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Human Resource Planning

Tejashree Talpade
HR Planning
HR Planning is the process of examining an organizations
future human resource need.
It involves:
Identifying and acquiring the right number of people with the proper skills
Motivating them to achieve high performance
Creating interactive links between business objectives and resource
planning activities
Human Resource Planning (HR Planning) is both a process and a set of plans.
It is how organizations assess the future supply of and demand for human
resources.
An effective HR plan also provides mechanisms to eliminate any gaps that may
exist between supply and demand. Thus, HR planning determines the
members and types of employees to be recruited into the organization or
phased out of it.
Dynamic by nature, the HR planning process often requires periodic
readjustments as labor market conditions change.
Human Resource Planning
Technological forecasts
Economic forecasts
Market forecasts
Organizational planning
Investment planning
Annual operating plans
Annual employment
requirements
Numbers
Skills
Occupational categories
Existing employment
inventory
After application of expected
loss and attrition rates
Variances End
If surplus If shortage
Decisions

Layoff,
retirement,
etc.
Decisions

Overtime,
recruitment,
etc.
End End
Strategic Planning Human Resource Demand Human Resource Supply
Compared
with
If none
Action
Decisions
HRP Process
All effective HR planning shares certain features. It is generally agreed that HR
planning involves four distinct phases or stages:
Situation analysis or environmental scanning
Forecasting demand for human resources
Analysis of the supply of human resources
Development of plans for action
The HRP Process
Why is HRP important ?
Even an imperfect forecast is better than none at all
Anticipating needs prepare for the future gives you an edge
Address potential problems avoid skill deficiencies
What is HRP?
HRP is a sub-system of total organizational planning.
HRP facilitates the realization of the companys objectives for
the future by providing the right type and number of personnel
HRP is also called Manpower planning, Personnel planning or
Employment planning
HRP ensures that the organization has:
Right Number
Right Kind
Right Place
Right Time
Benefits of HRP
Create reservoir of talent
Prepares people for future
Expand or Contract
Cut Costs
Succession Planning
Forecasting Techniques
Managerial Judgment
Ratio trend analysis
Work Study Techniques
Delphi Technique
Flow Models
Others
Factors in Demand forecasting
Social factors Working conditions, Govt. regulations,
environmental conditions, religious, cultural.
Technological Factors
Political Factors Trade restrictions, War etc.
Economic Factors
Demand generation
Growth
Employee Turnover
Job Analysis
Job Analysis is not a one time activity as jobs are changing
constantly

The job and not the person an important consideration in job
analysis is conducted of the job and not of the person

It simply highlights what are the minimum activities that are
entailed in a job.
Job Analysis
Skill Range
Does the job cover a reasonable but not too extensive range
of different tasks?
Are there opportunities to use knowledge and skills
associated with effective performance of the job?
Can the individual make full use of their skills and develop
their skill base?
Job Purpose
Is the purpose of the job clearly and unequivocally
Is its contribution to the organisations objectives evident?
Is its contribution to its dept obvious?
Is the post holder responsible for the successful completion
of the whole job?
Do the internal systems help the post holder do the job?
Job Analysis
Job Analysis
Relationships
Are the formal relationships clearly specified and related to
the achievement of the objectives?
Is there opportunity to develop working relationships within
and across the departments boundaries?
Are colleagues available with whom the post holder can
discuss professional issues


Job Analysis
Job Outcomes:
Can the post holder see the result of their efforts?
Can the results of the post holders efforts be recognised?
Does the post holder have the opportunity to influence their
own levels of performance?

