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MANAGEMENT ?

What is Management?
INPUTS
(The Six Ms)
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS
(The process of management)
OBJECTIVES
(End Results)
Men & Women
Materials
Machines
Methods
Money
Markets
PLANNING DIRECTING
ORGANISING
STAFFING
CONTROLLING
Goods &
services
desired by
Customers
2
Human

Resource

Management
HRM
CASE STUDY DISCUSSION FOR
UNDERSTADING HUMAN
BEHAVIOURAL PATTERNS:


KSRTC
4
What is the meaning of HRM?
HRM means :

Employing people, developing their resources,

utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services

in tune with

the job and organizational requirements

with a view to contribute to

the goals of the organisation, individual and society.
As a function why do you need HRM as a
separate function?
To mange the most valued resource in the
Org. (Human Resource)
6
WHY HR A UNIQUE ASSET OF AN
ORGANISATION?
All management functions are
accomplished through efficient utilization
of physical and financial resources by the
companys human resources.

Elements of Human Capital
Sumantra Ghoshal has used the term human
capital to represent Human Resources, and
classified human capital under three
categories:
Intellectual Capital Social Capital Emotional
Capital
Specialised
Knowledge
Skills & expertise
Cognitive
complexity
Learning capacity
Network of
relationships
Sociability
Trust-worthiness
Self Confidence
Ambition &
courage
Risk taking
ability
Resilience

1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Directing
4. Controlling
1. Employment
2. Human Resource Development
3. Compensation
4. Human Relations
5. Industrial Relations
6. Recent Trends in HRM
1. Advice to Top Management
2. Advice to departmental heads
Functions of HRM
Managerial
Functions
Operational
Functions
Advisory
Functions
Operational Functions
1. Employment


i. Human Resource Planning
ii. Job Analysis
iii. Recruitment
iv. Selection
v. Placement
vi. Induction and Orientation


Operational Functions
2. Human Resource Development
i. Performance Appraisal
ii. Training
iii. Management Development
iv. Career Planning
v. Internal Mobility
vi. Transfer
vii. Promotion
viii. Demotion
ix. Retention & Retrenchment Management
x. Change and Organisation Development
What is HR Planning ?
HR planning is the process by which an
organisation should move from its current
manpower position to its desired manpower
position.
What is HR Planning ?
Human Resource Planning is the process by which an
organization ensures that it has the right number and
kind of people, at the right places, at the right time,
capable of effectively and efficiently completing those
tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall
objectives.

( Source: Decenzo and Robbins 2000,
Personnel/Human Resource Management))
What is HR Planning ?
HR/ Manpower Planning is the process of acquiring and
utilizing human resources in the organization. It ensures
that the organization has the right number of employees
in the right place at the right time.


( Source: Adhikari, Dev Raj, 2001,Human Resource
Management )
OBJECTIVES OF HRP
1. To recruit and retain the human resources of required
quantity and quality
2. To foresee the employee turnover and make the
arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling up of
consequent vacancies
3. To meet the needs of the organisational strategic
planning programmes
4. To foresee the impact of technology on work, existing
employees and future HR requirements
5. To improve the standard, skill, knowledge, ability,
discipline, etc.
OBJECTIVES OF HRP
6. To assess the surplus or shortage of human
resources and take measures accordingly
7. To maintain congenial industrial relations by
maintaining optimum level and structure of
human resources
8. To minimize imbalances caused due to non
availability of HR of the Right (kind+No.+time
+place)
9. To make the best use of its HR
10.To estimate the cost of HR
THE PROCESS OF HRP
Analyze
corporate *
level strategy
Inventory of
HR Skills
Demand &
supply of
forecasting
Determine Net
Manpower
Requirements
Redeployment
& redundancy
plan
Employment
program
Training and
development
program
Appraisal of
HRP
* Expansion, Diversification, Acquisition, Mergers, Retrenchment, Entry
to foreign markets, Super Customer Service, Fast growth & change, etc.
JOB ANALYSIS
Manpower
Planning
Quantitative
Requirements
Qualitative
Requirements
A detailed & systematic study of jobs to know the
nature and characteristics of the people to be
employed on various jobs.
ASSIGNMENT : 1
Write 20 definitions of Job Analysis

Last Date of sub mission 12.02.2013
(Avishkar)

Last Date of sub mission 29.01.2013
(Iconz)



Job Analysis
Process of study and collection of information
relating to the operations and responsibilities of a
specific job.
It includes

1) Collection of data, information, facts and ideas
relating to various aspects of job including men
machine and materials.

