yy xy
zx
yx
xx
+
(
(
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
t
t
t
t t t
t
t
t
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
In total, the net rate of work done on the moving fluid element is the
sum of the surface force contributions in x, y, z directions, as well as
the body force contribution
( ) pV V
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x
q dydz
Define as volumetric heat addition per unit mass. Note that the
mass of the moving element is , we obtain
dxdydz
q
Volumentic heating of element = qdxdydz
The heat transferred by thermal conduction into the moving fluid
element across face adhe is
is the heat transferred in the x direction per unit area by thermal
conduction
x
q
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x x
x x
q q
q q dx dydz dxdydz
x x
c ( c
 
+
 (
c c
\ .
The heat transferred by thermal conduction into the moving fluid
element across face bcgf is
x
x
q
q dx dydz
x
c
 
+

c
\ .
Thus the net heat transferred in the x direction into the fluid
element by thermal conduction is
2014/7/6 36
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B
y
x z
q
q q
q dxdydz
x y z
c (
  c c
=
( 
c c c
\ .
Taking into account heat transfer in the y and z directions across
the other faces,
y
x z
q
q q
dxdydz
x y z
c
  c c

c c c
\ .
=
Heating of fluid
element by thermal
conduction
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dxdydz
V
e
Dt
D
A


.

\

+ =
2
2
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+ =
t t t
t t t
2.72
Since , , , one can obtain
yx xy zx xz yz zy
t t t t t t = = =
Other forms in terms of enthalpy h and total enthalpy h
0
can be
obtained by similar manipulations
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( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
De T T T
q k k k
Dt x x y y z z
u v w u v w
p
x y z x y z
u v w
y y z
u v u w v w
y x z x z y
c c c c c c
= + + +
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
+ + + + +
c c c c c c
c c c
+ + +
c c c
( c c c c c c
+ + + + + +
(
c c c c c c
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2.73
Apply Eqs. (2.57a) to (2.72) in order to express the viscous stresses
in terms of velocity gradient
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( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
e T T T
eV q k k k
t x x y y z z
u v w u v w
p
x y z x y z
u v w
y y z
c c c c c c c
+V = + + +
c c c c c c c
c c c c c c
+ + + + +
c c c c c c
c c c
+ + +
c c c
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( )
u v u w v w
y x z x z y
( c c c c c c
+ + + + + +
(
c c c c c c
2 2 2
The energy equation can be written in conservation
form
2.79
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The conservation form of energy equation in term of
total energy
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
V V T T T
e e V q k k k
t x x y y z z
up vp wp
x y z
( ( c c c c c c c
+ +V + = + + +
( (
c c c c c c c
c c c
c c c
2 2
2 2
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
yx
xx zx
xy yy zy
xz
u
u u
x y z
v v v
x y z
w
t
t t
t t t
t
c
c c
+ + +
c c c
c c c
+ + +
c c c
c
+
( )
( )
yz
zz
w
w
f V
x y z
t
t
c
c
+ + +
c c c
2.81
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2014/7/6 46
2.8 Summary of the Governing Equations for Fluid
Dynamics: with Comments
2.8.1 NavierStokes euqations
2.8.2 Euler Equations
2.8.3 Comments on the Governing Equations
1The y are coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations,
and hence are very difficult to solve analytically. To date, there is no
closeform solution to these equations.
2For the momentum and energy equations, the differences between the
nonconservation and conservation forms of the equations is just the
lefthand side.
3Note that the conservation forms of equations contain terms on the
lefthand side which include the divergence of some quantity. For this
reason, the conservation form of governing equations is sometimes
called divergence form.
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4The normal and shear stress terms in these equations are functions of
the velocity gradients.
5Examine the equations, we have 5 equations in terms if 7 unknown
flowfield variables, . In aerodynamic, it is
generally reasonable to assume that the gas is a perfect gas (which
assume that intermolecular forces are negligible). For a perfect gas,
the equations of state.
where R is the specific gas constant. A seventh equation to close the
entire system must be a thermodynamic relation between state
variables. For example
For a calorically perfect gas (constant specific heats)
T e w v u p , , , , , ,
RT p =
T c e
p T e e
v
=
= ) , (
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6 NavierStokes equations are referred to as the whole system of
equations in modern CFD, not only to the momentum equations for a
viscous flow.
7 Similarly, Euler equations are referred to as the whole system of
equations in modern CFD, not only to the momentum equations for a
inviscid flow.
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2.9 Physical Boundary Conditions
Wall boundary
For viscous flow: nonslip condition, or zero relative velocity between the
wall surface and the gas immediately at the wall
u=v=w=0
Boundary condition on the gas temperature
(1)
(2)
(3) Adiabatic wall
Inviscid flow: flow velocity adjacent to the wall must be tangent to the way
2014/7/6 49
( )
w
w w
w
q T T
q k or
n n k
c c
 