Rewards
Are the rewards appropriate and obtainable?
Are the rewards linked directly with the performance of the
post holder?
Steps in Job Analysis
1. Organizational Analysis Overview of various jobs in the
organization and the linkages between them and the
contribution of various jobs towards achieving organizational
efficiency and effectiveness.
2. Uses of Job Analysis Information
3. Selection of jobs for analysis
4. Collection of Data
5. Preparation of Job description tasks, duties, responsibilities
6. Preparation of Job Specification personal attributes required
in terms of education, training, aptitude and experience to
fulfill the job description
Methods of collecting information
Job Questionnaire:
Most cost effective method
Elicits information from workers & their immediate supervisor
You can get intimate detailed knowledge of their jobs
Questionnaire needs to be structured in advance
Responses can be used to create a job description
Questionnaire method

Disadvantages

Right population questions can be interpreted differently
Not everyone is able to describe fully & exactly
Questionnaire not easy to make to cover all aspects

Interview
Disadvantages:

Time consuming
Quality and experienced analyst
Distrust of interviewers

Observation
It is good for simple and repetitive jobs

Disadvantages:

Presence of analyst can cause stress
Jobholder may purposely reduce the pace of
activity to justify overtime
Cannot be used where job requires personal
judgment and intellectual ability
Independent Observers
Diary One or more incumbents note duties and frequency of
tasks performed
Critical Incidents Incumbents brainstorm of critical incidents
that happen routinely and infrequently this method is excellent
for training
Photo tape recording
Review of records Maintenance records, repair records at
seasonal variations
Data collected
List of tasks
List of decisions made
Amount of supervision received
Supervision exercised
Diversity of functions performed
Interaction with other staff
Physical conditions
Software used
Definitions
Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an
organization to achieve its goals
Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by
one person; there is a position for every individual in an
organization

Definitions
Job analysis - systematic process of determining the
skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing
jobs in an organization
Job description document providing information
regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job
Job specification minimum qualifications to perform
a particular job

Tasks Responsibilities Duties
Job
Analysis
Job Descriptions
Job Specifications
Knowledge Skills Abilities
Human Resource Planning
Recruitment
Selection
Training and Development
Performance Appraisal
Compensation and Benefits
Safety and Health
Employee and Labor
Relations
Legal Considerations
Job Analysis for Teams
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool
Job Description
Difficult to have a perfect and fully inclusive JD as one moves
up in the hierarchy of the organization, a detailed JD becomes
very difficult.
Most orgs would prefer not to describe the job fully, because
employees would stick to it and not do anything beyond
Supervisors job may become redundant
Rapid technological changes

Job Description
A job description
Clarifies work functions and reporting relationships, helping
employees understand their jobs.
Aids in maintaining a consistent salary structure.
Aids in Performance evaluations.
Is a set of well written duty statements containing action words
which accurately describe what is being done.


Duty statements
should focus on primary, current, normal, daily duties and responsibilities
of the position (not incidental duties, an employees qualifications or
performance, or temporary assignments). Related or similar duties
should be combined and written as one statement.

Should be a discreet, identifiable aspect of the work assignment,
described in one to three sentences, and should be outcome-based,
allowing for alternate means of performing the duty, changes in
technology, preferences of employees and supervisors, and
accommodations of workers with disabilities, without altering the nature
of, and/or the duty itself.

Writing a JD
Duties are to be listed in order of importance, not necessarily
frequency.
There is no need to group tasks/duties under sub headings,
however it is acceptable.
Commence each statement with a verb eg 'processes', 'maintains',
'records' etc, .
Avoid using the term 'responsible for' rather describe the action
e.g. 'obtains', 'coordinates' etc.
Writing a JD
Frequencies should be identified in multiples of 5%. Duties that
take less than 5% of the officer's time should not be shown as
separate but grouped with other duties.