2) Preparation of job description, job specifications,
job requirements and employee specification,
which will help in identifying the nature, level and
quantum of human resources
JOB
ANALYSIS
JOB
TASKS
JOB
DUTIES
JOB
RESPONSIBILITIES
JOB ANALYSIS
OBJECTIVES / PURPOSE OF JOB ANALYSIS
Definition:-
Definition by U.S.Dept. of Labour:

The process of determining by observation and
study and reporting pertinent information relating to
the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of
tasks which comprise the job and of the skills,
knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required of
the worker for a successful performance and
differentiate one job from all others.
Need of Job Analysis
1) Procurement is the basic operative function of
HR dept.

2) Search for kind of personnel required

3) Number of persons to be employed

4) Establishment of scientific standard
1) Minimum acceptable qualifications, skills,
qualities required for adequate job
performance
PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS
Company Strategies

1) Organisation Chart - show the relation of the
job with other jobs in the overall organisation

2) Class Specification - describe the general
requirements of the class of the job to which
the particular job belongs to

3) Existing job Description provides a good
starting point for job analysis

Explanation points : Process of Job Analysis
1) From Company Strategies
(Back ground information)

2) Collection of Information

3) Selection of Representative position to be
analyzed

4) Collection of job analysis data

5) Developing a job description

6) Developing job specification

7) Developing Employee specification
Outcomes Of Job Analysis
The information obtained from job analysis is
classified into three categories.

Job description

Job specification

Job evaluation



Job Description



A job description is a written statement of the duties,
responsibilities and reporting relationships of a particular job.


The job description is based on objective information
obtained through job analysis.

Job Description


Job description acts as an important resource for:

Describing the job to potential candidates

Guiding new hired employees in what they are
specifically expected to do

Providing a point of comparison in appraising
whether the actual duties align with the stated
duties .
JOB TITLE: _____

OCCUPATIONALCODE: ________

REPORTS TO: ___

JOB NO. : ___________________

SUPERVISES: ___

GRADE LEVEL: _______________

AS ON DATE :_________

FUNCTIONS:_________________________________________________
__

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: -----------------------------------------

JOB CHARACTERISTICS:_____________________________________
Example of Job Description


Aspects of Job Analysis
Job Description is an
organised factual
statement of the
duties and
responsibilities of a
specific job. In brief it
should tell what is to
be done, how it is
done and why. It
defines appropriate
and authorised
content of a job.

Job Specification is a
statement of minimum
acceptable human
qualities necessary to
perform a job properly.
In contrast to job
description, it is a
standard of personnel
and designates the
qualities required for
acceptable
performance.

JOB SPECIFICATION


Job specifications specify the
Minimum acceptable qualifications
required by the individual to perform the task efficiently.

Based on the information obtained from the job analysis
procedures, job specification identifies the qualifications,
appropriate skills, knowledge, and abilities and
experienced required to perform the job.

JOB SPECIFICATION




Job specification is an important tool in the selection
process as it keeps the attention of the
selector on the necessary qualifications required
Example of Job Specification


JOB TITLE : __________________________

EDUCATION :_________________________

PHYSICAL HEALTH: ____________________________________

APPEARANCE: ____________________________________________

MENTAL ABILITIES : ___________________________________

SPECIAL ABILITIES : _____________________________________

PREVIOUS WORK EXPERIENCE : ______________________________

SPECIAL KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS : ______________________________
Job Evaluation



Job evaluation provides the relative value of each
job in the organization. It is an important tool to
determine compensation administration.


Job Evaluation




If an organization is to have an equitable
compensation program, jobs that have similar
demands on terms of skills, education and other
characteristics should be placed in the common
compensation groups.
Methods of Collecting
Job Analysis Data

Observation

Performing the job.

Critical incidents

Interview- individual & group

Panel of experts

Diary method

Questionnaire
Structured
Unstructured
ASSIGNMENT : 2
Detailed essay on techniques of data collection for
Job Analysis, with special reference to PAQ
method.

Submission date: 18.02.2013 (Avishkar)

Submission date: 04.02.2013 (Iconz)

RECRUITMENT
OR
How to Attract a Pool of Candidates
Who Are Qualified, Diverse, and
Interested in the Job You Have
Open


According to Edwin .B. Flippo, Recruitment is the process
of searching the candidate for the employment &
stimulating them to apply for the job.