= =

c c
\ .
0 ) ( =
c
c
w
n
T
0 = n V
T T
w
=
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Other boundary conditions
 Outer flow: farfield boundary condition
 Internal flow: inflow and outflow
Numerical Boundary conditions
If the problem involves an aerodynamic body immersed in a known
free stream, then the boundary conditions applied to a distance
infinitely far upstream, above, blow and downstream of the body is
simply the given free condition.
Numerically, due to the limitation of computational resource, the
outer boundary of the computational domain has to be limited to a
finite distance away from the wall boundary. In this case, the one
dimensional Riemann boundary condition is often applied.
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Other numerical boundary conditions:
 Symmetric
 periodic conditions
2014/7/6 51
( ) 0
w
p
n
c
=
c
Question: is this a boundary condition for solving of Navier
Stokes equations?
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2.10 Forms of the Governing Equations Particullay
Suited for CFD: Comments on Conservation Form,
Shock Fitting and Shock Capturing
The governing equations in conservation form can be written as
(2.93) J
z
H
y
G
x
F
t
U
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
=
)
2
(
2
V
e
w
v
u
U
c
c
+ +
+
=
xz xy xx
xz
xy
xx
w v u
x
T
k pu u
V
e
wu
vu
p u
u
F
t t t
t
t
t
)
2
(
2
2
c
c
+ +
=
yz yy yx
yz
yy
xy
w v u
y
T
k pv u
V
e
wv
p v
uv
v
G
t t t
t
t
t
)
2
(
2
2
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c
c
+ +
+
=
zz zy zx
zz
zy
zx
w v u
z
T
k pw w
V
e
p w
vw
uw
w
H
t t t
t
t
t
)
2
(
2
2
+ + +
=
q wf vf uf
f
f
f
J
z y x
z
y
x
) (
0
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c
c
+ +
+
=
zz zy zx
zz
zy
zx
w v u
z
T
k pw w
V
e
p w
vw
uw
w
H
t t t
t
t
t
)
2
(
2
2
+ + +
=
q wf vf uf
f
f
f
J
z y x
z
y
x
) (
0
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology
on Aerodynamic Design and Research School of Aeronautics
N P U
2014/7/6 56
(2.99)
z
H
y
G
x
F
J
t
U
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
Timemarching method
Flux variables & primitive variables
2
) 2 / (
2 2 2 2
w v u V e
e
w
w
v
v
u
u
+ +
+
=
=
=
=
=
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology
on Aerodynamic Design and Research School of Aeronautics
N P U
2014/7/6 57
Spatial marching methods, such as
(2.110)
z
H
y
G
J
x
F
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology
on Aerodynamic Design and Research School of Aeronautics
N P U
2014/7/6 58
Benefit of using conservation form
 Numerically and computationally convenient;
 Generally more suited for CFD
Conservation Form of Governing Equations:
 Strong conservation form
 weak conservation form
Question : Conservation and nonconservation
forms, which one is more suitable for flow with
shock wave?
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology
on Aerodynamic Design and Research School of Aeronautics
N P U
2014/7/6 59
Shock capturing and shock fitting methods
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology
on Aerodynamic Design and Research School of Aeronautics
N P U
2014/7/6 60
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology
on Aerodynamic Design and Research School of Aeronautics
N P U
Hand on Practice
Use any existing code or software to simulate the
flow past an RAE 2822 airfoil at following flow
condition:
Ma = 0.729, al = 2.79, Re = 6.5E6
Assuming that this is an academic research project,
try to show me your capability as a scientist.
Make a presentation with sides no more than 10
and the results should be prepared according to the
standard required by toplevel journal publication.
2014/7/6 61
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology
on Aerodynamic Design and Research School of Aeronautics
N P U
x
zx
yx
xx
f
z y x x
p
Dt
Du
t
t
t
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
Added by
0 ) ( =
(
V +
c
c
u V
t
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
V u
t
u
u V u
t
u V
t
u
u V
t Dt
Du
V +
c
c
=
V +
c
c
+ V +
c
c
=
(
V +
c
c
+
2014/7/6 62