Use action verbs which tell what the position does. Examples
include "supervises", "programs", "directs" and "analyzes".
Provide specific examples to illustrate the duties Avoid
ambiguous terms such as "oversees" or "manages", instead,
describe the activities involved in overseeing or managing.
Quantify activities when possible. Examples may include: How
often is the activity performed? How much money does this
position manage? What is the volume of work handled?
Writing a JD : Primary Function
What is the Position's objective?
What is the Role of Position (including key relationships)?
Position summary [Briefly state the purpose or objective of the
position]:
Essential job functions [State the major responsibilities, indicate
New (N) or Existing (E), and the estimated percent of time
devoted to each - include descriptive statements of typical or
representative tasks associated with the major
responsibilities/functions]:
State briefly the general function of your position, including the
basic nature of the department and the relationship of your
position with other positions in your work area
Person Specification
Person Specification is a statement derived from
the job analysis process and the job description

Of the characteristics that an individual would need
to possess in order to fulfill the requirements of a
job

Compiling a person specification
Attainment: What educational requirements and specialist
knowledge are really required for successful completion of the
task
Experience: What roles and tasks should have been occupied
to ensure that the post holder is adequately equipped?
Abilities: What skills need to be deployed for the competent
performance of the tasks?
Aptitude: Where will the post-holders strengths lie;what
particular talents do they need to possess?
Interests: What interest relevant to the work will suggest
possession of sought after skills /aptitudes?
Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis
Staffing would be haphazard if recruiter did not know
qualifications needed for job
Training and Development if specification lists a particular
knowledge, skill, or ability, and the person filling the position
does not possess all the necessary qualifications, training
and/or development is needed
Compensation and Benefits value of job must be known
before dollar value can be placed on it
Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis (Continued)
Safety and Health helps identify safety and health considerations
Employee and Labor Relations lead to more objective human resource
decisions
Legal Considerations having done job analysis important for supporting
legality of employment practices
Work Activities work activities and processes; activity records (in film
form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility
Worker-oriented activities human behaviors, such as physical actions
and communicating on the job; elemental motions for methods analysis;
personal job demands, such as energy expenditure
Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used
Job-related tangibles and intangibles knowledge dealt with or applied
(as in accounting); materials processed; products made or services
performed
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis
Work performance error analysis; work standards; work measurements,
such as time taken for a task
Job context work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives;
physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts
Personal requirements for the job personal attributes such as
personality and interests; education and training required; work experience
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis
Conducting Job Analysis
The people who participate in job analysis should
include, at a minimum:
The employee
The employees immediate supervisor
Other key stakeholders in the organization
Exercise

Recruitment and Selection
HR Processes An Employee Life Cycle
Routine HR Functions
Manpower planning
Recruitment and Selection
Training & Development
Appraisals Performance Management
Transfers / Promotions
Compensation and Benefits
Non Routine HR Functions
Culture Management
Change Management
Cross Cultural Issue Management
HR Audit
HR Accounting
Outsourcing of HR
VRS / Existing Employee Management / Succession
Planning
HR Process Mapping
Business
Planning
HR Policy HR
Planning
Recruitment
Selection
Performance
Management
Compensation
Management
Talent
Management
Training
Development
HR Systems
Data Mgmt
Employee
Relations
Occupational
Health and Safety
Recruitment: Overall process of defining jobs
profiles and inviting applicants.

Selection: Specific process of narrowing the
focus and selecting the perfect fit
Definitions
Manpower Planning
Business Needs
Financial Feasibility
Future Plans
Brand Name
Manpower Planning
Why does the position exist?
Temporary Replacement
Permanent Replacement
Creation of new position
Manpower Planning
Do we need to review the position?
Current and Ongoing need
Sufficient budget
Is the position description current
Appropriate current level
Is a full time employee required?
Manpower Planning
What about existing staff?
Do we have a succession plan for the replacement?
Does the vacancy create career development
opportunities for existing people?


