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Respiratory System
Functions of Respiratory
System
A. Primary functions
1. The respiratory system provides oxygen
for metabolism in the tissues.
2. The respiratory system removes carbon
dioxide, the waste product of metabolism.
B. Secondary functions
1. The respiratory system facilitates sense
of smell.
2. The respiratory system produces speech.
3. The respiratory system maintains acid-
base balance.
4. The respiratory system maintains body
water levels.
5. The respiratory system maintains heat
balance.
Physiology
• When you inhale, air enters through the
nose or mouth. As air is breathed through
the nose, it is warmed, moistened and
filtered by the hairs that line the nostrils.
The air then passes into the nasal
passages. Air from the nasal passages
and mouth enters the pharynx and passes
downward to the larynx.
Upper Respiratory System
Upper Respiratory System
NOSE:
Openings: exterior: anterior nares
to nasopharynx: posterior nares
Linings: Ciliated Mucosa (CILIA)

Sinuses Draining into the Nose: (Paranasal


Sinuses)
a. Frontal b. Maxillary
c. Sphenoidal d. Ethmoidal
Functions:
a. Sinuses are air-filled cavities within the
hollow bones that surround the nasal
passages.
NOSE
• Filters, warms and humidifies air
• First defense against foreign particles
• Inhalation for deep breathing is to be done
via nose
• Exhalation is done through the mouth
• Serves as passageway for incoming and
outgoing air, filtering, warming, moistening,
and chemically examining it.
• Organ of smell (Olfactory receptors located in
the nasal mucosa
• Aids in phonation
• Once the air enters the nose and mouth, it travels
into the pharynx and larynx. The structures of the
upper respiratory tract are moist with mucus and
are lined with cilia. The CILIA constantly sweep the
airways, in an upward motion, to facilitate
elimination of bacteria, dust and other particles
Pharynx (Throat)
Behind oral and nasal cavities
• Nasopharynx
– behind nose
– soft palate, adenoids and eustachian tube
• Oropharynx
– from soft palate to base of tongue
– palatine tonsils (guard the body against
invading organism
• Laryngopharynx
– base of tongue to esophagus
– where food and fluids are separated from
air
– bifurcation of larynx and esophagus
Pharynx
• Serves as a passageway and entrance to
the respiratory and digestive tracts
• Aids in Phonation
• Tonsils function to destroy incoming
bacteria and detoxify certain foreign
proteins
Larynx
LOCATION: at the upper end of the trachea, just below the
pharynx
Structure:
1. Cartilages: nine pieces arranged in a boxlike formation
Thyroid cartilage: largest (Adam’s apple)
Epiglottis (the lid cartilage) The epiglottis is a leaf-
shaped, elastic structure that is attached along one
edge to the top of the larynx. Its hingelike action
prevents food from entering the trachea (aspiration)
by closing over the glottis during swallowing. The
epiglottis opens during breathing and coughing.
Cricoid (the signet ring cartilage)
2. Vocal Cord
False: folds of mucous linings
True: fibroelastic bands stretched across the hollow
interior of the larynx; the paired vocal cords (folds)
and the posterior arythenoid cartilages make up the
GLOTTIS; the slit between the vocal cords, through
which air enters and leaves the lower respiratory
passages, is the rima glottidis
Larynx
Functions:
a. Voice production: during expiration, air
passing through the larynx cause the
vocal cords to vibrate; short, tense cords
b. Serves as a passageway for air and as
the entrance to the lower respiratory tract
LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
TRACHEA
A. Structure

1. Walls: smooth muscle;


contain C-shaped rings
of cartilages at
intervals; these keep
the tube open at all
times but do not
constrict the
esophagus, which is
directly behind the
trachea

2. Lining: Ciliated Mucosa


TRACHEA (WINDPIPE)
B. Functions
This armored tube allows air to pass beyond the larynx to
where it divides into the left and right bronchi. The
protective ‘C's of cartilage also provide protection to the
digestive system's esophagus right behind it. 
• The larynx goes directly into the trachea or the windpipe.  
• The trachea is a tube approximately 12 centimeters in
length and 2.5 centimeters wide.  
• The trachea is kept open by rings of cartilage within its
walls.
• Similar to the nasal passages, the trachea is covered with a
ciliated mucous membrane.  
• Usually the cilia move mucus and trapped foreign matter to
the pharynx.  
• After that, they leave the air passages and are normally
swallowed.  
• The respiratory system cannot deal with tobacco smoke
very keenly.
• Smoking stops the cilia from moving.  Just one cigarette
slows their motion for about 20 minutes.  The tobacco
smoke increases the amount of mucus in the air passages.
 When smokers cough, their body is attempting to dispose
of the extra mucus.
MAINSTEM BRONCHI
Mainstem
• Begin at the carina
• RIGHT BRONCHUS is slightly wider, shorter, & more
vertical than the left bronchus
• Mainstream bronchi divide into 5 secondary or lobar
bronchi that enter each of the 5 lobes of the lung
• The bronchi are lined with cilia which propel mucus up &
away from the lower airway to the trachea where it can
be expectorated or swallowed
• The bronchi enter the lungs and spread into a treelike
fashion into smaller tubes called bronchial tubes.  