RECRUITMENT
REASONS IN
YOUR ORGANIZATION
Join Leave
IN THIS SESSION
Well look at why employees join and leave
organizations

Well learn recruitment strategies and their
relationship to overall organizational
strategy

Well look at several recruitment methods
and practices

And well investigate the marketing of
openings through job advertisements
REASONS FOR EMPLOYEE TURNOVER
Factors Outside Organizations
Control

A Number of Employment
Alternatives

Poor Person-Organization Fit

Poor Person-Job Fit

Poor Interpersonal Fit

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
The organization needs to realize that:
People want to work, but not at jobs that require
no skill or intelligence
Job design implications
Most employees leave because they dont feel
needed, appropriately utilized, or appreciated.
Money is the most impersonal reasonso
thats why employees cite money as the
most important reason why they are leaving!
Figure out the real reasons and do
something about it.

TARGETED RECRUITMENT
Firms are increasingly engaging in
Targeted Recruitment

Targeted implies that the media and
message used is specifically aimed at a
particular group (e.g., women, Hispanics,
disabled)
To attract the best people for the job
To aid the recruiter by making a wide choice

Sources of Recruitment
External
Internal

AIM
RECRUITMENT METHODS
INTERNAL
Job postings
Must be feasible
Must be trusted
Should include
JOB TITLE
KSAs
PAY SCALE
TASKS
Problem for achieving Affirm. Action goals
SUCCESSION PLANNING






RECRUITMENT METHODS
EXTERNAL
Employee Referrals
Internet
College recruiting
Advertising in
newspapers, magazines,
radio, tv
Employment Agencies
Public
Private
Professional Groups
JOB ADVERTISEMENTS
Should sell the organization, but provide a
Realistic Job Preview for the applicant
Should provide specific information about
the job tasks/activities, the KSAs required,
and the range of pay appropriate to the job
Should represent the targeted audience
(both in written and pictoral messages)
HOW TO WRITE AN AD:
A good ad should draw attention, create interest,
screen candidates, and provide for easy responses
The headline should draw attention
The body of the ad should be based on job
requirements and job rewards so that applicants
can self-screen
The writing style should be natural, engaging,
enthusiastic and easy to understand
The ad should close with detailed info on how to
apply for the job
GOOD NEWS-BAD NEWS
The good news is that external recruitment
brings in new blood, can increase diversity,
reduce company politics, and in some cases
reduce training costs

The bad news is that newcomers may be
resented by insiders who didnt get the job, that
you know nothing of their KSAs except by
selection measures, and that they wont know the
culture of the organization
MUST CONSIDER CHARACTERISTICS
OF RECRUITER:
Applicants like being interviewed by
someone like themselves; this gives them
the impression that they will fit in
Applicants like speaking with someone from
the functional area theyll be in
Personal characteristics of recruiter also
matter: strong interpersonal skills,
knowledge and enthusiasm about company
and job improve acceptance rates
Quick
Revision

Identifies the different sources of labour supply.

Assesses their validity.

Chooses the most suitable source or sources.

Invites applications from the prospective
candidates for the vacant jobs.
The Process of Recruitment
Sources of Recruitment
Recruitment
Internal Sources
External Sources
1. Transfer
2. Promotion
1. Direct Recruitment
2. Casual Callers
3. Advertisement
4. Employment Agencies
5. Management Consultants
6. Educational Institutions
7. Recommendations
8. Labour Contracts
9. Telecasting
Internal Sources
1. Transfer
Shift from one job to other, one dept. to another, one
shift to another.
Shifting surplus to shortage
No change in responsibility, pay and status
Used for training in learning different jobs

2. Promotion
Shifting to higher position, higher responsibility,
facilities, status and pay.
Filling vacancies and chain of promotions at all
level
Internal Sources : Discussion Topics
1. Why should Internal Sources be used?
Motivated to improve performance
Morale of the employee
Industrial peace
Cheaper filling
Promotion = Performance
Tool of training for higher jobs
Shifting surplus to shortage

2. What are the drawbacks of Internal Sources?
Reduce the Scope for fresh talent
Employee lethargy time bound promotion
Spirit of competition
Frequent competition reduce productivity
External Sources
1. Direct Recruitment
2. Casual Callers
3. Media Advertisement
4. Employment Agencies
5. Management Consultants
6. Educational Institutions
7. Recommendations
8. Labour Contracts
9. Telecasting
External Sources : Discussion Topics
1. Why should External Sources be used?
Qualified Personnel
Wider Choice
Fresh Talent
Competitive Spirit