Recruitment and Selection process
Business Plan
Related HR Plan
Competencies
People
Compensation and Benefits
Numbers
Current : Budgeted and Actual
Future : Short Term and Long Term
Three Conditions
Current = Future
Maintenance B = A
Vacancy Filling B > A
Current > Future
Redundancy Planning
Current < Future
Recruitment Plan

Recruitment and Selection process
Recruitment Plan
Position Description/Specifications
Person Specifications
Method of Recruitment
Internal
Reference/Promotions/Transfers
External
Advertisement
Where to advertise
Writing an advertisement
Consultants
Retainer
Multiple
Internet
Receiving Applications and Screening/Filing

Recruitment and Selection process
Screening /Short-listing
Coding
Computer aided screening
Selection Tools
Written Tests
Group Discussions
Interviews
Assessment Centres
Reference Checks
Offer
Joining
Process Key Parameters
Process must be
Equitable
Objective
Open to scrutiny
Transparent
Merit based
Confidential

Common Hiring Mistakes
Relying on an interview to evaluate a candidate
Using successful people as model
Using too many criteria
Evaluatingpersonality not job skills
Using yourself as an example
Not using statistically validated data
Exercise

Performance Management

An objective is a simple statement of an end result to
be achieved within a specified time frame.
It should be short, clear and specific.
It can also be in the form of an activity as it may not
always be possible to quantify the end results.
Objective setting
Gives direction to job.
Helps focus on important job areas.
Assists review and change in job emphasis.
Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and
feedback.
Increases mutual job understanding with superior.
Why objective setting?
Are significantly important areas of job.
When performed well, improves overall results.
Are maximum payoff job areas.
Represent the work which account for 80% of results.
Objectives
Targets are specific conditions to be
achieved/indicates how much of what and by when

Activities action steps which lead to the end results /
used when targets are not quantifiable / indicate what
by when
Objectives
What is the job ?
What are the end results expected ?
What policies / procedures / work methods are impeding
performance ?
What changes are needed for better results ?
How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to improve
schedule ?
What problems need to be overcome next year ?
Process of Goal Setting
Objectives vs targets
Focus on imp. Areas
Related to job description
Signposts
Direction of work
Optimum number 6
Measures imp. Results
Related to objectives

Milestones/Pathways
Specific condition
One or more for each
objective
Observable
Basis for appraisal
Jointly evolved
Extra effort
Clear/consistent with dept. objective
Time bound
Initiative
Verifiable
End result- emphasis on
Satisfying


Criteria for objectives
S - Specific
M - Measurable
A - Attainable
R - Relevant
T - Time-bound
Objectives
Establishing specific goals to support stated purpose.
Determining the importance of these goals.
Making plans for action.
Arriving at performance standards and measurement
criteria.
Stating anticipated problems.
Process
Weighing the resources required to carry out the
planned action.
Providing for interaction of organization and individual
goals.
Following up with actual performance measurement
and evaluation.

Process
HRs role in Performance Management
Delivering time-lines
Ensuring timely adherence
Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers
Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational goals
Requesting modification if required

Competency
It is derived from the Latin word Competere, which
means to be suitable.

The concept was originally developed in Psychology
denoting Individuals ability to respond to demand placed
on them by the environment.
Competencies defined
A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills, knowledge and self-concept, traits,
behaviour, motivation, etc.), that enables us to successfully complete a
given task.
Self-concept
(Attitude)
Skills
Knowledge
Iceberg Model of Competencies
Competencies in the Corporate World
Communication
Critical Thinking
Ethics / Social Responsibility
Information Technology
Interpersonal Diversity
Leadership
Managing Change
Self-managed Learning
Teamwork
Technical know-how
Emotional Competency Framework
Personal Competence Social Competence
Self Awareness:
Knowledge of ones self-concept
and values

Empathy:
Awareness of others feelings and
emotions
Self Regulation:
Management of ones impulses
and emotions

Social Skills:
Adeptness at inducing desired
responses in others
Motivation:
Self-guidance and direction
* from Working With Emotional Intelligence, by Daniel Goleman
Competency Classification
Individual Organisation
Social
Behavioural
Leadership
Generic competencies