• 3. Bronchioles
a. Bronchioles branch from the secondary bronchi and
subdivide into the small terminal and respiratory
bronchioles.
b. The bronchioles contain no cartilage and depend on the
elastic recoil of the lung for patency.
c. The terminal bronchioles contain no cilia and do not
participate in gas exchange
ALVEOLAR DUCTS AND ALVEOLI
• ALVEOLAR DUCTS & ALVEOLI
• - used to indicate all structures distal to the
terminal bronchiole
• Alveolar ducts branch from the respiratory
bronchioles
• Alveolar sacs which arise from the ducts
contain clusters of alveoli which are basic
units of gas exchange
• Cells in the walls of the alveoli secrete
surfactant
• - phospholipid CHON the reduces the
surface tension in the alveoli
• - without surfactant the alveoli would
collapse
LUNGS
• Lungs
a. The lungs are located in the pleural cavity in the thorax.
b. The lungs extend from just above the clavicles to the diaphragm,
the MAJOR MUSCLE OF INSPIRATION.
c. The RIGHT lung, which is larger than the left, is divided into THREE
lobes, the upper, middle, and lower lobes.
d. The LEFT lung, which is narrower than the right lung to
accommodate the heart, is divided into two lobes.
e. Innervation of the respiratory structures is accomplished by the
PHRENIC NERVE, the VAGUS NERVE, and the THORACIC nerve.
f. The parietal pleura lines the inside of the thoracic cavity, including
the upper surface of the diaphragm.
g. The visceral pleura covers the pulmonary surfaces.
h. A thin fluid layer, which is produced by the cells lining the pleura,
lubricates the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura, allowing them
to glide smoothly and painlessly during respiration.
i. Blood flow through the lungs occurs via the pulmonary system and
the bronchial system.
ACCESSORY MUSCLES
• ACCESSORY MUSCLES OF
RESPIRATION
• SCALENE MUSCLES
• Elevate the first 2 ribs
• STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID MUSCLES
• Raises the sternum
• TRAPEZIUS & PECTORALIS MUSCLES
• Fix the shoulders
The Respiration Process
• THE RESPIRATION PROCESS
• the diaphragm descends into the abdominal cavity during
inspiration causing (-) pressure in the lungs
• the (-) pressure draws the air from the area of greater pressure
(THE ATMOSPHERE) into an area of lesser pressure (THE
LUNGS)
• In the lungs, air passes thru the terminal bronchioles into the
alveoli to oxygenate the body tissues
• At the end of inspiration, the diaphragm & intercostal muscles
relax & the lungs recoil
• As the lungs recoil, pressure within the lungs becomes greater
than atmospheric pressure, causing the air which now
contains the cellular waste products of CO2 & H2O to move
from the alveoli in the lungs to the atmosphere
• Expiration is a passive process
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• The exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide between air, blood and body
tissues is known as:
• A. Inspiration
• B. Expiration
• C. Respiration
• D. Perspiration
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
The trachea possesses:

• Skeletal muscles
• Pleural fluid
• C-shaped rings of cartilage
• Walls with stratified epithelium
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
Breathing is an automatic process controlled
by the:

• Medulla
• Hypothalamus
• Lymph Nodes
• Hippocampus
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• The upper respiratory system tract
consists of all the following EXCEPT:

• Nostrils
• Larynx
• Pharynx
• Trachea
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• Which structure helps facilitate speaking?

• Larynx
• Pharynx
• Trachea
• Epiglottis
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• The respiratory tract is moist with ______
and lined with ____ that sweep particles
out of the airways.

• Surfactant; Cells
• Fluid; Squamous tissue
• Mucus; Cilia
• Surfactant; Cartilage
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• This protective structure helps to keep
food and fluids out of the airways

• Glottis
• Esophagus
• Epiglottis
• Larynx
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• These are tiny air sacs at the ends of the
bronchioles. They are responsible for
oxygen diffusion:

• Bronchi
• Alveoli
• Interstitial Spaces
• Bronchus
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• These thin sheets of epithelium cover the
outer surface of the lungs and the inside of
the thoracic cavity:

• Surfactant
• Mediastinum
• Cilia
• Pleura
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• The pleura produce a lubricating fluid
called:

• Mucus
• Surfactant
• Mediastinum
• Squamous
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• This structure warms, moistens and filters
inhaled air:

• Trachea
• Lungs
• Nose
• Epiglottis
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• Which of the following does not occur
during inhalation?

• The ribs are pulled up and out


• Air pressure within the chest cavity is
reduced
• The diaphragm is pulled upward
• The chest cavity becomes larger
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
The Adam’s apple is part of which laryngeal
cartilage?

• Epiglottis
• Thyroid
• Cricoid
• Pharynx
Respiratory System Recap
Questions
• Which of the following statements about
human lungs is incorrect?

• They are elastic


• They are muscular
• They are surrounded by pleura
• They are above the diaphragm
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