2. What are the demerits of External Sources?
Dissatisfaction among existing staff
Lengthy Process
Costly Process
Uncertain Response
Recent Trends in Recruitment
1. Outsourcing

2. Poaching or Raiding

3. Website or e-Recruitment
Reading session:
Page # 168, TNC
Source ET Dec. 9, 2003
Human Resource Outsourcing refers to the process
in which an organisation uses the expert services of
a third party (generally professional consultants) to
take care of its HR functions while HR management
can focus on the strategic dimension of their
function.
Outsourcing
Advantages of Outsourcing
Company need not plan for human resources much
in advance.

Value creation, operational flexibility and
competitive advantage

Turning the management's focus to strategic level
processes of HRM

Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding
the unsuitable resumes/candidates.

Company can save a lot of its resources and time
Buying talent (rather than developing it) is the
latest mantra being followed by the organisations
today.

Poaching means employing a competent and
experienced person already working with another
reputed company in the same or different industry;
the organisation might be a competitor in the
industry..
Poaching / Raiding
A company can attract talent from another firm by
offering attractive pay packages and other terms
and conditions, better than the current employer of
the candidate.

But it is seen as an unethical practice and not
openly talked about.
Poaching / Raiding
E- recruitment is the use of technology to assist
the recruitment process. They advertise job
vacancies through worldwide web. The job
seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae
i.e. CV through e mail using the Internet.
E- recruitment
Low cost.

No intermediaries

Reduction in time for recruitment.

Recruitment of right type of people.

Efficiency of recruitment process.
Advantages of E-recruitment
Recruitment Vs. Selection
Recruitment Vs. Selection
Basis Recruitment Selection
Meaning Searching for
vacant jobs
Selection of right types of
candidates & offering them
jobs
Nature Positive Process Negative Process
AIM To attract more
candidates
Reject unsuitable and pick
up most suitable
Procedure
*
Notification
through sources &
distribution of
application forms
Stages Filling form,
employment tests,
interview, medical exam
Contract
of Service
No contractual
relation. Implies
communication of
vacancies only.
Leads to a contract of
service b/w employer and
employee.
Selection
The process of choosing individuals with
qualifications needed to fill jobs in an
organization.

Organizations need qualified employees to
succeed

Placement
Fitting a person to the right job.

HR EMPLOYMENT FUNCTIONS
Receiving applications
Interviewing applicants
Administering tests to
applicants
Conducting background
investigations
Arranging physical
examinations
Placing and assigning
new employees
Coordinating follow-up of
new employees
Exit interviewing departing
employees
Maintaining employee
records and reports.
PLACEMENT
Person-job Fit
Matching the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of people
to the characteristics of jobs (tasks, duties and
responsibilitiesTDRs).
Benefits of person-job fit
Higher employee performance
Lower turnover and absenteeism
Person-organization Fit
The congruence between individuals and organizational
factors.
KSAs = TDRs = Job Success?
Significance of Selection
1. To build a stable relationship

2. To reduce rate of absenteeism and labour turnover

3. To get competent employees with high efficiency

4. For a contended work force

5. For avoiding industrial accidents
Factors for Scientific Selection
1. Physical Characteristics

2. Personal Characteristics

3. Proficiency or Skill and Ability

4. Competency

5. Temperament and Character

6. Interest
Selection Procedure
Preliminary Interview
Receiving Application
Screening Application
FINAL SELECTION
Interview
Reference Checking
Medical Examination
Employment Test
SELECTION TESTING: ABILITY TESTS
Cognitive Ability Tests
Measure an individuals thinking, memory, reasoning, and verbal
and mathematical abilities.
Physical Ability Tests
Measure an individuals strength, endurance, and muscular
movement
Psychomotor Tests
Measure an individuals dexterity, hand-eye coordination, arm-
hand steadiness, and other factors.
Work Sample Tests
Require an applicant to perform a simulated task.
SELECTION TESTING: ABILITY TESTS (CONTD)
Situational Judgment Tests
Measure a persons judgment in work settings.
Assessment Centers
A series of evaluation exercises and tests used for the selection
and development of managerial personnel.
To understand managerial potential
Multiple raters assess participants in multiple exercises and
problems that are job content-related to the jobs for which the
individuals are being screened.
Personality Tests
Honest and Integrity Testing


BIG FIVE PERSONALITY
CHARACTERISTICS
THANK YOU