Organisational
Cultural
Technical
Functional / operational
knowledge
Skill knowledge
Threshold competencies
Core competencies
Corporate competencies
Distinctive competencies
Why use competencies
Competencies
help individuals and organisations to improve their
performance and deliver results
can be quantified and communicated
can be taught, learned, measured and monitored
Benefits of competency-modeling
Integrates fragmented management and practices
Links individual or group performance to strategic direction
Helps develop high value activities for the organisation
Focusing on what people do, not what they are
Leads to organisational flexibility and stability
Leads to competitive advantage
Is participatory and involving
Is objective; therefore, can be geared to possible change in business future
and to ensure relevance
Benefits of competency-modeling HR Delivery
Matching of Individuals and Jobs
Employee Selection
Training and Development
Professional and Personal Development
Performance Measurement
Succession Planning
Who Identifies competencies?
Competencies can be identified by one of more of the following category of
people:
Experts
HR Specialists
Job analysts
Psychologists
Industrial Engineers etc.
in consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role holders,
Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing Officers, Internal Customers,
Subordinates of the role holders and Other role set members of the role
(those who have expectations from the role holder and who interact with
him/her).
What Methodology is used?
The following methods are used in combination for competency
mapping:
Interviews
Group work
Task Forces
Task Analysis workshops
Questionnaire
Use of Job descriptions
Performance Appraisal Formats etc.
How are they Identified?
The process of identification is not very complex. One of the
methods is given below:
1. Simply ask each person who is currently performing the role
to list the tasks to be performed by him one by one, and identify
the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills required to perform each of
these.
Consolidate the list.
Present it to a role set group or a special task force constituted
for that role.
Edit and Finalize.
What Language to Use?
Use Technical language for technical competencies. For
example: knowledge of hydraulics.
Use business language for business competencies. Example:
Knowledge of markets for watch business or Strategic thinking.
Use your own language or standard terms for Behavior
competencies. Example: Ability to Negotiate, Interpersonal
sensitivity, Sales techniques. Too technical and conceptual
knowledge align to the organization and people may create
more problems than help
HRD Audit
HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current HRD
strategies, structure, systems, styles and skills in the context of
the short- and long-terms business plans of a company. It
attempts to find out the future HRD needs of the company after
assessing the current HRD activities and inputs and thus
proving to be an effective tool for the organization development
process.
How is Human Resource Analysis Done?
Human Resource Audit
Purpose:
To identify the size, skills and structure surrounding
current employees and
to identify future human resource needs of the
organization
Question Answered:
Are the human resources a strength or a
weakness?

The Audit: Principles
Obtain some basic information on the people and
policies involved in the organization

Explore in detail the role and contribution of the human
resources management function in the development of
strategy
The Audit: Contents
People in the Organization
Role and Contribution of HR strategy
HR Audit: People in the organization
Employee numbers and turnover

Organization structure

Structures for controlling the
organization

Use of special teams, e.g. for
Innovation

Level of skills and capabilities
required

Morale and rewards

Employee and industrial
relations



Selection, training and development

Staffing levels

Capital investment/employee

Role of quality and personal service
in delivering the products or services

of the organization

Role of professional advice in
delivering the product or service

Role & Contribution of HR Strategy
Relationship with strategy
Key characteristics of HR strategy
Consistency of strategy across different levels
Responsiveness of HR strategy in leading change in
the organization
Role of HR strategy in leading change in the
organization
Monitoring and review of HR strategy
Time horizon for operation of HR strategy
What the Audit Achieves
Provides information that is useful in deciding how
feasible a strategy is
Identifies any human resource gaps (human
resources necessary for a proposed strategy minus the
current state of human resources)
Allows the organization to benchmark their
performance against other organizations (benchmark is
a process of comparison)
Human Resources as a CSF
Critical Success Factor (CSF) = a reason why one
organization is superior to another

HR can be a CSF if employees have unique skills
The HR audit is based on the following premise
The Vision and Mission of the Organization:
The Audit consultants are able to formulate their strategies
based on these objectives. They also analyze the
competencies that the organization will need to achieve these
targets whether long term or short term.

The consultant breaks down these organization level
competencies to individual skills to be developed at various
levels. These competencies may deal with various aspects
like technical, conceptual or people management skills
Current competencies available in the company
This is generally done through examining the details of the
employees like their qualifications, job descriptions, training
undertaken, thus basically trying to identify the skill level of the
employees at various levels.
Organization process documents like performance appraisal
feedback and training need identification provide additional
information on this.
Departmental heads and other employees provide insights
into the competency and other skill requirements.
Available HRD systems that help build the competency levels required
achieving the long-term goals or the short-term goals.
These provide details for the HRD Systems maturity
score in the HR scorecard.
The existing HR processes tell the auditors the maturity
level of the process that is studied in detail to ensure
the availability, utilization and development of skills in
the organization.
Effectiveness of the HR systems and process
The presence of the HRD systems is not sufficient to achieve
success. These processes also need to be efficient. Example:
An organization may have an excellent Exit interview system in
place. But if the feedbacks from the Exit interviews are not
utilized for improving organization systems then the Exit
interview process is of no use and becomes redundant over a
period of time.
The exit interview should give inputs for training needs or
improving people management skills or compensation policies
in some cases.
Ability of the existing HR structure in managing the HR
process and policies
The consultants identify whether the current HR
structure is sufficient to handle the pressure of the
future needs of the company. To implement any OD
intervention or handle any Change management
exercise the HR task force has to be at its best with all
the required tools of competencies and skills.
Leadership styles of the Management team
The senior manager leadership style is very important
for any change process and implementing the HR audit.
It is necessary that their management style facilitate in
creating a learning organization. The leadership styles
define the culture of the organization
The HR audit process
Auditing a human resource department is a systematic
process that involves at least two steps:
Gathering information to determine compliance, effectiveness, costs
and efficiencies.
Evaluating the information and preparing a written report, with an
action plan based on exposures, priorities and a timeline for
instituting changes. In order to reduce exposure to legal liability,
some changes will need to be implemented immediately, while others
can be completed in three to six months.
Immediate benefits of an HR audit
Very typically, small to medium-size companies realize
almost instant cost savings once an audit is complete
and changes are implemented. For example:
Correcting benefit premium errors and overpayments can
generate many thousands of dollars in savings.
Examining the effectiveness of recruitment
A small or medium-size firm also may benefit from using an HR
audit to:
Study retention and turnover, employing a neutral party to solicit honest
feedback from employees, and allowing the company to develop an
action plan.
Examine the company's foundation for its compensation philosophies
and develop an objective method of grading jobs, with new ranges that
are market-competitive and internally equitable.
Improve employee communication and ensure that the HR department is
accessible.
Identify opportunities to outsource areas within human resources that
offer more value to the company
Rewards and Recognition
How many managers feel that appreciating others is a
major part of their job ?


Very FEW
Recognition Jeopardy
Recognition Jeopardy
What causes you the most dissatisfaction at work ?

Lack of appreciation
A Challenging Situation
Employee faith and loyalty in organizations dropping!
40% of employees feel unappreciated
1 in 3 workers are unhappy and not engaged
not feeling appreciated may be the #1 reason people leave a
job
61% of employees received no meaningful praise in the past
year
78% of employees feel it is very important to be
recognized by their manager
I now perceive one immense omission in my
psychology the deepest principle of human nature is the
craving to be appreciated.
William James

I can live for two months on a good compliment!
Mark Twain
Who needs appreciation?
Informal Recognition: Building A Culture
Understand organizational goals/values
Determine the goals of the recognition initiative
Know your staff better
How to do it every day
Look for recognition opportunities
Thanks, praise and feedback

Organisations Goals / Values
What values and goals does the organization want to promote?
Relative importance?
Relative impact?

What specific values and goals will be addressed with
recognition efforts?
Potential Initiative Goals
Create a positive work environment 80%
Create a culture 76%
Motivate high performance 75%
Reinforce desired behaviors 75%
Increase morale 71%
Support organizational values/goals 66%
Increase retention 51%
Encourage loyalty 40%
Others communication, teambuilding, focus

NAER 2003 Recognition Survey

Recognition Follies
better people skills technical achievements
If we want
Why do we often recognize
innovative thinking
employee development
Remember you get what you recognize!
no mistakes
tight control over
resources
Potential Benefits

Positive workplace
Support of organizations
goals
Increased retention
Higher performance
More innovation/better
economics

Potential Benefits

Positive workplace
Support organizations
goals
Increased retention
Higher performance
More innovation/better
economics
Increased self-esteem
An employee who feels
more valued
A more committed,
engaged analyst
Strengthened bond
between the analyst and
manager
A more focused manager
Know Your Analysts
What are their professional and personal goals?
What do they value?
Fit the recognition to their values
How do they want to be recognized?
Getting to know what your people want
Challenging, interesting work
A collegial work environment
Work that supports growth and personal achievement
Good communications and supportive relationships
Recognition for new promising ideas
Support for risk taking
Clearly integrated technical/business goals

Good Recognition
As immediate as possible
Specific
What did you see
How did it impact the situation or the organization
In a form meaningful to the employee
Provided in a way meaningful to the employee
Recognizes work in progress/efforts as well
Recognizes everyone including high performers
Effective Ways to Recognize

Thanks! including feedback
Employee involvement
Responsibility and authority
Employee development
The work itself
Attention
Professional recognition

Highly Valued Forms of Recognition
4. More authority
3. More responsibility
2. Personal praise
1. Managers support and involvement
Employee Involvement
Ask for their opinions and ideas
Implement their ideas whenever possible
Include them in planning and decision making
Provide as much information as possible
Let them represent the lab
Suggest participation on special teams and committees
Responsibility/Authority
More freedom to work independently
More opportunities to self-manage
Higher levels of responsibility
Empowerment to make more decisions
Ability/responsibility to improve processes

Employee Development
Provide opportunities to fulfill their own goals not just follow
organizational dictates
Freedom to work more independently
Formal training opportunities
In or out-of-house
Let them use the new skills immediately
Let them brief others
Recognize individual talents when assigning work

(ASAP)
3
= Effective Praising
As soon
As sincere
As specific
As personal
As positive
As proactive

1997 by Bob Nelson
(scientific version of ASAP-Cubed)
Recognition Using Feedback
Feedback is a powerful form of praise
Addresses important values of challenging work and excellent
performance
Shows your concern and interest
Positive AND constructive messages
cant have one without the other
Enhances intrinsic motivation
A positive cycle of excellent work leading to higher motivation from the
work leading to higher performance.

ALMA Roundtable Insights
Thanks is highly effective if reinforced over time
Recognition must be sincere, timely, appropriate
Tailor the recognition/reward
The more personal the better
Show appreciation in various ways
Personal notes
Pass along or post messages of appreciation
Post successes
Recognition/rewards are not motivators, but they keep motivated people
from becoming de-motivated

Potential Obstacles?
Managerial behavior
Mismatch with environment/culture
Expectancy/reinforcement theory
Recognizing the wrong behavior or value
Intrinsic motivation the Pareto 20%
Measuring Success
1. Response to surveys
2. Performance development meetings
3. Retention rates
4. Exit interviews
#3 and #4 highly accurate data, too late and likely
NO
ALMA Roundtable 2005
Why Do Rewards Fail?
Often punish/undermine relationships
Undermine interest in the task itself
Reduce risk taking
Undermine attempts to solve problems
Alfie Kohn
Out with carrot & stick psychology!
Choice, Collaboration & Content
Choice participative management style
Collaboration opportunity to interact with analysts of similar skills
and work ethic
Content
What work they perform
How they perform their work
Environment
These suggestions on recognition directly address Kohns
concerns, fit with his suggestions and should lead to more-satisfied
analysts.
A Closing Thought
the best success we can have in getting managers and
supervisors to recognize employees more often is less a
function of awareness of the importance of recognition and the
skills of providing recognition and more a function of getting
managers to personally experience the power of recognition.

Bob Nelson
Thank you